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1 2019.12---1

A south Korean city designed for the future takes on a life of its own

A) Getting around a city is one thing -- and then there's the matter of getting from one city to another. One vision of the perfect city of the future: a place that offers easy access to air travel.In 2011, a University of North Carolina business professor named John Kasarda published a book called Aerotropolis: The Way We'll Live Next. Kasarda says future cities should be built intentionally around or near airports. The idea, as he has put it, is to offer businesses "rapid, long-distance connectivity on a massive scale."
答:在城市中四处走动是一回事,然后就是从一个城市到另一个城市的问题。未来完美城市的愿景之一:一个提供便捷航空旅行的地方。2011年,北卡罗来纳大学(University of North Carolina)的商学教授约翰·卡萨达(John Kasarda)出版了一本名为《航空大都市:我们接下来的生活方式》(Aerotropolis: The Way We'll Live Next)的书。卡萨达说,未来的城市应该有意识地建在机场周围或附近。正如他所说,这个想法是为企业提供“大规模的快速、远距离连接”。

B) "The 18th century really was a waterborne century, the 19th century a rail century, the 20th century a highway, car, truck century -- and the 21st century will increasingly be an aviation century, as the globe becomes increasingly connected by air," Kasarda says.Songdo, a city built from scratch in South Korea, is one of Kasarda's prime examples. It has existed for just a few years."From the get-go, it was designed on the basis of connectivity and competitiveness," says Kasada. "The government built the bridge directly from the airport to the Songdo International Business District. And the surface infrastructure was built in tandem with the new airport."
B)“18世纪确实是一个水上世纪,19世纪是一个铁路世纪,20世纪是一个高速公路,汽车,卡车的世纪 - 21世纪将越来越成为一个航空世纪,因为全球越来越多地通过航空连接,”卡萨达说。松岛是韩国从零开始建造的城市,是卡萨达的典型例子之一。它只存在了几年。从一开始,它就以连通性和竞争力为基础进行设计,“Kasada说。“政府直接从机场到松岛国际商务区建造了这座桥。地面基础设施是与新机场同时建造的。

C) Songdo is a stone's throw from South Korea's Incheon Airport, its main international hub. But it takes a lot more than a nearby airport to be a city of the future. Just building a place as an "international business district" doesn't mean it will become one. Park Yeon Soo conceived this city of the future back in 1986. He considers Songdo his baby. "I am a visionary," he says.Thirty years after he imagined the city, Park's baby is close to 70 percent built, with 36,000 people living in the business district and 90,000 residents in greater Songdo. It's about an hour outside Seoul, built on reclaimed tidal flats along the Yellow Sea. There's a Coast Guard building and a tall trade tower, as well as a park, golf course and university.
C) 松岛距离韩国仁川机场仅一箭之遥,仁川机场是其主要国际枢纽。但是,要成为未来的城市,需要的不仅仅是附近的机场。仅仅将一个地方建设为“国际商务区”并不意味着它会成为一个“国际商务区”。朴妍秀早在1986年就构思了这座未来之城。他认为松岛是他的孩子。“我是一个有远见的人,”他说。在他想象这座城市的30年后,朴槿惠的宝贝已经建成了近70%,有36,000人居住在商业区,90,000名居民居住在大松岛。它距离首尔约一小时车程,建在黄海沿岸的填海滩上。这里有一座海岸警卫队大楼和一座高大的贸易塔,还有一个公园、高尔夫球场和大学。

D) Chances are you've actually seen this place. Songdo appears in the most famous music video ever to come out of South Korea."Gangnam Style" refers to the fashionable Gangnam district in Seoul. But some of the video was filmed in Songdo."I don't know if you remember, there was a scene in a subway station. That was not Gangnam. That was actually Songdo," says Jung Won Son, a professor of urban development at London's Bartlett School of Planning. "Part of the reason to shoot there is that it's new and nice."
D)你很有可能真的见过这个地方。松岛出现在韩国有史以来最著名的音乐录影带中。“江南Style”指的是首尔时尚的江南区。但有些视频是在松岛拍摄的。不知道大家是否还记得,在地铁站里有一幕。那不是江南。那实际上是松岛,“伦敦巴特利特规划学院(Bartlett School of Planning)城市发展教授Jung Won Son说。“在那里拍摄的部分原因是它很新,很好。”

E) The city was supposed to be a hub for global companies, with employees from all over the world. But that's not how it has turned out.Songdo's reputation is as a futuristic ghost town. But the reality is more complicated.A bridge with big, light-blue loops leads into the business district. In the center of the main road, there's a long line of flags of the world. On the corner, there's a Starbucks and a 7-Eleven -- all of the international brands that you see all over the world nowadays.
E) 这座城市本应成为全球公司的中心,拥有来自世界各地的员工。但事实并非如此。松岛的美誉是未来主义的鬼城。但现实情况要复杂得多。一座带有浅蓝色大环路的桥通向商业区。在主干道的中央,有一长串世界国旗。在拐角处,有一家星巴克和一家7-11便利店--你现在在世界各地看到的所有国际品牌。

F) The city is not empty. There are mothers pushing strollers, old women with walkers -- even in the middle of the day, when it's 90 degrees out. Byun Young-Jin chairs the Songdo real estate association and started selling property here when the first phase of the city opened in 2005. He says demand has boomed in the past couple of years.Most of his clients are Korean. In fact, the developer says, 99 percent of the homes here are sold to Koreans. Young families move here because the schools are great.And that's the problem: Songdo has become a popular Korean city -- more popular as a residential area than a business one. It's not yet the futuristic international business hub that planners imagined. "It's a great place to live. And it's becoming a great place to work," says Scott Summers, the vice president of Gale International, the developer of the city. The floor-to-ceiling windows of his company's offices overlook Songdo Central Park, with a canal full of kayaks and paddle boats. Shimmering glass towers line the canal’s edge.
F) 城市不是空的。有推婴儿车的母亲,有推着助行器的老妇人-- 即使在中午,当温度达到90度时。Byun Young-Jin是松岛房地产协会的主席,并在2005年松岛市一期工程开业时开始在这里销售房产。他说,在过去的几年里,需求激增。他的大多数客户都是韩国人。事实上,开发商说,这里99%的房屋都卖给了韩国人。年轻的家庭搬到这里是因为学校很棒。这就是问题所在:松岛已经成为一个受欢迎的韩国城市 - 作为住宅区比商业区更受欢迎。它还不是规划者想象的未来国际商业中心。“这是一个居住的好地方。它正在成为一个理想的工作场所,“该市开发商Gale International的副总裁斯科特·萨默斯(Scott Summers)说。他公司办公室的落地窗俯瞰着松岛中央公园,那里有一条运河,上面停满了皮划艇和明轮船。闪闪发光的玻璃塔排列在运河的边缘。

G) "What's happened is, because we focused on creating that quality of life first, which enabled the residents to live here, what has probably missed the mark is for companies to locate here," he says. "There needs to be strong economic incentives."The city is still unfinished, and it feels a bit like a theme park. It doesn't feel all that futuristic. There's a high-tech underground trash disposal system. Buildings are environmentally friendly. Everybody's television set is connected to a system that streams personalized language or exercise classes.

H) But Star Trek this is not. And to some of the residents, Songdo feels hollow."I'm, like, in prison for weekdays. That's what we call it in the workplace," says a woman in her 20s. She doesn't want to use her name for fear of being fired from her job. She goes back to Seoul every weekend. "I say I'm prison-breaking on Friday nights."But she has to make the prison break in her own car. There's no high-speed train connecting Songdo to Seoul, just over 20 miles away.
H) 但《星际迷航》并非如此。对于一些居民来说,松岛感觉很空虚。我就像在监狱里呆了几天一样。这就是我们在工作场所所说的,“一位 20 多岁的女性说。她不想使用自己的名字,因为害怕被解雇。她每个周末都会回到首尔。“我说我在周五晚上越狱。但她必须在自己的车里越狱。没有连接松岛和首尔的高速列车,只有 20 多英里远。

I) The man who first imagined Songdo feels frustrated, too. Park says he built South Korea a luxury vehicle, "like Mercedes or BMW. It's a good car now. But we're waiting for a good driver to accelerate."But there are lots of other good cars out there, too. The world is dotted with futuristic, high-tech cities trying to attract the biggest international companies.
I) 最初想象松岛的人也感到沮丧。朴槿惠说,他为韩国制造了一辆豪华车,“就像梅赛德斯或宝马一样。现在是一辆好车。但我们正在等待一个好的车手加速。但还有很多其他的好车。世界上到处都是未来主义的高科技城市,试图吸引最大的国际公司。

J) Songdo's backers contend that it's still early, and business space is filling up -- about 70 percent of finished offices are now occupied.Brent Ryan, who teaches urban design at MIT, says Songdo proves a universal principle. "There have been a lot of utopian cities in history. And the reason we don't know about a lot of them is that a lot of them have vanished entirely."In other words, when it comes to cities -- or anything else -- it is hard to predict the future.
松岛的支持者认为,现在还为时过早,商业空间正在被填满——大约70%的已完工办公室现在被占用。在麻省理工学院教授城市设计的布伦特·瑞安(Brent Ryan)说,松岛证明了一个普遍的原则。“历史上有很多乌托邦城市。我们不知道其中的很多原因是其中很多已经完全消失了。換句話說,當涉及到城市或其他任何東西時,很難預測未來。

36. Songdo's popularity lies more in its quality of life than its business attraction.
36. 松岛的受欢迎程度更多地在于它的生活质量,而不是它的商业吸引力。

37. The man who conceived Songdo feels disappointed because it has fallen short of his expectations.

38. A scene in a popular South Korean music video was shot in Songdo.
38. 韩国流行音乐录影带中的一个场景是在松岛拍摄的。

39. Songdo still lacks the financial stimulus for businesses to set up shop there.
39. 松岛仍然缺乏经济刺激,企业在那里开店。

40. Airplanes will increasingly become the chief means of transportation, according to a professor.
40. 一位教授说,飞机将日益成为主要的交通工具。

41. Songdo has ended up different from the city it was supposed to be.
41. 松岛最终与它应该成为的城市不同。

42. Some of the people who work in Songdo complain about boredom in the workplace.

43. A business professor says that a future city should have easy access to international transportation.
43. 一位商学教授说,未来的城市应该有方便的国际交通。

44. According to an urban design professor, it is difficult for city designers to foresee what will happen in the future.
44. 据一位城市设计教授说,城市设计师很难预见未来会发生什么。

45. Park Yeon Soo, who envisioned Songdo, feels a parental connection with the city.
45. 朴妍秀设想了松岛,她感受到了父母与这座城市的联系。

KEY: 36.F 37.I 38.D 39.G 40.B 41.E 42.H 43.A 44.J 45.C
键:36.F 37.I 38.D 39.G 40.B 41.E 42.H 43.A 44.J 45.C


Is Breakfast Really the Most Important Meal of the Day?

A) Along with old classics like "carrots give you night vision" and "Santa doesn't bring toys to misbehaving children", one of the most well-worn phrases of tired parents everywhere is that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Many of us grow up believing that skipping breakfast is a serious mistake, even if only two thirds of adults in the UK eat breakfast regularly, according to the British Dietetic Association, and around three-quarters of Americans.

B) "The body uses a lot of energy stores for growth and repair through the night," explains diet specialist Sarah Elder. "Eating a balanced breakfast helps to up our energy, as well as make up for protein and calcium used throughout the night." But there's widespread disagreement over whether breakfast should keep its top spot in the hierarchy (等级) of meals. There have been concerns around the sugar content of cereal and the food industry's involvement in pro-breakfast research -- and even one claim from an academic that breakfast is "dangerous".
B)“身体在夜间使用大量的能量储存来生长和修复,”饮食专家Sarah Elder解释道。“吃一顿均衡的早餐有助于增加我们的能量,并弥补整晚使用的蛋白质和钙。”但是,对于早餐是否应该在膳食等级(等级)中保持其首位,存在广泛的分歧。人们一直担心谷物的含糖量以及食品行业对早餐研究的参与 - 甚至有一位学者声称早餐是“危险的”。

C) What's the reality? Is breakfast a necessary start to the day or a marketing tactic by cereal companies? The most researched aspect of breakfast(and breakfast-skipping) has been its links to obesity. Scientists have different theories as to why there's a relationship between the two. In one US study that analysed the health data of 50,000 people over seven years, researchers found that those who made breakfast the largest meal of the day were more likely to have a lower body mass index (BMI) than those who ate a large lunch or dinner. The researchers argued that breakfast helps reduce daily calorie intake and improve the quality of our diet -- since breakfast foods are often higher in fibre and nutrients.
C) 现实是什么?早餐是一天的必要开始,还是谷物公司的营销策略?早餐(和不吃早餐)研究最多的方面是它与肥胖的联系。科学家们对两者之间为什么存在关系有不同的理论。在美国的一项研究中,研究人员分析了七年来50,000人的健康数据,发现那些将早餐作为一天中最大的一餐的人比那些吃丰盛午餐或晚餐的人更有可能具有较低的体重指数(BMI)。研究人员认为,早餐有助于减少每日卡路里摄入量并改善我们的饮食质量 - 因为早餐食物通常含有更高的纤维和营养。

D) But as with any study of this kind, it was unclear if that was the cause -- or if breakfast-skippers were just more likely to be overweight to begin with. To find out, researchers designed a study in which 52 obese women took part in a 12-week weight loss programme. All had the same number of calories over the day, but half had breakfast, while the other half did not. What they found was that it wasn't breakfast itself that caused the participants to lose weight: it was changing their normal routine.
D)但与任何此类研究一样,目前尚不清楚这是否是原因 - 或者不吃早餐的人是否一开始就更有可能超重。为了找到答案,研究人员设计了一项研究,其中52名肥胖女性参加了为期12周的减肥计划。所有人在一天中的卡路里数量都相同,但一半人吃早餐,而另一半人没有。他们发现,导致参与者减肥的不是早餐本身,而是改变了他们的日常生活。

E) If breakfast alone isn't a guarantee of weight loss, why is there a link between obesity and breakfast-skipping? Alexandra Johnstone, professor of appetite research at the University of Aberdeen, argues that it may simply be because breakfast-skippers have been found to be less knowledgeable about nutrition and health. "There are a lot of studies on the relationship between breakfast eating and possible health outcomes, but this may be because those who eat breakfast choose to habitually have health-enhancing behaviours such as regular exercise and not smoking," she says.
E) 如果单靠早餐不能保证减肥,为什么肥胖和不吃早餐之间有联系?阿伯丁大学(University of Aberdeen)食欲研究教授亚历山德拉·约翰斯通(Alexandra Johnstone)认为,这可能仅仅是因为人们发现不吃早餐的人对营养和健康知之甚少。“有很多关于吃早餐与可能的健康结果之间关系的研究,但这可能是因为那些吃早餐的人选择习惯性地进行健康增强行为,例如定期锻炼和不吸烟,”她说。

F) A 2016 review of 10 studies looking into the relationship between breakfast and weight management concluded there is "limited evidence" supporting or refuting (反驳) the argument that breakfast influences weight or food intake, and more evidence is required before breakfast recommendations can be used to help prevent obesity.
F) 2016 年对 10 项研究的回顾调查了早餐与体重管理之间的关系,得出的结论是,“有限的证据”支持或反驳(反驳)早餐影响体重或食物摄入量的论点,在早餐建议可用于帮助预防肥胖之前,还需要更多的证据。

G) Researches from the University of Surrey and University of Aberdeen are halfway through research looking into the mechanisms behind how the time we eat influences body weight. Early findings suggest that a bigger breakfast is beneficial to weight control. Breakfast has been found to affect more than just weight. Skipping breakfast has been associated with a 27% increased risk of heart disease, a 21% higher risk of type 2 diabetes in men, and a 20% higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women. One reason may be breakfast's nutritional value -- partly because cereal is fortified (增加营养价值) with vitamins. In one study on the breakfast habits of 1,600 young people in the UK, researchers found that the fibre and micronutrient intake was better in those who had breakfast regularly. There have been similar findings in Australia, Brazil, Canada and the US.
G)萨里大学(University of Surrey)和阿伯丁大学(University of Aberdeen)的研究正在进行中,研究我们吃饭时间如何影响体重的机制。早期研究结果表明,丰盛的早餐有利于控制体重。早餐不仅能影响体重。不吃早餐与心脏病风险增加 27% 有关,男性患 2 型糖尿病的风险增加 21%,女性患 2 型糖尿病的风险增加 20%.其中一个原因可能是早餐的营养价值 - 部分原因是谷物是用维生素强化(增加营养价值)的。在一项针对英国 1,600 名年轻人早餐习惯的研究中,研究人员发现,经常吃早餐的人的纤维和微量营养素摄入量更好。澳大利亚、巴西、加拿大和美国也有类似的发现。

H) Breakfast is also associated with improved brain function, including concentration and language use. A review of 54 studies found that eating breakfast can improve memory, though the effects on other brain functions were inconclusive. However, one of the review's researchers, Mary Beth Spitznagel, says there is "reasonable" evidence breakfast does improve concentration -- there just needs to be more research. "Looking at studies that tested concentration, the number of studies showing a benefit was exactly the same as the number that found no benefit," she says. "And no studies found that eating breakfast was bad for concentration."
H) 早餐也与改善大脑功能有关,包括注意力和语言使用。对 54 项研究的回顾发现,吃早餐可以改善记忆力,尽管对其他大脑功能的影响尚无定论.然而,该评论的研究人员之一玛丽·贝丝·斯皮茨纳格尔(Mary Beth Spitznagel)表示,有“合理”的证据表明早餐确实可以提高注意力 - 只是需要更多的研究。“查看测试浓度的研究,显示益处的研究数量与没有发现益处的研究数量完全相同,”她说。“而且没有研究发现吃早餐不利于注意力。

I) What's most important, some argue, is what we eat for breakfast. High-protein breakfasts have been found particularly effective in reducing the longing for food and consumption later in the day, according to research by the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. While cereal remains a firm favourite among breakfast consumers in the UK and US, a recent investigation into the sugar content of 'adult' breakfast cereals found that some cereals contain more than three-quarters of the recommended daily amount of free sugars in each portion, and sugar was the second or third highest ingredient in cereals.
I)有些人认为,最重要的是我们早餐吃什么。根据澳大利亚联邦科学与工业研究组织(Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation)的研究,高蛋白早餐被发现在减少对食物的渴望和当天晚些时候的消费方面特别有效。虽然麦片仍然是英国和美国早餐消费者的最爱,但最近对“成人”早餐麦片含糖量的调查发现,一些麦片每份含有超过每日推荐游离糖量的四分之三,糖是麦片中第二或第三高的成分。

J) But some research suggests if we're going to eat sugary foods, it's best to do it early. One study recruited 200 obese adults to take part in a 16-week-long diet, where half added dessert to their breakfast, and half didn't. Those who added dessert lost an average of 40 pounds more -- however, the study was unable to show the long-term effects. A review of 54 studies found that there is no consensus yet on what type of breakfast is healthier, and concluded that the type of breakfast doesn't matter as much as simply eating something.
J)但一些研究表明,如果我们要吃含糖食物,最好早点吃。一项研究招募了 200 名肥胖成年人参加为期 16 周的饮食,其中一半人在早餐中添加甜点,一半没有。那些添加甜点的人平均减掉了40磅 - 然而,该研究无法显示长期影响。对 54 项研究的回顾发现,对于哪种类型的早餐更健康尚未达成共识,并得出结论,早餐类型并不像简单地吃东西那么重要。

K) While there's no conclusive evidence on exactly what we should be eating and when, the consensus is that we should listen to our own bodies and eat when we're hungry. "Breakfast is most important for people who are hungry when they wake up," Johnstone says. "Each body starts the day differently -- and those individual differences need to be researched more closely," Spitznagel says. "A balanced breakfast is really helpful, but getting regular meals throughout the day is more important to leave blood sugar stable through the day, which helps control weight and hunger levels," says Elder. "Breakfast isn't the only meal we should be getting right."
K)虽然没有确凿的证据证明我们应该吃什么以及什么时候吃,但共识是我们应该听从自己的身体,饿了就吃东西。“早餐对于醒来时饥饿的人来说是最重要的,”约翰斯通说。“每个人开始新的一天的方式都不同 - 这些个体差异需要更仔细地研究,”Spitznagel说。“均衡的早餐真的很有帮助,但全天有规律地进餐对于保持血糖稳定更为重要,这有助于控制体重和饥饿水平,”埃尔德说。“早餐不是我们唯一应该吃对的一餐。

36. According to one professor, obesity is related to a lack of basic awareness of nutrition and health.
36. 一位教授认为,肥胖与缺乏基本的营养和健康意识有关。

37. Some scientists claim that people should consume the right kind of food at breakfast.
37. 一些科学家声称,人们应该在早餐时食用正确的食物。

38. Opinions differ as to whether breakfast is the most important meal of the day.
38. 关于早餐是否是一天中最重要的一餐,意见不一。

39. It has been found that not eating breakfast is related to the incidence of certain diseases in some countries.
39. 研究发现,在一些国家,不吃早餐与某些疾病的发病率有关。

40. Researchers found it was a change in eating habits rather than breakfast itself that induced weight loss.
40. 研究人员发现,导致体重减轻的是饮食习惯的改变,而不是早餐本身。

41. To keep oneself healthy, eating breakfast is more important than choosing what to eat.

42. It is widely considered wrong not to eat breakfast.

43. More research is needed to prove that breakfast is related to weight loss or food intake.
43. 需要更多的研究来证明早餐与减肥或食物摄入有关。

44. People who prioritise breakfasts tend to have lower calorie but higher nutritional intake.
44. 优先考虑早餐的人往往热量较低,但营养摄入量较高。

45. Many studies reveal that eating breakfast helps people memorise and concentrate.
45. 许多研究表明,吃早餐有助于人们记忆和集中注意力。

KEY: 36.E 37.I 38.B 39.G 40.D 41.J 42.A 43.F 44.C 45.H
键:36.E 37.I 38.B 39.G 40.D 41.J 42.A 43.F 44.C 45.H

3 2019.12---3

The quiet heroism of mail delivery

A) On Wednesday, a polar wind brought bitter cold to the Midwest. Overnight, Chicago reached a low of 21 degrees Fahrenheit below zero, making it slightly colder than Antarctica (南极洲), Alaska, and the North Pole. Wind chills were 64 degrees below zero in Park Rapids, Minnesota, and 45 degrees below zero in Buffalo, North Dakota, according to the National Weather Service. Schools, restaurants, and businesses closed, and more than 1,000 flights were canceled.
A)周三,极地风给中西部带来了严寒。一夜之间,芝加哥的气温达到了零下21华氏度,比南极洲、阿拉斯加和北极略冷。根据美国国家气象局的数据,明尼苏达州帕克拉皮兹的风寒为零下 64 度,北达科他州布法罗的风寒为零下 45 度。学校、餐馆和企业关闭,1000多个航班被取消。

B) Even the United States Postal Service (USPS) suspended mail delivery. "Due to this arctic outbreak and concerns for the safety of USPS employees," USPS announced Wednesday morning, "the Postal Service is suspending delivery Jan. 30 in some 3-digit ZIP Code locations." Twelve regions were listed as unsafe on Wednesday; on Thursday, eight remained.
B) 甚至美国邮政服务 (USPS) 也暂停了邮件投递。“由于这次北极疫情和对 USPS 员工安全的担忧,”USPS 周三早上宣布,“邮政服务将于 1 月 30 日暂停在一些 3 位邮政编码地点的投递。周三,有12个地区被列为不安全地区;周四,还剩下八人。

C) As global surface temperatures increase, so does the likelihood of extreme weather. In 2018 alone, wildfires, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, mudslides, and other natural disasters cost at least $49 billion in the United States. As my colleague Vann Newkirk reported, Puerto Rico is still confronting economic and structural destruction and resource scarcity from 2017's Hurricane Maria. Natural disasters can wreck a community's infrastructure, disrupting systems for months or years. Some services, however, remind us that life will eventually return, in some form, to normal.
C)随着全球地表温度的升高,极端天气的可能性也在增加。仅在 2018 年,野火、火山爆发、飓风、泥石流和其他自然灾害就在美国造成了至少 490 亿美元的损失。正如我的同事范恩·纽柯克(Vann Newkirk)报道的那样,波多黎各仍然面临着2017年飓风玛丽亚造成的经济和结构破坏以及资源短缺。自然灾害可能会破坏社区的基础设施,使系统中断数月或数年。然而,一些服务提醒我们,生活最终会以某种形式恢复正常。

D) Days after the deadly 2017 wildfires in Santa Rosa, California, a drone (无人机) caught footage (连续镜头) of a USPS worker, Trevor Smith, driving through burned homes in that familiar white van, collecting mail in an affected area. The video is striking: The operation is familiar, but the scene looks like the end of the world. According to Rae Ann Haight, the program manager for the national-preparedness office at USPS, Smith was fulfilling a request made by some of the home owners to pick up any mail that was left untouched. For Smith, this was just another day on the job. "I followed my route like I normally do," Smith told a reporter. "As I came across a box that was up but with no house, I checked, and there was mail -- outgoing mail -- in it. And so I picked those up and carried on."
D) 在加利福尼亚州圣罗莎发生致命的 2017 年野火几天后,一架无人机(无人机)捕捉到了 USPS 工作人员特雷弗·史密斯 (Trevor Smith) 的镜头(连续镜头),他驾驶那辆熟悉的白色面包车穿过被烧毁的房屋,在受影响地区收集邮件。视频很震撼:手术很熟悉,但场景看起来像是世界末日。根据美国邮政国家准备办公室的项目经理Rae Ann Haight的说法,史密斯正在满足一些房主提出的要求,即拿起任何未被触及的邮件。对于史密斯来说,这只是工作的另一天。“我像往常一样遵循我的路线,”史密斯告诉记者。“当我遇到一个箱子时,它已经打开了,但没有房子,我检查了一下,里面有邮件 - 外发邮件 - 里面。于是我捡起这些,继续前进。

E) USPS has sophisticated emergency plans for natural disasters. Across the country, 285 emergency-management teams are devoted to crisis control. These teams are trained annually using a framework known as the three Ps: people, property, product. After mail service stops due to weather, the agency's top priority is ensuring that employees are safe. Then it evaluates the health of infrastructure, such as the roads that mail carriers drive on. Finally, it decides when and how to re-open operations. If the destruction is extreme, mail addressed to the area will get sent elsewhere. In response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005, USPS redirected incoming New Orleans mail to existing mail facilities in Houston. Mail that was already processed in New Orleans facilities was moved to an upper floor so it would be protected from water damage.
E) USPS 有复杂的自然灾害应急计划。在全国范围内,有285个应急管理小组致力于危机控制。这些团队每年都会使用称为“三个P”的框架进行培训:人员、财产、产品。在邮件服务因天气原因停止后,该机构的首要任务是确保员工的安全。然后,它评估基础设施的健康状况,例如邮递员行驶的道路。最后,它决定何时以及如何重新打开操作。如果破坏是极端的,寄往该地区的邮件将被发送到其他地方。为了应对 2005 年的卡特里娜飓风,USPS 将收到的新奥尔良邮件重定向到休斯顿的现有邮件设施。已经在新奥尔良设施中处理的邮件被移至楼上,以保护其免受水损坏。

F) As soon as it's safe enough to be outside, couriers (邮递员) start distributing accumulated mail on the still-accessible routes. USPS urges those without standing addresses to file change-of-address forms with their new location. After Hurricane Katrina hit in 2005, mail facilities were set up in dozens of locations across the country in the two weeks that USPS was unable to provide street delivery.
F) 一旦在外面足够安全,快递员(邮递员)就会开始在仍然可以访问的路线上分发累积的邮件。USPS 敦促那些没有常住地址的人使用他们的新地点提交地址变更表格。2005 年卡特里娜飓风袭击后,在 USPS 无法提供街头投递的两周内,在全国数十个地点建立了邮件设施。

G) Every day, USPS processes, on average, 493.4 million pieces of mail -- anything from postcards to Social Security checks to medicine. Spokespeople from both USPS and UPS told me all mail is important. But some mail can be extremely sensitive and timely. According to data released in January 2017, 56 percent of bills are paid online, which means that just under half of payments still rely on delivery services to be completed.
G) USPS 平均每天处理 4.934 亿封邮件——从明信片到社会保障支票再到药品。USPS 和 UPS 的发言人告诉我,所有邮件都很重要。但有些邮件可能非常敏感和及时。根据 2017 年 1 月发布的数据,56% 的账单是在线支付的,这意味着只有不到一半的支付仍然依赖送货服务来完成。

H) It can be hard to identify which parcels are carrying crucial items such as Social Security checks, but USPS and UPS try their best to prioritize sensitive material. They will coordinate with the Social Security Administration to make sure that Social Security checks reach the right people in a timely fashion. After Hurricane Florence and Hurricane Michael last fall, USPS worked with state and local election boards to make sure that absentee ballots were available and received on time.
H) 很难确定哪些包裹携带了社会保障支票等关键物品,但 USPS 和 UPS 会尽最大努力优先考虑敏感材料。他们将与社会保障局协调,以确保社会保障支票及时到达正确的人手中。在去年秋天佛罗伦萨飓风和迈克尔飓风之后,USPS 与州和地方选举委员会合作,确保缺席选票可用并按时收到。

I) Mail companies are logistics (物流) companies, which puts them in a special position to help when disaster strikes. In a 2011 USPS case study, the agency emphasized its massive infrastructure as a "unique federal asset" to be called upon in a disaster or terrorist attack. "I think we're unique as a federal agency," USPS official Mike Swigart told me, "because we're in literally every community in this country... We're obligated to deliver to that point on a daily basis."
I) 邮件公司是物流(物流)公司,这使他们在灾难发生时处于特殊地位,可以提供帮助。在 2011 年 USPS 案例研究中,该机构强调其庞大的基础设施是灾难或恐怖袭击中调用的“独特联邦资产”。“我认为我们作为一个联邦机构是独一无二的,”USPS官员迈克·斯威加特(Mike Swigart)告诉我,“因为我们几乎遍布这个国家的每个社区......我们有义务每天实现这一目标。

J) Private courier companies, which have more dollars to spend, use their expertise in logistics to help revitalize damaged areas after a disaster. For more than a decade, FedEx has supported the American Red Cross in its effort to get emergency supplies to areas affected by disasters, both domestically and internationally. In 2012, the company distributed more than 1,200 MedPacks to Medical Reserve Corps groups in California. They also donated space for 3.1 million pounds of charitable shipping globally. Last October, the company pledged $1 million in cash and transportation support for Hurricanes Florence and Michael. UPS's charitable arm, the UPS Foundation, uses the company's logistics to help disaster-struck areas rebuild. "We realize that as a company with people, trucks, warehouses, we needed to play a larger role," said Eduardo Martinez, the president of the UPS Foundation. The company employs its trucks and planes to deliver food, medicine, and water. The day before I spoke to Martinez in November, he had been touring the damage from Hurricane Michael in Florida with the American Red Cross. "We have an obligation to make sure our communities are thriving," he said.
J) 私营快递公司有更多的钱可以花,他们利用他们在物流方面的专业知识,帮助灾后恢复灾区。十多年来,FedEx 一直支持美国红十字会向国内外受灾地区提供应急物资。2012 年,该公司向加利福尼亚州的医疗预备队团体分发了 1,200 多个 MedPack。他们还为全球 310 万磅的慈善航运捐赠了空间。去年 10 月,该公司承诺为飓风佛罗伦萨和迈克尔提供 100 万美元的现金和交通支持。UPS 的慈善机构 UPS 基金会利用公司的物流帮助灾区重建。“我们意识到,作为一家拥有人员、卡车和仓库的公司,我们需要发挥更大的作用,”UPS 基金会主席 Eduardo Martinez 说。该公司使用卡车和飞机运送食物、药品和水。在我11月与马丁内斯交谈的前一天,他正在与美国红十字会一起参观佛罗里达州飓风迈克尔造成的破坏。“我们有义务确保我们的社区蓬勃发展,”他说。

K) Rebuilding can take a long time, and even then, impressions of the disaster may still remain. Returning to a normal life can be difficult, but some small routines -- mail delivery being one of them -- may help residents remember that their communities are still their communities. "When they see that carrier back out on the street," Swigart said, "that's the first sign to them that life is starting to return to normal."
K) 重建可能需要很长时间,即便如此,灾难的印象可能仍然存在。恢复正常生活可能很困难,但一些小程序 - 邮件递送就是其中之一 - 可以帮助居民记住他们的社区仍然是他们的社区。“当他们看到那辆载体回到街上时,”斯威加特说,“这是他们生活开始恢复正常的第一个迹象。

36. The United States Postal Service has a system to ensure its employees' safety.
36. 美国邮政局有一个确保其雇员安全的系统。

37. One official says USPS is unique in that it has more direct reach to communities compared with other federal agencies.
37. 一位官员说,USPS 的独特之处在于,与其他联邦机构相比,它更直接地接触社区。

38. Natural disasters can have a long-lasting impact on community life.
38. 自然灾害会对社区生活产生长期影响。

39. Mail delivery service is still responsible for the completion of almost half of payments.
39. 邮件递送服务仍然负责完成近一半的付款。

40. The sight of a mailman on the street is a reassuring sign of life becoming normal again.

41. After Huricane Katrina interrupted routine delivery, temporary mail service points were set up.
41. 在“胡里卡内·卡特里娜”飓风中断了例行投递后,设立了临时邮件服务点。

42. Postal service in some regions in the U.S. was suspended due to extreme cold weather.
42. 美国部分地区的邮政服务因极端寒冷天气而暂停。

43. Private postal companies also support disaster relief efforts by distributing urgent supplies.
43. 私营邮政公司还通过分发紧急物资来支持救灾工作。

44. A dedicated USPS employee was on the job carrying out duties in spite of extreme conditions.
44. 尽管极端条件,一名敬业的 USPS 员工仍在工作中履行职责。

45. Postal services work hard to identify items that require priority treatment.
45. 邮政部门努力确定需要优先处理的物品。

KEY: 36.E 37.I 38.C 39.G 40.K 41.F 42.B 43.J 44.D 45.H
键:36.E 37.I 38.C 39.G 40.K 41.F 42.B 43.J 44.D 45.H

4 2019.6---1

Make Stuff, Fail, And Learn While You're At It

A) We've always been a hands-on, do it-yourself kind of nation. Ben Franklin, one of America's founding fathers, didn't just invent the lightning rod. His creations include glasses, innovative stoves and more.
答:我们一直是一个亲力亲为、亲力亲为的国家。美国开国元勋之一本·富兰克林(Ben Franklin)不仅发明了避雷针。他的作品包括眼镜、创新炉灶等。

B) Franklin, who was largely self-taught, may have been a genius, but he wasn't really an exception when it comes to American making and creativity.

C) The personal computing revolution and philosophy of disruptive innovation of Silicon Valley grew, in part, out of the creations of the Homebrew Computer Club, which was founded in a garage in Menlo Park, California, in the mid-1970s. Members-including guys named Jobs and Wozniak-started making and inventing things they couldn't buy.
C)硅谷的个人计算革命和颠覆性创新哲学在一定程度上源于1970年代中期在加利福尼亚州门洛帕克的一个车库里成立的Homebrew Computer Club的创建。成员——包括乔布斯和沃兹尼亚克——开始制造和发明他们买不到的东西。

D) So it's no surprise that the Maker Movement today is thriving in communities and some schools across America. Making is available to ordinary people who aren't tied to big companies, big defense labs or research universities. The maker philosophy echoes old ideas advocated by John Dewey, Montessori, and even ancient Greek philosophers, as we pointed out recently.

E) These maker spaces are often outside of classrooms, and are serving an important educational function. The Maker Movement is rediscovering learning by doing, which is Dewey's phrase from 100 years ago. We are rediscovering Dewey and Montessori and a lot of the practices that they pioneered that have been forgotten or at least put aside. A maker space is a place which can be in a school, but it doesn't look like a classroom. It can be in a library. It can be out in the community. It has tools and materials. It's a place where you get to make things based on your interest and on what you, re learning to do.
E) 这些创客空间通常位于教室之外,并发挥着重要的教育功能。创客运动正在重新发现边做边学,这是杜威 100 年前的一句话。我们正在重新发现杜威和蒙台梭利,以及他们开创的许多被遗忘或至少被搁置的实践。创客空间是一个可以在学校里的地方,但它看起来不像教室。它可以在库中。它可以在社区中出现。它有工具和材料。在这里,你可以根据自己的兴趣和你正在学习做的事情来做事情。

F) Ideas about learning by doing have struggled to become mainstream educationally, despite being old concepts from Dewey and Montessori, Plato and Aristotle, and in the American context, Ralph Emerson, on the value of experience and self-reliance. It's not necessarily an efficient way to learn. We learn, in a sense, by trial and error. Learning from experience is something that takes time and patience. It's very individualized. If your goal is to have standardized approaches to learning, where everybody learns the same thing at the same time in the same way, then learning by doing doesn't really fit that mold anymore. It's not the world of textbooks. It's not the world of testing.
F)尽管杜威和蒙台梭利、柏拉图和亚里士多德以及拉尔夫·爱默生(Ralph Emerson)在美国语境中关于经验和自力更生的价值是古老的概念,但关于边做边学的思想一直在努力成为教育的主流。这不一定是一种有效的学习方式。从某种意义上说,我们通过反复试验来学习。从经验中学习是需要时间和耐心的事情。这是非常个性化的。如果你的目标是有标准化的学习方法,每个人都在同一时间以同样的方式学习同样的东西,那么边做边学就不再适合这种模式了。这不是教科书的世界。这不是测试的世界。

G) Learning by doing may not be efficient, but it is effective. Project-based learning has grown in popularity with teachers and administrators. However, project-based learning is not making. Although there is a connection, there is also a distinction. The difference lies in whether the project is in a sense defined and developed by the student or whether it's assigned by a teacher. We'll all get the kids to build a small boat. We are all going to learn about X, Y, and Z. That tends to be one form of project- based learning.
G)边做边学可能没有效率,但它是有效的。基于项目的学习在教师和管理人员中越来越受欢迎。然而,基于项目的学习并没有成功。虽然有联系,但也有区别。区别在于项目在某种意义上是由学生定义和开发的,还是由老师分配的。我们都会让孩子们建造一艘小船。我们都将学习 X、Y 和 Z。这往往是基于项目的学习的一种形式。

H) I really believe the core idea of making is to have an idea within your head—or you just borrow it from someone—and begin to develop it, repeat it and improve it. Then, realize that idea somehow. That thing that you make is valuable to you and you can share it with others. I'm interested in how these things are expressions of that person, their ideas, and their interactions with the world.
H) 我真的相信制作的核心思想是在你的脑海中有一个想法——或者你只是从别人那里借来它——然后开始发展它,重复它并改进它。然后,以某种方式实现这个想法。你做的东西对你来说很有价值,你可以与他人分享。我感兴趣的是这些东西如何表达那个人,他们的想法,以及他们与世界的互动。

I) In some ways, a lot of forms of making in school trivialize (使变得无足轻重) making. The thing that you make has no value to you. Once you are done demonstrating whatever concept was in the; textbook, you throw away the pipe cleaners, the straws, the cardboard tubes.

J) Making should be student-directed and student-led, otherwise it's boring. It doesn't have the motivation of the student. I'm not saying that students should not learn concepts or not learn skills. They do. But to really harness their motivation is to build upon their interest. It's to let them be in control and to drive the car.
J) 制作应该以学生为主导,以学生为主导,否则会很无聊。它没有学生的动机。我并不是说学生不应该学习概念或学习技能。确实如此。但要真正利用他们的动机,就要建立在他们的兴趣之上。这是让他们控制并驾驶汽车。

K) Teachers should aim to build a supportive, creative environment for students to do this work. A very social environment, where they are learning from each other. When they have a problem, it isn't the teacher necessarily coming in to solve it. They are responsible for working through that problem. It might be they have to talk to other students in the class to help get an answer.
K) 教师应致力于为学生建立一个支持性的、创造性的环境来完成这项工作。一个非常社交的环境,他们互相学习。当他们遇到问题时,不一定是老师来解决问题。他们负责解决这个问题。他们可能必须与班上的其他学生交谈才能帮助获得答案。

L) The teacher's role is more of a coach or observer. Sometimes, to people, it sounds like this is a diminished role for teachers. I think it's a heightened role. You're creating this environment, like a maker space. You have 20 kids doing different things. You are watching them and really it's the human behaviors you're looking at. Are they engaged? Are they developing and repeating their project? Are they stumbling (受挫)? Do they need something that they don't have? Can you help them be aware of where they are?
L)教师的角色更像是一个教练或观察者。有时,对人们来说,这听起来像是教师的作用被削弱了。我认为这是一个更高的角色。您正在创建此环境,例如创客空间。你有 20 个孩子在做不同的事情。你正在观察它们,实际上这是你所看到的人类行为。他们订婚了吗?他们是否在开发和重复他们的项目?他们磕磕绊绊(受挫)吗? 他们需要他们没有的东西吗?你能帮助他们知道他们在哪里吗?

M) My belief is that the goal of making is not to get every kid to be hands-on, but it enables us to be good learners. It's not the knowledge that is valuable; it's the practice of learning new things and understanding how things work. These are processes that you are developing so that you are able, over time, to tackle more interesting problems, more challenging problems-problems that require many people instead of one person, and many skills instead of one.
M) 我的信念是,制作的目标不是让每个孩子都动手,而是让我们成为优秀的学习者。有价值的不是知识;这是学习新事物和了解事物如何运作的实践。这些是你正在开发的过程,以便随着时间的推移,你能够解决更有趣的问题,更具挑战性的问题——需要许多人而不是一个人,需要许多技能而不是一个人的问题。

N) If teachers keep it form-free and student-led, it can still be tied to a curriculum and an educational plan. I think a maker space is more like a library in that there are multiple subjects and multiple things that you can learn. What seems to be missing in school is how these subjects integrate, how they fit t together in any meaningful way. Rather than saying, "This is science, over here is history," I see schools taking this idea of projects and looking at: How do they support children in higher level learning?
N) 如果教师保持无形式和学生主导,它仍然可以与课程和教育计划联系起来。我认为创客空间更像是一个图书馆,因为你可以学习多个主题和多种东西。学校似乎缺少的是这些科目如何整合,它们如何以任何有意义的方式组合在一起。与其说“这是科学,这里是历史”,不如说学校采取这种项目的想法,并着眼于:他们如何支持儿童进行更高层次的学习?

O) I feel like this is a shift away from a subject matter-based curriculum to a more experiential curriculum or learning. It's still in its early stages, but I think it's shifting around not what kids learn but how they learn.
O) 我觉得这是从基于主题的课程向更具体验性的课程或学习的转变。它仍处于早期阶段,但我认为它正在改变的不是孩子们学习什么,而是他们如何学习。

36.A maker space is where people make things according to their personal interests.

37.The teachers role is enhanced in a maker space as they have to monitor and facilitate during the process.

38.Coming up with an idea of one's own or improving one from others is key to the concept of making.

39.Contrary to structured learning, learning by doing is highly individualized.

40.America is a nation known for the idea of making things by oneself.

41.Making will be boring unless students are able to take charge.

42.Making can be related to a project, but it is created and carried out by students themselves.

43.The author suggests incorporating the idea of a maker space into a school curriculum.

44.The maker concept is a modern version of some ancient philosophical ideas.

45.Making is not taken seriously in school when students are asked to make something meaningless to them based on textbooks.

KEY: 36.E 37.L 38.H 39.F 40.A 41.J 42.G 43.N 44.D 45.I
键:36.E 37.L 38.H 39.F 40.A 41.J 42.G 43.N 44.D 45.I

5 2019.6---2

Living with parents edges out other living arrangements for 18- to 34-year-olds

A)Broad demographic (人口的)shifts in marital status, educational attainment and employment have transformed the way young adults in the U. S. are living, and a new Pew Research Center analysis highlights the implications of these changes for the most basic element of their lives -- where they call home. In 2014, for the first time in more than 130 years, adults ages 18 to 34 were slightly more likely to be living in their parents' home than they were to be living with a spouse or partner in their own household.

B)This turn of events is fueled primarily by the dramatic drop in the share of young Americans who are choosing to settle down romantically before age 35. Dating back to 1880, the most common living arrangement among young adults has been living with a romantic partner, whether a spouse or a significant other. This type of arrangement peaked around I960, when 62% of the nation's 18- to 34-year-olds were living with a spouse or partner in their own household, and only one-in-five were living with their parents.
B)这一转变主要是由于选择在35岁之前浪漫地安顿下来的美国年轻人比例急剧下降。可以追溯到 1880 年,年轻人最常见的生活安排是与浪漫的伴侣一起生活,无论是配偶还是另一半。这种安排在I960左右达到顶峰,当时全国18至34岁的人中有62%与配偶或伴侣住在一起,只有五分之一的人与父母住在一起。

C)By 2014, 31.6% of young adults were living with a spouse or partner in their own household, below the share living in the home of their parent(s) (32.1%). Some 14% of young adults lived alone, were a single parent or lived with one or more roommates. The remaining 22% lived in the home of another family member (such as a grandparent, in-law or sibling), a non-relative, or in group quarters like college dormitories.

D)It's worth noting that the overall share of young adults living with their parents was not at a record high in 2014. This arrangement peaked around 1940, when about 35% of the nation's 18- to 34-year- olds lived with mom and/or dad (compared with 32% in 2014). What has changed, instead, is the relative share adopting different ways of living in early adulthood, with the decline of romantic coupling pushing living at home to the top of a much less uniform list of living arrangements.

E)Among young adults, living arrangements differ significantly by gender. For men aged 18 to 34, living at home with mom and/or dad has been the dominant living arrangement since 2009. In 2014, 28% of young men were living with a spouse or partner in their own home, while 35% were living in the home of their parent (s). Young women, however, are still more likely to be living with a spouse or romantic partner (35%) than they are to be living with their parent(s) (29%).

F)In 2014, more young women (16%) than young men (13%) were heading up a household without a spouse or partner. This is mainly because women are more likely than men to be single parents living with their children. For their part, young men (25%) are more likely than young women (19%) to be living in the home of another family member, a non-relative or in some type of group quarters.

G)A variety of factors contribute to the long-run increase in the share of young adults living with their I parents. The first is the postponement of, if not retreat from, marriage. The average age of first marriage has risen steadily for decades. In addition, a growing share of young adults may be avoiding marriage altogether. A previous Pew Research Center analysis projected that as many as one-in-four of today's young adults may never marry. While cohabitation (同居)has been on the rise, the overall share of young adults either married or living with an unmarried partner has substantially fallen since 1990.
G)从长远来看,多种因素导致与父母同住的年轻人比例增加。首先是推迟婚姻,如果不是退出婚姻的话。几十年来,初婚的平均年龄一直在稳步上升。此外,越来越多的年轻人可能完全避免结婚。皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)此前的一项分析预测,当今多达四分之一的年轻人可能永远不会结婚。虽然同居(同居)一直在上升,但自1990年以来,已婚或与未婚伴侣同居的年轻人的总体比例大幅下降。

H)In addition, trends in both employment status and wages have likely contributed to the growing share of young adults who are living in the home of their parent(s), and this is especially true of young men. Employed young men are much less likely to live at home than young men without a job, and employment among young men has fallen significantly in recent decades. The share of young men with jobs peaked around 1960 at 84%. In 2014, only 71% of 18- to 34-year-old men were employed. Similarly with earnings, young men's wages (after adjusting for inflation) have been on a downward trajectory (轨迹)since 1970 and fell significantly from 2000 to 2010. As wages have fallen, the share of young men living in the home of their parent(s) has risen.

I).Economic factors seem to explain less of why young adult women are increasingly likely to live at home. Generally, young women have had growing success in the paid labor market since 1960 and hence might increasingly be expected to be able to afford to live independently of their parents. For women, delayed marriage-which is related, in part, to labor market outcomes for men-may explain more of the increase in their living in the family home.

J) The Great Recession (and modest recovery) has also been associated with an increase in young adults living at home. Initially in the wake of the recession, college enrollments expanded, boosting the ranks of young adults living at home. And given the weak job opportunities facing young adults, living at home was part of the private safety net helping young adults to weather the economic storm.

K) Beyond gender, young adults, living arrangements differ considerably by education—which is tied to financial means. For young adults without a bachelor's degree, as of 2008 living at home with their parents was more prevalent than living with a romantic partner. By 2014, 36% of 18- to 34-year-olds who had not completed a bachelor's degree were living with their parent(s) while 27% were living with a spouse or partner. Among college graduates, in 2014 46% were married or living with a partner, and only 19% were living with their parents(s). Young adults with a college degree have fared much better in the labor market than their less-educated counterparts, which has in turn made it easier to establish their own households.
K) 除了性别之外,年轻人的生活安排因教育程度而有很大差异——这与经济能力有关。对于没有学士学位的年轻人来说,截至2008年,与父母一起住在家里比与浪漫伴侣住在一起更为普遍。到2014年,在18至34岁未完成学士学位的人群中,有36%与父母同住,而27%与配偶或伴侣同住。在大学毕业生中,2014年有46%的人已婚或与伴侣同住,只有19%的人与父母同住。拥有大学学位的年轻人在劳动力市场上的表现比受教育程度较低的年轻人要好得多,这反过来又使他们更容易建立自己的家庭。

36.Unemployed young men are more likely to live with their parents than the employed.
36. 失业青年男子比就业青年更有可能与父母同住。

37.In 2014, the percentage of men aged 18 to 34 living with their parents was greater than that of their female counterparts.
37.In 2014年,18至34岁的男性与父母同住的比例高于女性。

38.The percentage of young people who are married or live with a partner has greatly decreased in the past three decades or so.
38. 在过去三十年左右的时间里,已婚或与伴侣同居的年轻人比例大大下降。

39.Around the mid-20th century, only 20 percent of 18- to 34-year-olds lived in their parents' home.
39. 大约在20世纪中叶,只有20%的18至34岁的人住在父母家中。

40.Young adults with a college degree found it easier to live independently of their parents.
40. 拥有大学学位的年轻人发现,独立于父母生活更容易。

41.Young men are less likely to end up as single parents than young women.
41. 与年轻女性相比,年轻男子最终成为单亲父母的可能性较小。

42.More young adult women live with their parents than before due to delayed marriage.
42. 由于结婚延迟,与父母同住的年轻成年妇女比以前多。

43.The percentage of young men who live with their parents has grown due to their decreased pay in recent decades.
43. 近几十年来,由于工资下降,与父母同住的年轻男子比例有所增加。

44.The rise in the number of college students made more young adults live with their parents.
44. 大学生人数的增加使更多的年轻人与父母住在一起。

45.One reason for young adults to live with their parents is that they get married late or stay single all their lives.
45. 年轻人与父母同住的一个原因是他们结婚晚或一辈子单身。

KEY: 36.H 37.E 38.G 39.B 40.K 41.F 42.I 43.H 44.J 45.G
键:36.H 37.E 38.G 39.B 40.K 41.F 42.I 43.H 44.J 45.G

6 2019.6---3

How Work Will Change When Most of Us Live to 100
当我们大多数人活到 100 岁时,工作将如何变化

A) Today in the United States there are 72,000 centenarians (百岁老人). Worldwide, probably 450,000. If current trends continue, then by 2050 there will be more than a million in the US alone. According to the work of Professor James Vaupel and his co-researchers, 50% of babies born in the US in 2007 have a life expectancy of 104 or more. Broadly the same holds for the UK, Germany, France, Italy and Canada, and for Japan 50% of 2007 babies can expect to live to 107.
A) 今天在美国有 72,000 名百岁老人。在世界范围内,大概有 450,000 人。如果目前的趋势继续下去,那么到2050年,仅在美国就有100多万人。根据James Vaupel教授及其合作研究人员的研究,2007年在美国出生的婴儿中有50%的预期寿命为104岁或更长。英国、德国、法国、意大利和加拿大的情况大致相同,日本2007年50%的婴儿可以活到107岁。

B) Understandably, there are concerns about what this means for public finances given the associated health and pension challenges. These challenges are real, and society urgently needs to address them. But it is also important to look at the wider picture of what happens when so many people live for 100 years. It is a mistake to simply equate longevity (长寿) with issues of old age. Longer lives have implications for all of life, not just the end of it.

C) Our view is that if many people are living for longer, and are healthier for longer, then this will result in an inevitable redesign of work and life. When people live longer, they are not only older for longer, but also younger for longer. There is some truth in the saying that “70 is the new 60” or “40 the new 30.” If you age more slowly over a longer time period, then you are in some sense younger for longer.
C)我们的观点是,如果许多人活得更久,更健康,那么这将导致工作和生活的不可避免的重新设计。当人们活得更久时,他们不仅会变老,而且会变年轻。“70 岁是新的 60 岁”或“40 岁是新的 30 岁”这句话有一定的道理。如果你在更长的时间内衰老得更慢,那么在某种意义上,你更年轻,时间更长。

D) But the changes go further than that. Take, for instance, the age at which people make commitments such as buying a house, getting married, having children, or starting a career; These are all fundamental commitments that are now occurring later in life. In 1962, 50% of Americans were married by age 21. By 2014, that milestone (里程碑) had shifted to age 29.
D) 但变化远不止于此。例如,人们做出承诺的年龄,如买房、结婚、生孩子或开始事业; 这些都是现在在以后的生活中发生的基本承诺。1962年,50%的美国人在21岁之前结婚。到 2014 年,这个里程碑(里程碑)已经转移到 29 岁。

E) While there are numerous factors behind these shifts, one factor is surely a growing realization for the young that they are going to live longer. Options are more valuable the longer they can be held. So if you believe you will live longer, then options become more valuable, and early commitment becomes less attractive. The result is that the commitments that previously characterized the beginning of adulthood are now being delayed, and new patterns of behavior and a new stage of life are emerging for those in their twenties.

F) Longevity also pushes back the age of retirement, and not only for financial reasons. Yes, unless people are prepared to save a lot more, our calculations suggest that if you are now in your mid-40s, then you are likely to work until your early 70s; and if you are in your early 20s, there is a real chance you will need to work until your late 70s or possibly even into your 80s. But even if people are able to economically support a retirement at 65, over thirty years of potential inactivity is harmful to cognitive (认知的) and emotional vitality. Many people may simply not want to do it.

G) And yet that does not mean that simply extending our careers is appealing. Just lengthening that second stage of full-time work may secure the financial assets needed for a 100-year life, but such persistent work will inevitably exhaust precious intangible assets such as productive skills, vitality, happiness, and friendship.
G) 然而,这并不意味着简单地延长我们的职业生涯就很有吸引力。仅仅延长第二阶段的全职工作,就可能获得100年生活所需的金融资产,但这种持续的工作将不可避免地耗尽宝贵的无形资产,如生产技能、活力、幸福和友谊。

H) The same is true for education. It is impossible that a single shot of education, administered in childhood and early adulthood, will be able to support a sustained, 60-year career. If you factor in the projected rates of technological change, either your skills will become unnecessary, or your industry outdated. That means that everyone will, at some point in their life, have to make a number of major reinvestments in their skills.
H) 教育也是如此。在童年和成年早期接受的一次教育不可能支持持续的 60 年职业生涯。如果你考虑到预计的技术变革速度,要么你的技能将变得不必要,要么你的行业已经过时。这意味着每个人在他们生命中的某个时刻,都必须对他们的技能进行一些重大的再投资。

I) It seems likely, then’ that the traditional three-stage life will evolve into multiple stages containing two, three, or even more different careers. Each of these stages could potentially be different. In one the focus could be on building financial success and personal achievement, in another on creating a better work/life balance, still another on exploring and understanding options more fully, or becoming an independent producer, yet another on making a social contribution. These stages will span sectors, take people to different cities, and provide a foundation for building a wide variety of skills.

J) Transitions between stages could be marked with sabbaticals (休假) as people find time to rest and recharge their health, re-invest in their relationships, or improve their skills. At times, these breaks and transitions will be self-determined, at others they will be forced as existing roles, firms, or industries cease to exist.
J) 阶段之间的过渡可以用休假(休假)来标记,因为人们会找到时间休息和恢复健康,重新投资于他们的人际关系,或提高他们的技能。有时,这些中断和过渡将是自我决定的,而在其他时候,它们将随着现有角色、公司或行业的不复存在而被迫。

K) A multi-stage life will have profound changes not just in how you manage your career, but also in your approach to life. An increasingly important skill will be your ability to deal with change and even welcome it. A three-stage life has few transitions, while a multi-stage life has many. That is why being self-aware, investing in broader networks of friends, and being open to new ideas will become even more crucial skills.
K) 多阶段的人生不仅会对你管理事业的方式产生深刻的影响,也会对你的生活方式产生深刻的影响。一项越来越重要的技能将是你应对变化甚至欢迎变化的能力。三阶段人生的过渡很少,而多阶段的人生有很多。这就是为什么有自我意识、投资于更广泛的朋友网络以及对新想法持开放态度将成为更重要的技能。

L) These multi-stage lives will create extraordinary variety across groups of people simply because there are so many ways of sequencing the stages. More stages mean more possible sequences.

M) With this variety will come the end of the close association of age and stage. In a three-stage life, people leave university at the same time and the same age, they tend to start their careers and family at the same age, they proceed through middle management all roughly the same time, and then move into retirement within a few years of each other. In a multi-stage life, you could be an undergraduate at 20, 40, or 60; a manager at 30, 50, or 70; and become an independent producer at any age.
M) 随着这种多样性的到来,年龄和阶段的密切联系将结束。在人生的三个阶段中,人们在同一时间和同一年龄离开大学,他们倾向于在相同的年龄开始他们的事业和家庭,他们大致在同一时间进入中层管理人员,然后在几年内进入退休。在多阶段的生活中,你可能在 20 岁、40 岁或 60 岁时成为本科生;30岁、50岁或70岁的经理;并在任何年龄成为独立制片人。

N) Current life structures, career paths, educational choices, and social norms are out of tune with the emerging reality of longer lifespans. The three-stage life of full-time education, followed by continuous work, and then complete retirement may have worked for our parents or even grandparents, but it is not relevant today. We believe that to focus on longevity as primarily an issue of aging is to miss its full implications. Longevity is not necessarily about being older for longer. It is about living longer, being older later, and being younger longer.
N) 当前的生活结构、职业道路、教育选择和社会规范与寿命更长的新现实格格不入。全日制教育的三个阶段生活,然后是连续工作,然后完全退休,可能对我们的父母甚至祖父母有用,但在今天已经无关紧要了。我们认为,将长寿作为老龄化的主要问题,是错过了其全部含义。长寿并不一定是变老更久。这是关于活得更久,更老,更年轻。

36. An extended lifespan in the future will allow people to have more careers than now.

37. Just extending one's career may have both positive and negative effects.
37. 仅仅延长一个人的职业生涯可能会产生积极和消极的影响。

38. Nowadays, many Americans have on average delayed their marriage by some eight years.
38. 如今,许多美国人平均将结婚时间推迟了八年左右。

39. Because of their longer lifespan» young people today no longer follow the pattern of life of their parents or grandparents.
39. 由于寿命较长,今天的年轻人不再遵循父母或祖父母的生活模式。

40. Many more people will be expected to live over 100 by the mid-21st century.
40. 预计到21世纪中叶,将有更多人活到100岁以上。

41. A longer life will cause radical changes in people's approach to life.

42. Fast technological change makes it necessary for one to constantly upgrade their skills.
42. 快速的技术变革使人们有必要不断提高自己的技能。

43. Many people may not want to retire early because it would do harm to their mental and emotional well-being.
43. 许多人可能不想提前退休,因为这会损害他们的心理和情绪健康。

44. The close link between age and stage may cease to exist in a multi-stage life.
44. 在多阶段的生活中,年龄和阶段之间的密切联系可能不复存在。

45. People living a longer and healthier life will have to rearrange their work and life.
45. 长寿、健康生活的人将不得不重新安排他们的工作和生活。

KEY: 36.I 37.G 38.D 39.N 40.A 41.K 42.H 43.F 44.M 45.C
键: 36.I 37.G 38.D 39.N 40.A 41.K 42.H 43.F 44.M 45.C

7 2019.6---4

Resilience Is About How You Recharge, Not How You Endure

  [A] As constant travelers and parents of a 2-year-old, we sometimes fantasize about how much work we can do when one of us gets on a plane, undistracted by phones, friends, or movies. We race to get all our ground work done: packing, going through security, doing a last-minute work call, calling each other, then boarding the plane. Then, when we try to have that amazing work session in flight, we get nothing done. Even worse, after refreshing our email or reading the same studies over and over, we are too exhausted when we land to soldier on with (继续处理) the emails that have inevitably still piled up.
[A] 作为经常旅行和 2 岁孩子的父母,我们有时会幻想当我们中的一个人坐上飞机时,我们可以做多少工作,不受电话、朋友或电影的干扰。我们争分夺秒地完成所有的基础工作:收拾行李、通过安检、在最后一刻打个电话、互相打电话,然后登机。然后,当我们试图在飞行中进行令人惊叹的工作会议时,我们什么也没做。更糟糕的是,在刷新我们的电子邮件或一遍又一遍地阅读相同的研究之后,当我们着陆时,我们太疲惫了,无法继续处理(继续处理)不可避免地仍然堆积如山的电子邮件。

  [B] Why should flying deplete us? We’re just sitting there doing nothing. Why can’t we be tougher, more resilient (有复原力的) and determined in our work so we can accomplish all of the goals we set for ourselves? Based on our current research, we have come to realize that the problem is not our hectic schedule or the plane travel itself; the problem comes from a misconception of what it means to be resilient, and the resulting impact of overworking.
[B] 为什么飞行会耗尽我们?我们只是坐在那里无所事事。为什么我们不能在工作中变得更坚强、更有弹性(有复原力的)和决心,这样我们就可以完成我们为自己设定的所有目标?根据我们目前的研究,我们已经意识到问题不在于我们繁忙的日程安排或飞机旅行本身;问题来自对弹性意味着什么的误解,以及过度工作的影响。

  [C] We often take a militaristic, “tough” approach to resilience and determination like a Marine pulling himself through the mud, a boxer going one more round, or a football player picking himself up off the ground for one more play. We believe that the longer we tough it out, the tougher we are, and therefore the more successful we will be. However, this entire conception is scientifically inaccurate.
[C] 我们经常采取军国主义的、“强硬”的方法来保持韧性和决心,就像一个海军陆战队员把自己从泥泞中拉出来,一个拳击手再打一个回合,或者一个足球运动员把自己从地上捡起来再打一场比赛。我们相信,我们坚持的时间越长,我们就越坚韧,因此我们就会越成功。然而,这整个概念在科学上是不准确的。

  [D] The very lack of a recovery period is dramatically holding back our collective ability to be resilient and successful. Research has found that there is a direct correlation between lack of recovery and increased incidence of health and safety problems. And lack of recovery—whether by disrupting sleep with thoughts of work or having continuous cognitive arousal by watching our phones—is costing our companies $62 billion a year in lost productivity.
[D] 缺乏恢复期极大地阻碍了我们保持弹性和成功的集体能力。研究发现,缺乏康复与健康和安全问题发生率增加之间存在直接关联。缺乏恢复——无论是通过工作的想法扰乱睡眠,还是通过看手机来持续的认知唤醒——正在使我们的公司每年损失 620 亿美元的生产力。

  [E] And just because work stops, it doesn’t mean we are recovering. We “stop” work sometimes at 5pm, but then we spend the night wrestling with solutions to work problems, talking about our work over dinner, and falling asleep thinking about how much work we’ll do tomorrow. In a study just released, researchers from Norway found that 7.8% of Norwegians have become workaholics(工作狂). The scientists cite a definition of “workaholism” as “being overly concerned about work, driven by an uncontrollable work motivation, and investing so much time and effort in work that it impairs other important life areas.”
[E] 仅仅因为工作停止,并不意味着我们正在恢复。我们有时会在下午 5 点“停止”工作,但随后我们会整夜为工作问题的解决方案而苦苦挣扎,在晚餐时谈论我们的工作,然后入睡时思考明天要做多少工作。在刚刚发布的一项研究中,来自挪威的研究人员发现,7.8%的挪威人已经成为工作狂。科学家们引用了“工作狂”的定义,即“过度关注工作,受到无法控制的工作动机的驱使,并在工作上投入了大量的时间和精力,以至于损害了其他重要的生活领域。

  [F] We believe that the number of people who fit that definition includes the majority of American workers, which prompted us to begin a study of workaholism in the U.S. Our study will use a large corporate dataset from a major medical company to examine how technology extends our working hours and thus interferes with necessary cognitive recovery, resulting in huge health care costs and turnover costs for employers.
[F] 我们认为,符合该定义的人数包括大多数美国工人,这促使我们开始对美国的工作狂进行研究。我们的研究将使用来自一家大型医疗公司的大型企业数据集来研究技术如何延长我们的工作时间,从而干扰必要的认知恢复,从而导致雇主的巨额医疗保健成本和离职成本。

  [G] The misconception of resilience is often bred from an early age. Parents trying to teach their children resilience might celebrate a high school student staying up until 3am to finish a science fair project. What a distortion of resilience! A resilient child is a well-rested one. When an exhausted student goes to school, he risks hurting everyone on the road with his impaired driving; he doesn’t have the cognitive resources to do well on his English test; he has lower self-control with his friends; and at home, he is moody with his parents. Overwork and exhaustion are the opposite of resilience and the bad habits we acquire when we’re young only magnify when we hit the workforce.
[G] 对韧性的误解往往是从小就养成的。试图教孩子坚韧不拔的父母可能会庆祝一个高中生熬夜到凌晨 3 点完成一个科学博览会项目。复原力的扭曲!一个有韧性的孩子是一个休息良好的孩子。当一个筋疲力尽的学生去上学时,他可能会因为驾驶受损而伤害路上的每个人;他没有在英语考试中取得好成绩的认知资源;他对朋友的自制力较差;在家里,他和父母一起喜怒无常。过度劳累和疲惫是韧性的对立面,我们年轻时养成的坏习惯只会在我们进入劳动力市场时放大。

  [H] As Jim Loehr and Tony Schwartz have written, if you have too much time in the performance zone, you need more time in the recovery zone, otherwise you risk burnout. Gathering your resources to “try hard” requires burning energy in order to overcome your currently low arousal level. It also worsens exhaustion. Thus the more imbalanced we become due to overworking, the more value there is in activities that allow us to return to a state of balance. The value of a recovery period rises in proportion to the amount of work required of us.
[H] 正如 Jim Loehr 和 Tony Schwartz 所写的那样,如果你在绩效区有太多时间,你需要更多的时间在恢复区,否则你就有可能倦怠。收集你的资源来“努力”需要燃烧能量,以克服你目前的低唤醒水平。它还会加重疲惫。因此,由于过度劳累,我们变得越不平衡,让我们恢复平衡状态的活动就越有价值。恢复期的价值与我们需要的工作量成正比。

  [I] So how do we recover and build resilience? Most people assume that if you stop doing a task like answering emails or writing a paper, your brain will naturally recover, so that when you start again later in the day or the next morning, you’ll have your energy back. But surely everyone reading this has had times when you lie in bed for hours, unable to fall asleep because your brain is thinking about work. If you lie in bed for eight hours, you may have rested, but you can still feel exhausted the next day. That’s because rest and recovery are not the same thing.
[I] 那么,我们如何恢复和建立复原力呢?大多数人认为,如果你停止做回复电子邮件或写论文等任务,你的大脑会自然恢复,这样当你在当天晚些时候或第二天早上重新开始时,你就会恢复精力。但可以肯定的是,每个读到这篇文章的人都有过这样的经历:你在床上躺了几个小时,无法入睡,因为你的大脑在思考工作。如果你在床上躺了八个小时,你可能已经休息了,但第二天你仍然会感到疲惫。那是因为休息和恢复不是一回事。

  [J] If you’re trying to build resilience at work, you need adequate internal and external recovery periods. As researchers Zijlstra, Cropley and Rydstedt write in their 2014 paper: “Internal recovery refers to the shorter periods of relaxation that take place within the frames of the work day or the work setting in the form of short scheduled or unscheduled breaks, by shifting attention or changing to other work tasks when the mental or physical resources required for the initial task are temporarily depleted or exhausted. External recovery refers to actions that take place outside of work—e.g. in the free time between the work days, and during weekends, holidays or vacations.” If after work you lie around on your bed and get irritated by political commentary on your phone or get stressed thinking about decisions about how to renovate your home, your brain has not received a break from high mental arousal states. Our brains need a rest as much as our bodies do.
[J] 如果你想在工作中建立弹性,你需要足够的内部和外部恢复期。正如研究人员Zijlstra,Cropley和Rydstedt在他们2014年的论文中写道:“内部恢复是指在工作日或工作环境中以短暂的计划或计划外休息的形式进行的较短的放松时间,当初始任务所需的精神或体力资源暂时耗尽或耗尽时,通过转移注意力或改变到其他工作任务。外部恢复是指在工作之外发生的行动,例如在工作日之间的空闲时间以及周末、节假日或假期期间。如果下班后你躺在床上,对手机上的政治评论感到恼火,或者在思考如何装修你的家的决定时感到压力,那么你的大脑还没有从高度的精神唤醒状态中得到休息。我们的大脑和我们的身体一样需要休息。

  [K] If you really want to build resilience, you can start by strategically stopping. Give yourself the resources to be tough by creating internal and external recovery periods. Amy Blankson describes how to strategically stop during the day by using technology to control overworking. She suggests downloading the Instant or Moment apps to see how many times you turn on your phone each day. You can also use apps like Offtime or Unplugged to create tech free zones by strategically scheduling automatic airplane modes. The average person turns on their phone 150 times every day. If every distraction took only 1 minute, that would account for 2.5 hours a day.
[K] 如果你真的想建立韧性,你可以从战略性地停止开始。通过创建内部和外部恢复期,给自己提供坚强的资源。艾米·布兰克森(Amy Blankson)描述了如何通过使用技术来控制过度劳累,从而在白天战略性地停止工作。她建议下载Instant或Moment应用程序,看看你每天打开手机的次数。您还可以使用 Offtime 或 Unplugged 等应用程序,通过战略性地安排自动飞行模式来创建无技术区。普通人每天打开手机 150 次。如果每次分心只用 1 分钟,那么每天需要 2.5 小时。

  [L] In addition, you can take a cognitive break every 90 minutes to charge your batteries. Try to not have lunch at your desk, but instead spend time outside or with your friends—not talking about work. Take all of your paid time off, which not only gives you recovery periods, but raises your productivity and likelihood of promotion.
[L] 此外,您可以每 90 分钟休息一次,为电池充电。尽量不要在办公桌前吃午饭,而是花时间在外面或与朋友在一起——不要谈论工作。把你所有的带薪休假都拿出来,这不仅给你恢复期,而且提高了你的生产力和晋升的可能性。

  [M] As for us, we’ve started using our plane time as a work-free zone, and thus time to dip into the recovery phase. The results have been fantastic. We are usually tired already by the time we get on a plane, and the crowded space and unstable internet connection make work more challenging. Now, instead of swimming upstream, we relax, sleep, watch movies, or listen to music. And when we get off the plane, instead of being depleted, we feel recovered and ready to return to the performance zone.
[M] 至于我们,我们已经开始将飞机时间用作无工作区,从而有时间进入恢复阶段。结果非常棒。当我们上飞机时,我们通常已经很累了,拥挤的空间和不稳定的互联网连接使工作更具挑战性。现在,我们不再向上游游泳,而是放松、睡觉、看电影或听音乐。当我们下飞机时,我们并没有筋疲力尽,而是感到恢复并准备好返回表演区。

  36. It has been found that inadequate recovery often leads to poor health and accidents.
36. 人们发现,恢复不足往往会导致健康状况不佳和事故。

  37. Mental relaxation is much needed, just as physical relaxation is.

  38. Adequate rest not only helps one recover, but also increases one’s work efficiency.

  39. The author always has a hectic time before taking a flight.

  40. Recovery may not take place even if one seems to have stopped working.
40. 即使一个人似乎已经停止工作,也可能无法恢复。

  41. It is advised that technology be used to prevent people from overworking.
41. 建议使用技术来防止人们过度劳累。

  42. Contrary to popular belief, rest does not equal recovery.
42. 与普遍的看法相反,休息不等于恢复。

  43. The author has come to see that his problem results from a misunderstanding of the meaning of resilience.
43. 作者已经认识到,他的问题是由于对复原力含义的误解造成的。

  44. People’s distorted view about resilience may have developed from their upbringing.
44. 人们对复原力的歪曲看法可能是从他们的成长过程中发展起来的。

  45. People tend to think the more determined they are, the greater their success will be.

  答案:  36.D  37. J  38. L  39. A  40. E  41. K  42. I  43.B  44. G  45. C
答案: 36.D 37.J 38.L 39.一个 40.E 41.K 42.我 43.B 44.G 45.C