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By the same author - in the order of publication:"The Act of Touch," "First Principles," "Some Commentaries," "Relaxation Studies," "Musical Interpretation," "The Child's First Steps," "Forearm Rotation," "On Method in Teaching," "On Memorizing," "Pianist's First MusicMaking," "First Solo Book," "Nine Steps towards Finger-individualization," "The Slur or Couplet of Notes" and "An Epitome of the Laws of Pianoforte Technique."
同一作者 - 按出版顺序排列:“触摸的行为”,“第一原则”,“一些评论”,“放松研究”,“音乐解释”,“孩子的第一步”,“前臂旋转”,“教学方法论”,“记忆”,“钢琴家的初次音乐创作”,“第一独奏曲集”,“九步走向手指个性化”,“连线或音符对”,以及“钢琴技术法则要略”。

THE
VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE
IN PIANOFORTE TECHNIQUE
钢琴技术中的可见和不可见部分

being a 作为一只DIGEST 摘要of the author's technical teachings
作者的技术教导
up to date 最新的

TOBIAS MATTHAY

LONDON 伦敦
HUMPHREY MILFORD 汉弗莱·米尔福德
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 牛津大学出版社

CoPyRIGBT 1932 and 1947 BY
版权所有 1932 年和 1947 年 BY
Oxford University Press, New York, Inc.
牛津大学出版社,纽约分公司。
Second Printing with Corrections 1947
1947 年第二次印刷,已修正

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
美国印刷
To
WY WIFE
WITHOUT WHOSE CONSTANT ENCOURAGENENT
没有谁的持续鼓励

OF MINE PROBABLY WOULD EVER HAVE SEEN THE LIGHT
我的宝贝可能永远不会看到光明
"For teaching is only of whither and how to go, the vision itself is the work of him who hath willed to see."
教学只是告诉你去哪里和如何去的方法,真正的视野是那些愿意看到的人的工作。
Plautinus 普劳提努斯

The Visible and Invisible in Piano Technique
钢琴技术中的可见与不可见

PREFACE 序言

It is now over a quarter of a century since my "Act of Touch" appeared - in - my first essay on Pianoforte Technique.
自从我的“触摸行为”出现已经超过了四分之一世纪 - 在 - 这是我关于钢琴技术的第一篇文章。
Necessarily it was cumbrous, since there was then little, if any, common-sense knowledge of the subject; and as the great majority of the ideas I had put forward were new, these were of necessity protected and fenced round with defensive arguments. But now all this has changed, the basic principles of my teachings are generally accepted, and indeed have become axiomatic as pianistic knowledge.
必然地,当时这是繁琐的,因为当时对这个主题几乎没有任何常识知识;而且由于我提出的大多数观念都是新的,这些观念必然受到保护,并用防御性论据围绕着。但现在一切都已经改变了,我的教导的基本原则已经被普遍接受,实际上已经成为钢琴知识的公理。
True, some things which then seemed of the gravest importance have since passed into better perspective, while others, which then seemed almost subsidiary, have since loomed up into greater prominence. I have endeavoured both to clarify and simplify, enlarge and modify, my ideas in subsequent books and lectures, which have become more and more concise in utterance as the facts have become more widely accepted,-indeed my last booklet "The Nine Steps towards Finger Individualization" covers only four pages!
确实,当时似乎最为重要的一些事情现在看来已经有了更好的视角,而当时几乎被视为次要的其他事情现在却显得更为突出。我努力在随后的书籍和讲座中澄清和简化、扩展和修改我的想法,随着事实被更广泛地接受,我的表达变得越来越简洁,事实上,我的最新小册子《通向手指个性化的九个步骤》只有四页!
However, I feel the time has now come when all this material should be gathered together, for the convenience of teacher and learner, and also to prevent misunderstanding as to what my
然而,我觉得现在是时候将所有这些材料汇集在一起,以方便老师和学习者,同时也防止对我的内容产生误解
In fact they have become so much "Common Knowledge" that they are no longer attributed to mel Already in the "Musical Times" wrote: "And now? The one man's fad (as it had been supposed to be) has within ten "sbort years altered radically the whole system of modern pianoforte teaching. . . . "Probably never before in art has an almost world-wide revolution been accom"plished in so short a space of time."
事实上,它们已经成为如此普遍的“共识”,以至于它们不再被归因于 mel。早在 年,《音乐时报》就写道:“现在呢?一个人的时尚(正如人们所认为的)在短短十年内彻底改变了现代钢琴教学的整个体系……”艺术史上可能从未有过如此短时间内几乎全球范围内的革命。"

teachings really are today.
教义今天真的很重要。
In fact, there have been issued lately a number of piratical works and writings founded on my ideas, sometimes avowedly so, which, while showing much felicity in expression, are nevertheless inadequate, and most inaccurate upon very important matters, thereby forming actual perversions of my teachings. To mention only one instance, these writers have almost entirely overlooked the important changes of state of exertion and relaxation of the playing limb which form tie REAL basis OF GOOD TECHNIQUE, but which, being invisible, have escaped their attention. Hence feel that it is most urgent that the present authoritative work be issued by me, and trust that it will serve as a corrective to so much spurious "Matthay teaching" which is to be met with today.
事实上,最近出现了许多盗版作品和著作,这些作品是基于我的想法的,有时明确表示是这样,虽然在表达上显示出很多幸福感,但在非常重要的事项上仍然是不足和最不准确的,从而形成了对我的教导的实际歪曲。仅举一个例子,这些作家几乎完全忽视了对于技术的真正基础——即肢体运动的紧张和放松状态的重要变化,但这些变化是看不见的,已经逃过了他们的注意。因此, 感到现在由我发布这本权威作品是非常迫切的,并希望它能成为对今天所遇到的许多伪造的“马塞教学”的纠正。
It will be seen that I do not here more minutely stress the locality of muscles or anatomical details at greater length than I thought fit in my first work, "The Act of Touch." There is good reason for this. The fact remains, that beyond certain quite simple generalizations, the attempted realization of the precise locality of the muscles concerned is not only futile, but is bound to impede the learner's progress, since it must take his attention away from the points where it is most directly needed. Anyway, it is futile, since it is practically impossible, both physiologically and psychologically, for us to influence or provoke any particular muscle directly into action, however hard we may try. No muscle responds that way! Moreover, were such attempt possible, it would indeed be hopeless to essay so to impart or acquire the correct playing actions, considering that even the most simple actions of our limbs (both the visible and the invisible ones) require a complexity of muscular interplay that would at once render such problem unthinkable.
可以看到,我在这里并没有像我在我的第一部作品《触摸的行为》中认为的那样详细强调肌肉的位置或解剖细节。这是有充分理由的。事实仍然存在,除了某些非常简单的概括之外,试图准确确定相关肌肉的具体位置不仅是徒劳的,而且必然会妨碍学习者的进步,因为这会使他的注意力从最需要的地方转移开。无论如何,这是徒劳的,因为从生理和心理上讲,我们几乎不可能直接影响或激发任何特定的肌肉行动,无论我们多么努力。没有肌肉会以这种方式做出反应!此外,如果这样的尝试是可能的,那么试图传授或获得正确的演奏动作将是毫无希望的,考虑到即使我们肢体的最简单动作(无论是可见的还是不可见的)都需要复杂的肌肉相互作用,这将立即使这样的问题成为不可想象的。
Moreover, the precise action of the deeper-seated muscles in playing is still largely a matter of conjecture.
此外,演奏中更深层肌肉的精确作用仍然在很大程度上是一种推测。
What we can learn and should teach is what may be termed the general Muscular Mechanics of the limbs we use. We can learn which section of the playing limb should be exerted and
我们可以学习和应该教授的是我们使用的肢体的一般肌肉力学。我们可以学习应该施加哪个部分的演奏肢体。

which should be left lax; and by thus willing the desirable Ltorstresses into action and by inhibiting the undesirable ones, the concerned complex müscular co-ordinations will indirectly but surely be called into responsive operation. This basic principle which underlies all my technical teachings is also carried out in the present work.
这应该是放松的;通过这种方式,愿望的 Ltorstresses 被激活,抑制不良的因素,相关的复杂肌肉协调间接但肯定地被调动起来。这个基本原则贯穿于我所有的技术教学中,也体现在当前的工作中。
Our business as teachers is to make clear to the learner which are the limb-stresses (both visible and invisible) needed in playing, and which are the ones to be avoided. It is the only way by which the learner can be directly helped.
我们作为教师的任务是向学习者明确指出在演奏中需要的肢体压力(可见和不可见的),以及需要避免的压力。这是唯一能直接帮助学习者的方法。
The physiological aspect of Touch and Technique is usually found to be the most difficult problem to grasp by the learner. Necessarily it is complex. It is here that the most fantastic notions have arisen in the past, and are indeed still lamentably evident even in the work of some writers of today, who ought to know better.
触感和技巧的生理方面通常被学习者认为是最难把握的问题。这是复杂的。过去曾出现过最奇幻的观念,甚至在一些今天的作家的作品中仍然明显可悲地存在,他们本应更了解。
To ensure that consideration of the necessary details does not jeopardize the true apprehension of the subject as a whole, I have planned my work on the same lines as in actual teaching; although in teaching one is able to bring the details to the notice of the pupil as required at the particular moment.
为了确保对必要细节的考虑不会危及对整体主题的真正理解,我已经按照实际教学的方式计划了我的工作;尽管在教学中,一个人可以在特定时刻根据需要向学生提供细节。
The main physiological facts are therefore first stated broadly in Chapter IV, "The Physiology of Touch." This is followed by an exposition of the details implicated in Chapter V, "The Physiological Details." These are further elaborated in the succeeding Chapters. "Additional Notes" are added in further elucidation of these matters. All is then clinched in a Recapitulatory Section of the work - a close-up Summary, under the title of "Epitome."
因此,主要的生理事实首先在第四章“触觉生理学”中广泛阐述。接着在第五章“生理细节”中阐明相关细节。这些内容在随后的章节中进一步详细阐述。“附加说明”进一步阐明这些问题。最后在工作的总结部分中,通过“要点”标题下的近距离摘要来总结一切。
This Epitome, however, is sufficiently complete in itself to form an independent booklet, and is issued separately for School use, etc., - an important mission. It is followed by fifty-five "Daily Maxims" and a page of "Final Precepts" - concise axiomatic outlines intended as constant "close-up" reminders of the main technical essentials to be kept in view alike by Student, Teacher, and Artist.
然而,这个精华本身已经足够完整,可以作为一本独立的小册子,并单独发行供学校使用等等 - 这是一个重要的使命。它后面跟着五十五条“每日格言”和一页“最终格言” - 简明的公理式概要,旨在作为主要技术要点的持续“近距离”提醒,学生、老师和艺术家都应该牢记。
Obviously this plan entails much repetition and reiteration. But unless the various facts are thus brought into close juxtaposition in their presentation, their bearing upon each other might easily be overlooked and lead to serious misunderstandings.
显然,这个计划涉及大量的重复和反复。但除非各种事实在展示中被置于紧密的并列位置,否则它们之间的关系很容易被忽视,从而导致严重的误解。
While such reiteration may be resented by the casual reader, it is imperative for the true student. It is only by repetition of the same point under various aspects that facts are eventually brought home and grasped; and vision of the whole not lost sight of while in pursuit of the details of structure.
尽管这样的重复可能会让随意读者感到厌烦,但对于真正的学生来说却是必不可少的。只有通过在不同角度重复同一观点,事实才最终能被理解和掌握;在追求结构细节时,也不会失去整体视野。
A genius may not need such treatment; he may see things in a flash of intelligence. Geniuses in the past have thus subconsciously realized the true processes of technique, else there never would have been any great players before the appearance of the "Act of Touch"! A work of the present nature, however, is designed as an endeavour to help the ordinary worker and Seeker after Truth; the genius, himself, may also save years of time and feel surer of his ground by taking the trouble to master the facts thus intellectually, as well as by "intuition."
天才也许不需要这样的对待;他可能一闪而过地看到事物。因此,过去的天才们在潜意识中意识到了真正的技术过程,否则在“触摸行为”出现之前就不会有任何伟大的演奏家!然而,目前这样的作品旨在帮助普通工作者和真理追求者;天才本人也可以通过费心掌握这些事实,以及通过“直觉”,节省数年时间并更加确信自己的立场。
Note. - Where more detailed information is desired, my older works should be referred to, preferably in the inverse order of their publication. Thus: -
注意。- 如果需要更详细的信息,请参考我的旧作品,最好是按照它们发表的相反顺序。因此:-
"The Nine Steps towards Finger Individualization" along with "The Child's First Steps" (Joseph Williams), and its complement for Children, "The Pianist's First Music-Making" (Oxford University Press), "First Solo Book" and "Playthings for Little Players" (O. U. Press), "First Principles" and its complement "Some Commentaries on Piano Techrique" (Longmans); "Relaxation Studies" (Bosworth), and finally, "The Act of Touch" (Longmans). Along with these should be studied (not merely read through) my most important work of all, "MOSICAI INTERPRETATION, its laws and principles" (Williams); and the recently issued supplement to this "The Slur or Couplet of Notes" (O. U. Press); also when needed: "On Method in Teaching," "On Memorizing" (O. U. Press), "Forearm Rotation" (Williams), etc., etc.
《指尖个性化的九步》以及《儿童的第一步》(Joseph Williams),以及为儿童准备的补充材料《钢琴家的初次音乐创作》(牛津大学出版社),《第一独奏曲集》和《小小演奏家的玩具》(O. U. Press),《基本原理》及其补充材料《钢琴技术评论》(朗曼斯);《放松研究》(博斯沃思),最后,《触摸的行为》(朗曼斯)。除此之外,还应该学习(而不仅仅是浏览)我最重要的作品之一,《音乐解释,其法则和原则》(Williams);以及最近发行的这本作品的补充材料《音符的连线或连音》(O. U. Press);还有需要时的作品:《教学方法论》,《记忆法》(O. U. Press),《前臂旋转》(Williams),等等。
I wish to acknowledge the great help I have had with my proofs from my devoted disciple Alvin Goodman.
我要感谢我的忠实门徒阿尔文·古德曼在校对方面给予我的巨大帮助。
Note. - Also I must thank Miss Helen Marchant for her patiently devoted work as stegographer and typist.
注意。- 我还必须感谢海伦·马钦特小姐作为速记员和打字员的耐心奉献工作。
Tobias Mattiay. 托比亚斯·马蒂亚伊。
Haslemrere. Surrey, , England.
萨里郡哈斯勒米尔,英格兰。
April, т931. 1931 年 4 月。

CONTENTS 目录

CONTENTS OF DIGEST 文摘内容

PaGE 页面
Preface ..... vii 前言 ..... vii
CEAPTEP
I. The Meaning and Purpose of Technique ..... 3
I. 技术的含义和目的 ..... 3

II. How to Use the Plano-key ..... 6
II. 如何使用 Plano-key ..... 6
  • The Physical or Key-aspect of Technique
    技术的物理或关键方面

    iII. Accuracy of Tone, and the Link between Music
    iii. 音调的准确性,以及音乐之间的联系

    and Tecindoue ..... 12
    IV. How to Use Limb and Muscie ..... 14
    IV. 如何使用肢体和肌肉 ..... 14
  • The Physiological Problems
    生理问题

    V. The Physiological Details ..... 22
    V. 生理细节 ..... 22

    (a) The Finger and how to use it ..... 22
    手指及其使用方法.....22

    The two distinct modes of Finger-use, 1 T2 ..... 22
    两种不同的指法模式,1 T2 ..... 22

    The two muscular ways, 93 ..... 23
    这两种肌肉线条,93 ..... 23

    (b) The Hand and how to use it, TI4 ..... 24
    手的使用方法,TI4 ..... 24

    Ten Hands needed, Note to ..... 25
    需要十只手,注意 ..... 25

    Finger . Hand movement, ..... 25
    手指 。手部动作, ..... 25

    (c) The Arm and how it is needed, ..... 26
    (c) 手臂及其必要性, ..... 26

    The six ways of Arm-functioning, 16 ..... 26
    手臂运动的六种方式,16 ..... 26

    The two compulsory ways of Arm-use ..... 27
    Arm-use 的两种必修方式.....27
  1. The Poised Arm, 17 ..... 27
    平衡的手臂,17 ..... 27
  2. The Rotative Forearm, ..... 30
    旋转前臂, ..... 30

    The four optional ways of Arm-use, ..... 31
    Arm-use 的四种可选方式, ..... 31
  3. Forearm Weight, ..... 31
    前臂重量, ..... 31
  4. Whole-arm Weight, ..... 33
    整臂重量, ..... 33
  5. The same with Forearm down-exertion,
    与前臂向下用力相同,

    ..... 35
  6. The same with Upper-arm forward-
    与上臂向前-相同

    drive (to be avoided), ..... 36
    驾驶(应避免), ..... 36

    (d) Arm-vibration touch, T8 ..... 27
    (d) 胳膊震动触摸,T8 ..... 27

    (e) Weight-transfer touch, and 34 .....
    (e) 重心转移触感, 和 34 .....

    (f) The Truth about Weight touch, ..... 39
    (f) 关于重量触摸的真相, ..... 39

    (g) Weight-initiated v. Muscularly-initiated touch,
    (g) 以重量为基础的触摸 v. 以肌肉为基础的触摸,

    , Note, and 939 ..... 33,42
    ,注释和 939 ..... 33,42

    (h) The Dual nature of the muscular equipment, ..... 43
    (h) 肌肉设备的双重性质, ..... 43

    (i) The Merging of Touch-forms, ..... 48
    (i) 触形的融合, ..... 48

    xii CONTENTS OF DIGEST AND ADDITIONAL NOTES
    xii 摘要和附加说明目录

    CEAPTER ..... PAGE CEAPTER ..... 页
    VI. Tie Use and Misuse of Forearm Rotation ..... 49
    VI. 前臂旋转的正确使用与误用 ..... 49

    ViI. Tie Movements of Touch, during and before Key-
    ViI. 触摸的关键动作,在按键之前和之间-

    Descent ..... 65 下降 ..... 65
    viit. On holding Notes - the Riget Way and the
    viit。关于举办音符- Riget Way 和

    Wrong Way ..... 68
    错误的方向 ..... 68

    IX. Bent and Flat (Thrusting v. Clinging) Finger-action ..... 73
    IX. 弯曲和扁平(刺击与粘附)手指动作 ..... 73

    X. How to Find the Rigit Notes. ..... 80
    X. 如何找到正确的音符。..... 80

    Xi. How to Play Staccato and Legato ..... 83
    第十一章 如何演奏断音和连音 ..... 83

    XII. Weight-transerer and Arm-vibration Totch ..... 89
    XII. 重量传输器和手臂振动触控..... 89

    XIII. On Position - and Movement ..... 105
    十三、关于位置 - 和运动 ..... 105

    XIV. On the Naming of Things (Nomenclature) ..... 113
    XIV. 关于事物命名(命名法).....113

    A Page of Coda ..... 121
    终曲一页 ..... 121

    ADDITIONAL NOTES 附加说明
    vorz
    I. On Practising ..... 122
    我。关于练习......122

    II. At the Beginning ..... 123
    II. 在开始时..... 123

    iII. Forearm-rotation Mistnderstandings ..... 125
    III. 前臂旋转误解 ..... 125
  • and Misrepresentations 错误陈述
    IV. On Beauty and Uginness of Touch ..... 135
    IV. 关于触摸的美感和乌金尼斯 ..... 135
  • The Question of Quality again, and the importance
    质量问题再次出现,以及重要性

    of correct Arm-use 正确使用手臂
    V. Effective and Ineffective Finger-work ..... 140
    V. 有效和无效的手指技巧 ..... 140

    VI. Pianola ข. Human Passage-work ..... 141
    VI. Pianola ข. 人类通道工作 ..... 141
  • The Pianola and the Pianist
    钢琴卷帘琴和钢琴家

    ViI. Reproduced o. Self-produced Music ..... 144
    第六部分 自制音乐 ..... 144
  • "The Man and the Machine"
    "人与机器"

    ViII. A Piea For Music-Makme ..... 146
    ViII. 为音乐制作人的一首曲子 ..... 146

    IX. The Distinction between the Vissbie and Invisible ..... 149
    第九章:Vissbie 和 Invisible 之间的区别.....149

    X. The "Pure Finger-work" Myth ..... 154
    X. “纯手指演奏”神话 ..... 154

    XI. The Futiuty of Anatomically-directed Pedagogics ..... 156
    XI. 解剖学导向教学法的无用性 ..... 156
  • Useful 0 . Useless Anatomy-teaching
    有用的 0 . 无用的解剖教学

    XII. On Key-bedding ..... 161
    十二、关于键盘布局 ..... 161

    XiII. Flat v. Bent Finger Action ..... 162
    第二部分. 平指动作 v. 弯曲指动作 ..... 162

    CQNTENTS OF EPITOME ..... xiii
    EPITOME 的目录..... xiii

    มотв ..... PAGE มотв ..... 页
    XIV. Tie Three "Living Levers" ..... 164
    XIV. 系三根“生活杠杆” ..... 164

    XV. An Impossible Reconcillation ..... 165
    XV. 一场不可能的和解 ..... 165

    XVI. On the Nature of Rhythm ..... 168
    XVI. 关于节奏的本质 ..... 168

    XVII. Strong v. Weak Fingers and Piano Voices ..... 169
    第十七章. 强手指与弱手指以及钢琴音色 ..... 169

    XVIII. An Alternatrve ppp Method ..... 171
    XVIII. 一种替代的 ppp 方法 ..... 171

    XIX. On Rhythmical Attention ..... 173
    XIX. 关于节奏的注意力 ..... 173
  • Individualism v. Mechanism
    个人主义 v. 机械主义

    CONTENTS OF EPITOME 精华内容
    Foreword to Epitome .....
    总结的序言 .....

    sEcTros
    I. Ter Meandvg of Tecintque. ..... E3
    我。 Tecintque 的 Ter Meandvg。 ..... E3

    II. How to Use ter Piano-key ..... E4
    II. 如何使用 ter 钢琴键..... E4

    iII. Accuracy of Tone, and tie Link Between Music
    iii. 音调的准确性,以及音乐之间的联系

    and Tecentoue ..... E6
    腾讯音乐...... E6

    IV. How to Use Your Linds and Muscies ..... E7
    IV. 如何使用您的琳兹和音乐...... E7

    V. How to Use Your Finger, Hand and Arm. ..... E10
    V. 如何使用您的手指、手和手臂。..... E10

    The Finger Element. ..... E10
    手指元素。..... E10

    The Hand Element ..... E11
    手的元素 ..... E11

    The Arm Element ..... E11
    手臂元素 ..... E11

    The Six Ways of Arm-use ..... E12-18
    手臂使用的六种方式..... E12-18

    VI. The Use and Misuse of Forearm Rotation ..... E18-26
    VI. 前臂旋转的使用与误用 ..... E18-26

    Vir. The Movements of Touch, During and Before
    Vir. 触摸的动作,在之前和之中

    Key Descent ..... E27
    关键下降..... E27

    viIi. On Holding Notes - the Rigit Way and the
    viIi. 关于保持音符的正确方式和方式

    Wrong Way ..... E31
    错误的方向 ..... E31

    iX. Bent and Flat (Thrusting v. Clinging) Finger-
    iX. 弯曲和扁平(刺入与粘附)手指-

    AcTron ..... E33
    X. How to Find tie Rigit Notes ..... E35
    X. 如何找到正确的音符 ..... E35

    XI. Staccato and Legato ..... E38
    第十一章。断音和连音 ..... E38

    XiI. Weiget-transfer and arm-vibration Touch ..... E41
    XiI. 重力传递和手臂振动触摸 ..... E41

    XIII. On Postiton - and Movement ..... E46
    十三。关于位置 - 和移动 ..... E46

    XIV. On tire Naking of Terngs (Nomenclature) ..... E49
    XIV. 关于 Terngs 的 Naking(命名)..... E49

    "Daily Maxims" (55 Pianistic Aphorisms) ..... E53-58
    《日常箴言》(55 个钢琴格言)..... E53-58

    "Final Precepts" ..... E59
    “Final Precepts” ..... E59

DIGEST:  摘要:

The Visible and Invisible
可见与不可见
in Piano Technique by 在《钢琴技术》中TOBIAS MATTHAY

Chapter  

PREAMBLE 序言

The meaning and purpose of Technique
技术的意义和目的

Definitions: 定义:

  1. Technique means the power of expressing oneself musically. It embraces all the physico-mechanical means through which one's musical perceptions are expressed.
    技术意味着以音乐方式表达自己的能力。它涵盖了所有物理机械手段,通过这些手段表达一个人的音乐感知。
  2. It is therefore absurd and hopeless to try to acquire Technique dissociated from its purpose to express Music.
    因此,试图获得与表达音乐目的脱离的技术是荒谬和绝望的。
  3. Typewriter-like strumming or note-rattling does not constitute Music.
    打字机般的弹奏或音符的嘎吱作响并不构成音乐。
Technique is rather a matter of the Mind than of the "fingers."
技术更多地是心灵的问题,而不是“手指”的问题。
  1. To acquire the necessary muscular discrimination for playing, implies the acquisition mentally of the power muscularly, so to direct your limbs in their work, that your musical purpose shall accurately be fulfilled.
    为了获得演奏所需的肌肉辨别能力,意味着在心理上获得肌肉力量,以便指导你的肢体工作,从而准确实现你的音乐目的。
Technique and Music inseparable:
技术与音乐密不可分:
  1. To acquire Technique therefore implies that you must induce and enforce a particular mental-muscular association and co-operation for every possible musical effect.
    因此,获得技巧意味着你必须为每种可能的音乐效果诱导和强化特定的心理肌肉联合和合作。
  2. The folly in the past has been to suppose that one could acquire a musical technique dissociated from the practice of actual, real Music.
    过去的愚蠢在于认为人们可以获得一种与实际音乐实践脱离的音乐技巧。
  3. On the contrary, be sure to realize from the very beginning, that what you have to do, is to make a strong bond between Musical Intention and the means of its practical Fulfilment. From the very first, you must try to make strict association between the spiritual and physical in playing.
    相反,务必从一开始就意识到,你要做的是在音乐意图和实现它的手段之间建立牢固的联系。从一开始,你必须努力在演奏中严格关联精神和物理。
  4. Never sound a single note without a distinct musical purpose. This implies a definite rhythmical Intention for each note, and also applies to your very first experiments at the keyboard.
    永远不要发出没有明确音乐目的的音符。这意味着每个音符都有明确的节奏意图,并且也适用于你在键盘上的第一次尝试。

The Act of Timing:
定时的行为:

Realize that you cannot play any note with musical purpose without such accurate Timing.
意识到,如果没有准确的节奏,你就无法用音乐目的演奏任何音符。
  1. Pianoforte technique is therefore essentially an act of "aiming" or timing the right activities of the limb at the musically right moment during key-descent - an accurate timing of the beginning, culmination, and cessation of the needed limbexertions for each note. Solely by such Act of Timing, can you bind Technique and Music together.
    钢琴技术因此基本上是一种在按键下降过程中准确地定时四肢的正确活动的“瞄准”行为 - 准确地计时每个音符所需四肢运动的开始、达到高潮和停止。只有通过这种定时行为,你才能将技术和音乐紧密联系在一起。

Relaxation: 放松:

  1. Relaxation implies (a) the Elimination of all unnecessary exertions, (b) the Cessation of the needed impulses at the right moment, and (c) Weight-release - the cessation of limb-support, and hence Weight-manifestation where and when needed.
    放松意味着(a)消除所有不必要的努力,(b)在正确时机停止所需的冲动,以及(c)释放重量 - 停止肢体支撑,从而在需要时体现重量。
The connection between Music and Technique:
音乐与技术之间的联系:
  1. To summarize this: no successful technique can ever be acquired without this element of timing. Mastery of Technique and mastery of Interpretation alike rest on the same basis - a basis of rhythmic impulse and control.
    总结一下:没有这种时机元素,任何成功的技巧都无法掌握。技巧的精通和解释的精通都建立在同样的基础上 - 即节奏冲动和控制的基础。
  2. You now realize why the study of Technique should never be separated from the study of Music; how they are connected-up, and why they must be associated from the very beginning.
    你现在意识到为什么技术的学习永远不应与音乐的学习分开;它们是如何相互联系的,以及为什么它们必须从一开始就关联在一起。
You must acquire a strict mental Association between every musical effect and its technical reproduction. Hence it is harmful to try to acquire a Technical effect without making such association.
你必须在每种音乐效果和其技术再现之间建立严格的心理关联。因此,试图获得技术效果而不进行这种关联是有害的。
  1. In short: every note must be sounded with definite musical purpose - rhythmical purpose and tonal purpose, and this from the very beginning.
    简而言之:每个音符都必须具有明确的音乐目的 - 旋律目的和音调目的,从一开始就是这样。

The four forms of Rhythmical Movement:
节奏运动的四种形式:

  1. There are four main divisions of rhythmical purpose or attention in playing: -
    演奏中有四个主要的节奏目的或注意力分部:-
(a) Key-movement - the swing of the key downwards, towards Tone-emission.
(a)按键移动 - 按键向下摆动,朝向音色发射。
(b) The group-sensing of notes in a quick passage, as groups of notes always leading towards each next pulse or beat.
(b)在快速乐句中对音符的群体感知,音符群总是指向下一个脉冲或拍子。
(c) The growth or progression of the Phrase-unit towards its rhythmical climax - near the end of the phrase, and
(c) 乐句向其节奏高潮的增长或发展 - 靠近乐句末尾,以及
(d) The movement or progression of the piece as a Whole towards its climax.
(d)整体作品朝着高潮的运动或发展。
  1. The ever-present problem during Practice and Performance is never to let your attention flag or waver, either musically or pianistically, no matter whether you are a beginner or an experienced artist.
    练习和表演过程中始终存在的问题是无论你是初学者还是经验丰富的艺术家,都不能让注意力松懈或动摇,无论是在音乐上还是钢琴技巧上。
Remember, only through the rhythmical sense can you bring your mind on the needs of the Music and the Keyboard for every note. "Time-spot" is the ground upon which Mind and Matter here meet. This also fully describes every other act of Concentration.
记住,只有通过节奏感,你才能将注意力集中在音乐和键盘对每个音符的需求上。“时间点”是心灵和物质相遇的基础。这也充分描述了集中注意力的每一个行为。
  1. While musical attention and technical attention thus coalesce (or are linked together) in the rhythmical act, we must remember that besides the laws of Physical technique there are also just as inexorable laws of Interpretation.
    当音乐关注和技术关注在节奏行为中融合在一起时,我们必须记住,除了物理技术的规律外,解释的规律同样严格。
These laws we must equally learn to obey, if the emotional effect of the music is to be achieved in good taste and effectively.
这些法则我们必须同样学会遵守,如果音乐的情感效果要以良好的品味和有效地实现。

Chapter II 第二章

THE PHYSICAL OR KEY-ASPECT OF TECHNIQUE
技术的物理或关键方面

Tone-production: 音色产生:

  1. The more speed in the string, the louder the resultant sound. Only by making the Key (and the String therefore) move quickly can you produce loudness. There is no other way.
    线弦速度越快,产生的声音就越响亮。只有让键(因此也就是弦)快速移动,才能产生响亮的声音。没有其他方法。
  2. The Piano Key is a leverage system, a machine, to enable you to get speed with the string, and to ensure dynamic control - of the exact speed (or tone) desired.
    钢琴键是一个杠杆系统,一台机器,让你能够以弦的速度,并确保动态控制 - 实现所需的确切速度(或音调)。
  3. Open your Piano lid, so that you can watch the Hammerheads. Now put a finger upon a key, and notice, when you depress the key its of an inch, that the hammer-head moves about five times that distance, and therefore exaggerates by five times, the speed with which you depress the key.
    打开钢琴盖,这样你就可以看到锤头。现在把手指放在一个键上,当你按下键时,注意,当你按下键时,锤头移动约 英寸,因此夸大了五倍,你按下键的速度。
  4. Also notice that it falls back the instant it has reached the string and has set the same into vibration (or movement) - although you may be keeping the key depressed afterwards. This is owing to the hopper device, which allows the hammer to rebound from the string. Without such a device the hammer would be jammed against the string, and all tone destroyed.
    还要注意,一旦达到弦并使其振动(或移动)时,它会立即回弹-尽管之后可能会继续按住键。这归功于弹块装置,它允许锤子从弦上反弹。如果没有这样的装置,锤子将被卡在弦上,所有音调都会被破坏。
  5. Note also, that as you put the key down you are lifting the damper away from its strings, thus leaving them free to continue sounding; and that the damper returns to the strings when you allow the Key to come up again, thus arresting (or "damping") the sound.
    请注意,当您按下琴键时,您将将音符从琴弦上抬起,从而使它们自由地继续发声;当您再次允许键上升时,音符会返回到琴弦上,从而阻止(或“阻尼”)声音。

THE PHYSICAL OR KEY-ASPECT OF TECHNIQUE 7
技术 7 的物理或关键方面

  1. The "Grand" action also includes a device (the "repetition lever") which enables you to re-sound the note, without having to allow the Key to rise fully; about an eighth of an inch should suffice.
    “Grand”动作还包括一个装置(“重复杆”),它使您能够重新发出音符,而无需让键完全上升;大约八分之一英寸应该足够。
The Action is also provided with a "check," which brings the hammer to rest after it has fallen back from the string, so as to prevent its rebounding and re-striking the string on its own, and thus spoiling the tone.
行动还配备了一个“检查”,当它从琴弦上回弹后,将锤子停在那里,以防止它自行弹起并重新击弦,从而破坏音调。
Nore. - See The Act of Touch (Longmans, Green & Co.) where these things are described at length, and where a Diagram of the Pianoforte action is given on page 62 .
Nore. - 请参阅《触摸的行为》(朗曼斯,格林公司)一书,其中详细描述了这些事物,并在第 62 页上提供了钢琴行动的图表。

Good and bad tone:
音色的优劣:

  1. Realize, then, that you can only make tone by making the Key move and thus convey speed to the String.
    认识到,你只能通过移动按键来产生音调,从而向琴弦传递速度。
  2. The greater the motion attained during key-descent, the louder the sound.
    按键下降时所达到的运动越大,声音就越大。
Note. - Speed of the Key, during descent, must not be confused with speed in the succession of the notes! It seems unnecessary to point out that the quickest passages can quite well be played softly - but I have had letters on this question!
注意:在下降过程中,按键的速度不应与音符的连续速度混淆!似乎没必要指出,最快的乐句也可以轻柔地演奏 - 但我收到过关于这个问题的来信!
  1. Bad tone, and lack of control over tone, arises when the Key is jerked down by a too suddenly applied impulse.
    音调不好,音调控制不佳,是由于按键受到过于突然的冲动而被拉下。
  2. We see then that Tone-amount depends purely on Keyspeed, but Control of tone and Quality depends on how you produce that speed.
    我们可以看到,音量纯粹取决于速度,但音色和音质的控制取决于你如何产生这种速度。

Key acceleration: 关键加速:

  1. Good tone, ease in production, and control of tone, can only be obtained by gradually pressing the Key into motion. Only in this way can you obtain perfect control over tone, good "singing" tone, and good quality of tone.
    良好的音色、制作的轻松以及对音色的控制,只能通过逐渐按下键来实现。只有这样,你才能获得对音色的完美控制、良好的“歌唱”音色和音色的优质。
  2. Moreover, this necessary acceleration of the Key (for every note) is not a Plain Acceleration, but should be an accel-
    此外,对于每个音符,这种必要的按键加速并不是简单的加速,而应该是一个加速-
In this case the harsh upper-partials of the string are brought into prominence.
在这种情况下,弦乐器的尖锐上部分被突显出来。

eration in acceleratingly progressive proportion during that short inch of descent.
在那短短的 英寸下降过程中,加速递增的力量。
You cannot control tone, and cannot play musically unless you succeed in acquiring this way of managing Key-descent.
你无法控制音调,也无法在音乐演奏中表现出色,除非你成功掌握了这种管理下降调的方法。
Increase at increasing ratio, applies everywhere
以递增比率增加,适用于任何地方
  1. This law of increase at increasing ratio applies in our use of all "Speed-Tools."
    这种增长率递增的增长规律适用于我们使用的所有“速度工具”。
hatchet, even the gun, are illustrations of such "Speed-tools" - working at mounting-up increase!
斧头,甚至枪支,都是这种“速度工具”的例证 - 用于快速增长!
Cresc. and dim. It is exemplified, also, in effectively played crescenand accel. and
Cresc. 和 dim. 它也在有效地演奏的 crescen 和 accel 中得到了体现。

rit, also come 节奏,也来
dos, and diminuendos, ritardos, and accelerandos -
dos、减弱、ritardos 和 accelerandos -
Nore. - The racket, the bat, the golf-club, the hammer, the under same law all must be played as an increase at increasing rate.
Nore. - 球拍,球棒,高尔夫球杆,锤子,根据同一法律,都必须以递增的速度进行比赛。
The notation of cresc. or dim. is quite inaccurate. They should never be played as at A, but as at B:
cresc. 或 dim. 的记谱相当不准确。它们不应该被演奏成 A,而应该被演奏成 B:

NotA: ;but B: NotA: ;但 B:

  1. While this curve of acceleration is the "law of the Key" for all singing or good tone, it applies equally in the production It applies aiso of the softest . Thus, for real , you must in pianissimo slowly feel your way to that point in key-descent where you can feel the hopper beginning to slide from underneath the hammer "button"; you can feel this as a slight impediment, and from there only may you add the true tone-producing impulse; -playing, in fact, is exaggerated singing-tone - so far as method of production is concerned.
    尽管这种加速度曲线是所有歌唱或好音调的“关键法则”,它同样适用于最轻柔的 的制作。因此,对于真正的 ,你必须在钢琴上慢慢地感受到在按键下降过程中,你可以感觉到卡盘开始从锤子“按钮”下滑动;你可以感觉到这是一种轻微的阻碍,只有从那里你才能添加真正的音调产生冲动; 演奏实际上是夸张的歌唱音调 - 就生产方法而言。
Note. - This slight impediment is caused by the lower end of the L-shaped hopper coming into contact with its set-off screw, and you then feel you are compressing the hopper-spring.
注意。- 这种轻微的阻碍是由 L 形漏斗的下端与其抵销螺钉接触而引起的,然后你会感觉自己正在压缩漏斗弹簧。
Unless you master this knack, you can never command a true ; and unless you can command that, your whole range of tone is much narrowed. Moreover, realize that your fortes are
除非你掌握了这种技巧,否则你永远无法掌握真正的 ;除非你能掌握那个,你的音色范围将大大缩小。此外,要意识到你的长处是

THE PHYSICAL OR KEY-ASPECT OF TECHNIQUE 9
技术 9 的物理或关键方面

truly fortes only in proportion that your pianos are truly pianos; and that you can therefore only produce the effect of a true forte by being able to produce the softest sound.
真正的强音只有在您的钢琴真正是钢琴的情况下才会产生;因此,您只能通过能够发出最柔和的声音来产生真正的强音效果。

How to play :
如何演奏

  1. To gain this trick of real playing: Take a chord of three or four notes, and with fingers tolerably firmly fixed against the key-surfaces, move those keys down only so far as the hopperimpediment, and let them rise again. Repeat this a number of times, until you feel confident with it, then follow this movement to the hopper by the very slight additional one that will swing the hammer to the string, and will thus sound the notes really at their very softest. It is an excellent way of realizing what is meant by "Key-attention"!
    要掌握这个真正 的技巧:取三到四个音符的和弦,用手指相对牢固地固定在键面上,只将这些键向下移动到阻挡器的位置,然后让它们再次上升。重复这个动作多次,直到你对它感到自信,然后在移动到阻挡器的同时,再稍微额外移动一下,这将使锤子击到琴弦,从而真正以最轻柔的方式发出音符。这是一个很好的方法,可以理解“键的注意力”是什么意思!
The repetition of soft notes, and the "Bebung":
柔和音符的重复,以及“Bebung”:
  1. Notice also, that on a Grand Piano, properly adjusted, you can repeat the note softly without allowing the key to rise more than th of an inch or so. This you are enabled to do, because the repetition lever of your Grand enables the hopper again to slip under the "button" of the hammer. Also, when you do this, the note can be repeated perfectly legato; because when you allow the key to rise so little, the damper does not reach the strings. Thus you can play the repeated chords of the opening of the "Waldstein" Sonata perfectly legato - and - quite a different effect from that produced when you allow the keys fully to rise. Try it!
    请注意,在一架调整正确的大钢琴上,您可以轻轻地重复音符,而不让琴键上升超过 英寸左右。这是因为您的大钢琴的重复杠杆使得弹起器再次滑入锤子的“按钮”下。当您这样做时,音符可以完美地重复连贯;因为当您让琴键上升如此之少时,音符不会触及琴弦。因此,您可以完美连贯地演奏“瓦尔登斯坦”奏鸣曲开头的重复和弦 - 这与您允许琴键完全上升时产生的效果完全不同。试试看吧!
As other examples, take the accompanying chords of the slow movement of Schumann's Sonata in G minor; also those softest "reverberated" chords (the second of each couplet) of the opening of Chopin's G minor Ballade. The reverberated effect here ("Bebung") is the same as required at various points in the slow movement of Beethoven's Op. 110, etc.
作为其他例子,可以看一下舒曼 G 小调奏鸣曲慢板的伴奏和肖邦 G 小调巴拉德开头的柔和的“反响”和弦(每对中的第二个)。这里的反响效果(“Bebung”)与贝多芬 Op. 110 慢板中的各处要求相同。

Tone-production, momentary:
音色产生,瞬间:

The short duration of the Tone-producing impulse:
音调产生脉冲的短暂持续时间:
  1. Next realize, that No tone, whether in staccato or legato, ever takes longer to produce than for Staccatissimo - the hammer instantly rebounds from the string, whatever you do, and thus leaves the tone after that quite unalterable.
    接下来要意识到,无论是断音还是连音,都比超短断音所需的时间更长——无论你怎么做,锤子都会立即从琴弦上反弹,因此在那之后留下的音调是无法改变的。
  2. Hence you have to live your "touch-life" during that short moment of Key-descent! You must intend the musicallyneeded sound, and you must accomplish the production of any desired tone-inflection during that flash of descent with the Key. Nothing, after that, avails as to tone-production.
    因此,在那短暂的按键下降时,你必须活出你的“触摸生活”!你必须打算产生音乐所需的声音,并且你必须在按键下降的一瞬间完成任何所需的音调变化的制作。在那之后,任何事情都无法影响音调的产生。
Tenuto and Legato, and Tone-cessation:
保持音和连奏,以及音色停顿:
  1. To make a tone continue (as in tenuto or legato) you must hold the key down after the initial short sound-producing impulse has been completed; thus you hold the dampers off the strings, which continue sounding for a while, or until you allow the key to rise, when the dampers silence them.
    要使音调持续(如在 tenuto 或 legato 中),您必须在初始的短声音冲动完成后继续按住键;因此,您将继续按住阻尼器离开琴弦,琴弦会继续响一段时间,直到您允许键升起时,阻尼器才会将其消音。

Production of Tone and Duration always distinct:
音调和持续时间的制作始终是明显的:

  1. The action of holding a note down should always be quite distinct from the action of sounding it.
    按住音符的动作应该始终与发出声音的动作有明显区别。
Nore. - Muscularly, it should also be quite distinct and different - a most important matter, as we shall see presently. See Chapter XIII, "On the Holding of Notes."
Nore. - 从肌肉上看,它也应该是相当明显和不同的 - 这是一个非常重要的问题,我们很快就会看到。请参阅第十三章,“关于音符的保持”。
The key may be depressed quite violently for a forte, yet the holding down needs but a gentle action.
关键可能会被猛烈地按下以达到强音,但保持按下只需要轻柔的动作。

Staccato: 断音:

  1. Staccatissimo is obtained by allowing the key to spring up the instant that its journey downwards is completed; the damper being thus allowed to reach the strings, the sound is instantly checked.
    Staccatissimo 是通过允许键在向下运动完成时立即弹起来获得的;因此,阻尼器被允许触及琴弦,声音立即停止。
  2. Clearly, you cannot make or compel a key to rise. You can only allow the key instantly to rise upon tone-production, thus permitting the damper instantly to reach the string.
    显然,你不能制造或强迫一个琴键上升。你只能允许琴键在音调产生时立即上升,从而使弹奏器立即触及琴弦。
Note. - To obtain Staccatissimo the effort of tone-production and its subsequent immediate cessation must be so accurately timed that the key may rebound Most Staccati instantly. Anything less short than staccatissimo is therefore are incomplete always in the nature of a Tenuto. This tenuto may last any degree Tenuti
注意。-要获得极短音,音色的产生和随后的立即停止必须时间精确,以便键盘可以立即反弹。任何比极短音更短的东西因此总是不完整的,总是类似于持续音。这种持续音可以持续任何程度。
up to the full extent of the written note. You may even allow the tone to last longer than its written value, and may thus overlap it into the next sound, when desirable; thus creating a legatissimo or super-legato. See Chapter XI, "How to play Staccato and Legato."
根据音符的完整长度演奏。甚至可以让音调持续的时间超过其书写值,并在需要时将其延长到下一个声音中;从而创造出一种非常连贯或超级连贯的效果。请参阅第十一章,“如何演奏断音和连奏”。
  1. If you mis-apply (mis-time) the force with which you intend to produce a tone, and thus, instead of producing keymotion (and string-speed) allow the force to be wasted on the beds or pads under the keys, then your tone cannot correspond with your musically-intended wish, and the effect will be unmusi in proportion to your misjudgment of the exact requirements of the key.
    如果您错误地(错误地)应用了您打算产生音调的力量,并且因此,而不是产生关键运动(和弦速度),让力量浪费在键下的床或垫子上,那么您的音调就无法与您音乐意图的愿望相符,效果将与您对键的确切要求的错误判断成比例。
Note. - I have termed this mis-timing of the TONE-ProducIng force "Keybedding." If, however, you apply some slight force purposely upon the key-beds On "Key-bed- so that you may feel sure you are holding those keys depressed, ding" and Key- that does NOT constitute key-bedding "within the meaning of the holding Act"! Whereas, to misfire one's intended tone-producing impulse upon the key-beds is bound to be tragically unmusical. See Additional Note XII, "On Key-bedding."
注意。-我将这种音调产生力的错误定时称为“键盘”。然而,如果您故意在“键盘”上施加一些轻微的力量,以便确保您正在按住那些按键,那就不构成“在法案意义上的键盘”!而将意图的音调产生冲动误击在键盘上,必然会导致悲剧性的不音乐。请参阅附注十二,“关于键盘”。

Agility and Accuracy of Tone-making:
音色的敏捷性和准确性:

  1. Agility, to be attained with ease, also implies accuracy in tone-Atmong in this sense. Each Key-moving impulse must be delivered accurately before it is too late to produce the intended key-motion (and tone), else your fingers, hand and arm, will become mechanically locked against the key-beds, and will thus not only ruin all musicality, but will also inevitably hamper all ease in your progression across the key-board - or so-called "Agility." Agility, therefore, depends upon rhythmical accuracy in this respect. In short, Agility is a rhythmical act!
    灵活性,要轻松获得,也意味着在这种意义上的音准准确-Atmong。每个按键移动的冲动必须在产生预期的按键动作(和音调)之前准确传递,否则你的手指、手和手臂将机械地锁定在按键上,不仅会破坏所有的音乐性,而且必然会阻碍你在键盘上的进展中的所有轻松-或所谓的“灵活性”。因此,灵活性取决于在这方面的节奏准确性。简而言之,灵活性是一种节奏行为!
NotE. - Hence the benefit derived from practising Agility-passages staccatissimo at a slow tempo - provided your staccato is properly produced! - with hand lying loosely on Key-surface, between each note-sounding.
NotE. - 因此,通过以慢速度练习敏捷通道的 staccatissimo,可以获得好处-前提是您的 staccato 得到正确产生!-手松散地放在键面上,在每个音符发声之间。

Chapter  

  1. Clearly, you cannot make real music unless you can, at will, produce the precise degree and kind of intended tone - at the precise moment it is musically due.
    显然,除非你能够随心所欲地在音乐应有的时刻产生精确的音调程度和类型,否则你无法创作出真正的音乐。
  2. Successfully to obtain the requisite tone, thus musically demanded for each note, you must accurately apply the right degree of force required for each key-descent.
    成功地获得所需的音调,从而在音乐上为每个音符所需,您必须准确地施加每个按键下降所需的正确力度。
  3. The only way to achieve certainty in this respect is by actually sensing the varying resistance the key itself offers during descent.
    在这方面获得确定性的唯一方法是实际感受到按键在下降过程中提供的不同阻力。

The Work-sense: 工作感:

  1. This gauging of key-resistance is attained by the application of your Muscular-sense, or Work-sense.
    通过您的肌肉感觉或工作感觉来衡量关键阻力。
Nore. - This is not merely a touch or contact-sense, but a sensation mainly
Nore. - 这不仅仅是触觉或接触感,而是主要的感觉。
Same degree of 同等程度
Energy required for loud and soft notes, but feels different
大音符和小音符所需的能量不同,但感觉也不同
derived from work being done by our muscles; wherefore, the
源自我们的肌肉所做的工作;因此,
American psychologists call this the "Kinæsthetic" sense, and
美国心理学家称之为“动觉”感
include in this not only true muscular-sensation, but also the sensations caused by tension of the tendons, and the pressure or tension within the joints themselves. See Edward Bradford Tichener: A Beginner's Psychology (Macmillan), page 45, etc.
在其中包括真正的肌肉感觉,还有由肌腱紧张引起的感觉,以及关节内部的压力或紧张感。参见爱德华·布拉德福德·提奇纳:《初学者心理学》(麦克米兰),第 45 页等。
Note also, that it always takes precisely the same amount of force whether you move the key slowly or quickly, just as it takes the same amount of force whether you walk or run upstairs, etc. But to move the key quickly the total amount of work has to be concentrated during a shorter space of time, hence our muscles feel the strain more severely the quicker the work is done, and it is this difference in the resulting muscular-sensation of which we can become aware, if we attend to the key as we should, through our muscular-sense, Key-resistance-sense, or in short "Key-sense."
请注意,无论您是慢慢还是快速移动钥匙,都需要完全相同的力量,就像上楼梯时无论您走路还是跑步都需要相同的力量一样。但是,为了快速移动钥匙,总的工作量必须在更短的时间内集中进行,因此我们的肌肉在工作速度越快时感受到的压力就越大,这种肌肉感受的差异是我们可以意识到的,如果我们像应该那样通过我们的肌肉感觉、钥匙阻力感觉或简称“钥匙感觉”来关注钥匙。
The phlegmatic servant, in cleaning a room, spends the same total amount of energy as the more energetic one; but the latter does the work in double-quick Time! He spends less Time, but he has to concentrate more vitality for the shorter period!
在打扫房间时,那个冷静的仆人花费的总能量与更有活力的那个相同;但后者的工作速度快了一倍!他花费的时间更少,但必须在较短的时间内集中更多的活力!
Always "feel the Key":
始终“感受音调”:
  1. Unless you thus insist on judging what you are doing during each key-descent, you cannot make Music except by lucky accident. Therefore be sure always to "feel the key."
    除非你坚持在每次按键下降时判断自己在做什么,否则你只能依靠幸运的偶然才能创作音乐。因此,请务必始终“感受按键”。
Nore. - Moreover, this necessity quite puts out of court any system of Teaching founded on such flagrant misconceptions as Key-striking or hitting; since this would preclude judging the key's needs.
此外,这种必要性完全排除了任何建立在如此严重误解之上的教学体系,比如按键击打或敲击;因为这将排除判断键的需求。
The swing-down to the key is always a comparatively slow process, but the movement with the key may on the contrary be a very swift one. This is a distinction not realizable through the eye, to which the correct action may seem like a blow. Hence arose, in days gone by, all that fallacious teaching of "leystriking."
摇摆到键总是一个相对缓慢的过程,但与键的运动恰恰可能非常迅速。这是一种通过眼睛无法实现的区别,正确的动作可能看起来像一击。因此,往昔所有那些错误的“击键”教学就产生了。

Key-attention is Dual: 关键关注是双重的:

  1. You will now realize, that Key-attention (or Technicalattention) is a dual form of attention: -
    您现在会意识到,关键关注(或技术关注)是一种双重形式的关注:-
(a) You must feel the key, so as to supply the requisite force to move it with properly graduated acceleration; and
(a) 你必须感受到音调,以便提供必要的力量,以适当的递增加速度移动它;和
(b) You must listen for the beginning of each sound, so that you may successfully time and apply the force before it is too late in key-descent - a rhythmical act.
(b)您必须倾听每个声音的开始,这样您才能成功地在按键下降之前及时施加力量 - 这是一个有节奏的行为。

Key-sense and Music-sense inseparable:
关键感和音乐感不可分割:

  1. Now you cannot choose this requisite force, nor time it, unless you have each note in your mind as a purposed musical wish. It is therefore only through this form of attention attention to Music through the Plano-key for every note - that you can successfully forge the Bond or connection between each spiritually-conceived musical effect, and its material realization through the Piano-key.
    现在你不能选择这种必要的力量,也不能控制时间,除非你把每个音符都当作一个旨在实现的音乐愿望记在心里。因此,只有通过对音乐的关注,通过钢琴键为每个音符 - 你才能成功地铸造每个精神构想的音乐效果与其通过钢琴键的物质实现之间的联系或连接。
"SENSIng the KeY" is the main factor towards expressing what you musically feel. There never has been any musical playing without its conscious or subconscious intervention.
“感知关键”是表达你在音乐上所感受的主要因素。从来没有任何音乐演奏是在没有它的意识或潜意识干预下进行的。

Chapter IV 第四章

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
生理问题

  • and how to use finger, hand and arm.
    如何使用手指、手和手臂。
  1. Preamble: (a) Technically to play well, necessarily implies the power to provide the correct limb-actions and inactions muscularly, and their being accurately timed with the Key.
    序言:(a)从技术上讲,演奏得好必然意味着能够正确地提供肢体动作和肌肉动作的力量,并且能够准确地与键盘的节奏配合。
(b) The problem is, how to bring such knowledge of correct doing within the learner's ken. Here, at the very outset, we are faced with formidable difficulties, for we must successfully analyse correct Doing muscularly, and discover its true principles.
问题在于,如何将正确做事的知识带入学习者的视野。在这里,我们在最初阶段就面临着巨大的困难,因为我们必须成功地肌肉地分析正确的做事,并发现其真正的原则。
(c) In the past, it was sought to accomplish such Diagnosis of Touch (or Technique) by carefully observing the movements exhibited by successful players. Unfortunately, this method is not only very precarious, but is often quite misleading, since the movements which accompany touch give but little (or even illusionary and misleading) indication of those hidden and invisible stresses - exertions and relaxations of limb, which are the real CAUSE of the desirable and undesirable effects. Correct movements are therefore no guarantee whatever that the correct actions are being provided. Moreover, quite unusual movements may accompany quite correct actions!
在过去,人们曾试图通过仔细观察成功选手展示的动作来实现对触感(或技术)的诊断。 不幸的是,这种方法不仅非常不稳定,而且经常会产生误导,因为伴随触感的动作很少(甚至是虚假和误导性的)提示那些隐藏的、看不见的肢体应力 - 用力和放松,这些才是令人期待和不期待效果的真正原因。因此,正确的动作并不能保证正确的行为正在提供。此外,非常不寻常的动作可能伴随着完全正确的行为!
Nors. - For instance, in playing a note or chord with singing tone, you may approach the keyboard quite wrongly - with a visible forward movement of arm Eye, the de- and elbow, and may yet reverse all this during the subsequent ceiver moment of key-depression; to the eye this will seem wrong, and yet to the ear it will sound acceptable! Or, vice versa, you may allow arm and wrist apparently to lapse quite nicely, sympathetically, towards the key, and you may yet, while actually moving the key, invisibly deliver a nasty, tone-destroying dig! The ear will be shocked, but to the eye it will seem quite in order!
Nors. - 例如,在演奏带有歌唱音色的音符或和弦时,您可能会以明显的前臂和手肘向前移动的方式错误地接近键盘,但在随后按下键时可能会完全扭转这一过程;在眼中,这看起来是错误的,但对耳朵来说却是可以接受的!或者,反过来,您可能会让手臂和手腕明显地向键盘倾斜,令人感到悲伤,然而在实际移动键时,却不可见地发出令人不快的、破坏音质的音符!耳朵会感到震惊,但在眼中看来却似乎是正确的!
In short: Touch cannot be analysed by the eye.
简而言之:触摸不能被眼睛分析。
Limb-Knowledge is required, not Muscle-Knowledge:
肢体知识是必需的,而非肌肉知识:
(d) Of late it has been essayed to help the student totally from the opposite side, by trying to instruct him as to the precise locality and nomenclature of the muscles employed. This is even a more precarious and misleading method than the last, and is in fact not only futile, but likely to prove seriously harmful to the learner. The anatomical road, moreover, is impracticable, and useless (so far as learning and teaching are concerned) for the two following cogent and quite insuperable reasons: -
最近,有人尝试从完全相反的角度帮助学生,试图教导学生使用的肌肉的确切位置和名称。这种方法甚至比上一种更不稳定和误导,实际上不仅是徒劳的,而且可能对学习者造成严重伤害。 此外,解剖学的方法是不切实际和无用的(就学习和教学而言),原因有两个,且无法克服:-
( I. It is physiologically and psychologically impossible for us directly to provoke or prompt any particular muscle into activity by any act of thinking of it, or wishing or willing it, no matter how concentrated our effort. Muscles can only be provoked into action INDIRECTLY, by our willing a particular limb-exertion or movement.
(一)从生理和心理上讲,我们无法通过思考、希望或意愿来直接激活或促使任何特定肌肉活动,无论我们的努力有多么集中。肌肉只能通过我们意愿进行特定肢体运动或动作来间接激活。
II. The muscular processes needed for many quite simple actions are so complex as to be practically unthinkable, even if we could separately prompt the required muscles into action - which we cannot do.
II. 对于许多相当简单的动作所需的肌肉过程是如此复杂,以至于几乎无法想象,即使我们可以单独促使所需的肌肉行动 - 这是不可能的。

Correct limb-stresses can be learnt:
正确的肢体应力可以学会:

(e) What we must know, and can know, is what particular stresses and relaxations are required of the various portions of our playing-limb - which parts of the limb to exert and which to leave passive. This knowledge is attainable, and is immediately and directly helpful. Such knowledge, however, cannot be got at from without, neither from eye-evidence nor from
(e) 我们必须知道并且可以知道的是,我们演奏肢体的各个部分需要什么样的压力和放松 - 要用哪些部分的肢体施加力量,哪些部分保持被动。这种知识是可以获得的,并且立即直接有帮助。然而,这种知识无法从外部获得,无论是从眼睛证据还是从
See preface on this point, also Additional Note XI, "Useful and Useless Anatomy-teaching."
请参阅这一点的前言,还有附注 XI,“有用和无用的解剖教学”。
A somewhat urgent warning is here desirable. With the excellent intention of being "thorough" or "gründlich" the folly has recently been committed, de-
这里需要发出一个有点紧急的警告。最近犯了一个愚蠢的错误,出于“彻底”或“彻底”的优良意图。
A Warning liberately to urge (and misinstruct) the unfortunate student to try to think hard of his own muscles; this is advocated under the delusion that he could thereby learn to apply them accurately in playing! As I have just shown, this is bound to lead to disaster.
警告学生刻意地敦促(并误导)不幸的学生努力思考自己的肌肉;这是在错误的观念下提倡的,认为通过这种方式他可以学会准确地运用它们来演奏!正如我刚刚展示的那样,这必然会导致灾难。
See Additional Note XI on this point: "Useful and Useless Anatomy-teaching."
请参阅有关此问题的附注 XI:“有用和无用的解剖教学。”

anatomical conjecture. 解剖学推测。
It can only be obtained through analysis from within - by analysis of the sensations experienced while actually producing the right effects, and in no other way. Only by the sensations thus experienced can we realize what are the limb-conditions that obtain both in good and in bad playing, and by calling-up or recalling such sensations we can then reproduce the effects and can acquire right habits, and can teach others to acquire them. Here, however, we are again faced with a difficulty. Those few gifted ones, who instinctively stumble upon Right Doing, physically, are usually precisely the ones least fitted to help us by self-analysis. The greater their temperamental, emotional and musically-imaginative gifts, the more likely are they to be disinclined, opposed and even resentful towards any exercise of self-analysis, mechanically and physically. Hence we find that these usually prove to be quite bad teachers, technically, in spite of their own well-doing. Nevertheless, it is only a successfully musical player, who has really achieved technical mastery, and is at the same time gifted with powers of analytical and mechanical reasoning (a rare combination) who can possibly supply the needed information; that is, HOW IT FEELS, physically, to play rightly, and also how it feels to play wrongly!
只有通过内部分析才能获得 - 通过分析在实际产生正确效果时经历的感觉,而没有其他方式。只有通过这种感觉才能意识到在好和坏的演奏中都存在的肢体条件是什么,通过召唤或回忆这种感觉,我们才能重现效果,养成正确的习惯,并教导他人养成这些习惯。然而,在这里,我们再次面临困难。那些少数本能地偶然发现正确行为的人,在身体上通常恰恰是最不适合通过自我分析来帮助我们的人。他们的气质、情感和音乐想象力越强,他们就越不愿意、反对甚至对任何机械和身体上的自我分析感到愤恨。因此,我们发现这些人通常在技术上证明是相当糟糕的老师,尽管他们自己做得很好。 然而,只有真正掌握了技术,同时又具有分析和机械推理能力(一种罕见的组合)的成功音乐家才可能提供所需的信息;也就是说,正确演奏的感觉是怎样的,以及错误演奏的感觉是怎样的!
It was by this method of self-analysis and synthesis that The Act of Touch was produced in 1903; and Time has proved that its general principles of technical teaching were founded on the right lines.
正是通过自我分析和综合的方法,1903 年创作了《触摸的行为》;时间证明,它的技术教学的一般原则确实是建立在正确的基础上的。
Now to come to details: -
现在来谈细节:-

Technique is mental: 技术是心理:

  1. As already noted, you cannot teach your limbs or your muscles to act. All you can do is teach your mind to direct the required limb-conditions of activity and inactivity.
    正如已经指出的,你无法教会你的肢体或肌肉去行动。你能做的只是教会你的头脑指挥所需的肢体活动和静止条件。
Nore. - There is no such thing as "muscular habit" । It is always mental habit - located either in the brain itself or in its subsidiary automatic centres.
Nore. - 没有所谓的“肌肉习惯”。它总是精神习惯 - 无论是位于大脑本身还是其附属的自动中心。
  1. The first important thing to learn physically (i.e. mentally) is to supply solely the required exertions, without interference from any undesirable ones.
    学习身体上的第一要点(即精神上)是仅提供必要的努力,不受任何不必要的干扰。

The meaning of Stiffness:
僵硬的含义:

  1. If we allow the opposite exertions to be provoked into action along with the required ones, then we experience "stiffness" - a tug-of-war - within the limb, or portion of it.
    如果我们允许相反的努力与所需的努力一起被激发出来,那么我们会经历“僵硬” - 在肢体内或部分肢体内发生一场拉锯战。
Note. - If the two antagonistic exertions are precisely equal, then nothing happens visibly, but you can feel the tense struggle if you are observant, and your audience will certainly hear it - if they are musical. If the two exertions, however, are not quite of equal intensity, then some action or movement may result, but it will be constrained. And any such "stiffess" will preclude our attaining any accuracy in tone, or ease in performance; therefore it must be carefully guarded against.
注意。- 如果两种对立的努力恰好相等,那么在视觉上不会发生任何事情,但如果你细心观察,你会感觉到紧张的斗争,而你的观众肯定会听到 - 如果他们懂音乐的话。然而,如果这两种努力的强度不完全相等,那么可能会产生一些动作或运动,但会受到限制。任何这种“僵硬”都会妨碍我们在音调准确性或演奏轻松性方面的达到,因此必须小心防范。
  1. Now remember, as already pointed out under , you cannot directly will, prompt or think any muscle into action; you can only induce the exertion of a muscle by willing the required exertion of a limb or portion of it.
    现在记住,正如在 下已经指出的那样,你不能直接通过意志、提示或思考来使任何肌肉活动;你只能通过意志要求肢体或部分肢体的必要活动来引起肌肉的发力。
  2. If you try directly to actuate a muscle, you will only petrify yourself and lose all control, for you are taking your mind away from the only road open to you, and that is to concentrate upon the limb-action itself - in strict association with the musical effect needed from that particular Piano-key at that particular moment.
    如果你直接试图激活肌肉,你只会让自己僵硬并失去所有控制,因为你把注意力从唯一对你开放的道路上移开,那就是专注于肢体动作本身 - 与那一刻特定钢琴键所需的音乐效果紧密关联。
Nore. - In short, as already indicated, you must be able to recall the sensation accompanying the correct exertion or movement of the limb. And to acquire such sensations of Right Doing, you must experiment, guided by information such as here given you.
Nore. - 简而言之,正如已经指出的,你必须能够回忆起伴随着肢体正确发力或运动的感觉。要获得这种正确行动的感觉,你必须进行实验,根据这里提供的信息来引导。

Never hit a Key down:
永远不要按下一个键:

  1. The muscular process of sounding a note at the Piano is, however, by no means the simple thing it seems to the eye.
    在钢琴上发声的肌肉过程,然而,并不像看起来那样简单。
  2. To begin with, it should never be in the nature of a blow upon the key, however much it may look like that. It never is in good playing, although the player himself may imagine that he is hitting the notes down.
    首先,它绝不应该是对键盘的打击,无论看起来多么像。在好的演奏中从来不是这样,尽管演奏者自己可能认为他是在按下音符。
  3. Always realize, that the action of moving to a key and the action of subsequently moving with that key during its descent, should always be two quite distinct things.
    永远要意识到,移动到一个音调的动作和随后随着该音调下降而移动的动作,应该始终是两件完全不同的事情。

Make tone with the Key:
用主音调弹奏:

  1. You may reach the key either by a movement of the Arm, Hand or Finger, but whichever you employ, and however swift the movement may seem to the eye, the true tone-producing action is not applied until after you reach the key - if you play rightly.
    你可以通过手臂、手或手指的移动来触及琴键,但无论你使用哪种方式,无论动作看起来多么迅速,真正产生音调的动作直到你触及琴键后才被应用——如果你演奏正确的话。
  2. Tone-production is always in the nature of a "follow-on" pressure upon the key after it is reached, and during key-depression. This tone-producing pressure must increase in intensity during key-descent. Yet it becomes useless (so far as tone-production is concerned) the moment the key is down, and it should therefore be ceased forthwith.
    音色的产生总是在按键到达后以及按键下压期间的一种“跟随”压力的自然表现。这种产生音色的压力在按键下降过程中必须增加强度。然而,一旦按键按下,这种产生音色的压力就变得无用(就音色产生而言),因此应立即停止。
  3. So-called "Finger-touch" may appear to the eye as if the fingers were used "like little hammers" (the "hammerette" action of the old German Schools), but in reality, with a good player, there never is any such real knocking action.
    所谓的“指尖触键”可能在视觉上看起来就像手指被用作“小锤子”(古老德国学派的“小锤”动作),但实际上,对于一个优秀的演奏者来说,从来没有这样真正的敲击动作。
  4. To the eye, the finger of a good player may seem to descend upon the key fairly swiftly, but its exertion upon the key (and with it during its descent) is always a thing added after contact.
    对于观察者来说,一位优秀演奏者的手指可能看起来迅速地落在琴键上,但它对琴键的施加(以及在落下过程中)总是在接触之后添加的事物。

To strike a Key down precludes sense of its needs:
按下一个键会排除它的需求感

  1. Clearly, if you really knock a key down, this will inevitably prevent your playing musically, since it precludes your judging how much force is required for the colouring of each note, and precludes your giving that due acceleration of the key during descent necessary for good Touch.
    显然,如果你真的按下一个键,这将不可避免地阻止你演奏音乐,因为这会妨碍你判断每个音符需要多少力量上色,并阻止你在下降过程中给予按键适当的加速,这对于良好的触感是必要的。
Notr. - Even a good typist does not really knock the keys down, although it may seem like that to her, and there is no actual tone to spoil in this case!
Notr. - 即使一个优秀的打字员并不是真的敲击键盘,尽管对她来说可能看起来是这样,而在这种情况下也没有实际的音调可以破坏!

Exertion required of the Finger:
手指需要的努力:

  1. Obviously, it is by means of the Finger-tip that you must depress the Key into sound. Also it is obvious that your finger must therefore be exerted during the moment of key-depression.
    显然,你必须通过指尖按下琴键发出声音。同时,显然在按下琴键的瞬间你的手指必须施加力量。
Nore. - Unless you play with your closed fist, as I recommend should be your first step at the Piano.
Nore. - 除非你用握拳的方式演奏,就像我建议的那样,这应该是你在钢琴上的第一步。
  1. Moreover, there is practically no such thing as tone-production solely by exertion of the finger. It must always be Finger-exertion plus hand and arm, in some form or other.
    此外,几乎没有仅通过手指的用力来产生音调的情况。它必须始终是手指的用力加上手和臂的配合,以某种形式存在。
Nore. - Theoretically, finger-exertion, alone, is a possibility, as I showed in The Act of Touch; and Finger-exertion, with loose-lying hand, may suffice to hold a note down once it is sounded; but in actual practice it does not suffice to sound notes with certainty (even in the softest passage) on our modern Pianoforte, whatever may have been the case in the old Clavichord days. But we are here learning to play the Pianoforte, nor the Clavichord.
Nore. - 从理论上讲,仅凭手指的用力是可能的,正如我在《触摸的行为》中所展示的;而手指用力,配合松散的手,可能足以在音响后将音符按住;但在实际练习中,即使在现代钢琴上(即使是在最轻柔的乐段中),这并不足以确保音符的发声,无论在古老的键琴时代可能是怎样。但我们在这里学习的是弹奏钢琴,而不是键琴。

The distinction between Exertion and Movement:
Exertion 和 Movement 之间的区别:

  1. Now, do not confuse Exertion and Movement of a limb as meaning the same thing. They are two quite distinct facts. It is possible to obtain a movement without exertion, as you do when you let the hand or arm fall of their own "weight; but, on the other hand, you may make an exertion without showing any corresponding outward movement, as you do when you firmly hold something in your hand - maybe quite a considerable exertion - and yet nothing is revealed visibly.
    现在,不要混淆肢体的运动和运动的意思。它们是两个完全不同的事实。有可能在没有努力的情况下获得运动,就像当你让手或手臂因自身的“重量”而下垂时一样;但另一方面,你可能会做出努力,却没有显示任何相应的外在运动,就像当你紧握手中的东西时所做的那样 - 也许是相当大的努力 - 但什么也没有在外表上显露出来。
Note. - As already pointed out, most of the exertions and relaxations required in playing are not revealed by corresponding movements - they are invisible. Movement . Hence have arisen so many false theories on Touch. For instance, muscular the old fallacy of "Pure Finger Touch" arose from the foolish condition attempt to diagnose the process of playing by observation of the finger-movements exhibited during performance.
注意。-正如已经指出的,大部分演奏中需要的用力和放松并不是通过相应的动作来展示的-它们是看不见的。动作 。因此,关于触感出现了许多错误理论。例如,肌肉老掉牙的“纯指尖触感”错误理论是由愚蠢的条件尝试通过观察演奏过程中展示的手指动作来诊断演奏过程而产生的。
Whereas, as we have seen, movement gives hardly any indication whatever of what really does happen - no indication whatsoever of those constant changes in muscular exertion and relaxation of a limb (unaccompanied and undisclosed by movement), which conditions or states of limb form the true Cause of all Technique, whether of the past, present or future. It is essential to master this fact at the very beginning. See Additional Note, No. X: "The Pure Finger-work Myth."
然而,正如我们所看到的,运动几乎没有任何迹象表明真正发生的事情 - 没有任何迹象表明肢体肌肉用力和放松的持续变化(不伴随运动和不透露运动),这些变化构成了所有技术的真正原因,无论是过去、现在还是未来。在最开始就掌握这个事实是至关重要的。请参阅附加说明,编号 X:“纯指法神话”。
As an example: when you play a forte chord with what looks like (but is not) a fall of your whole arm, the fingers seem to be passive, whereas, as a matter of fact, when your finger-tips touch the keys the fingers must be exerted (maybe quite violently) during the moment of key-depression, - and the hand also! Unless they are thus exerted there will be no chord! Yet nothing is seen of this necessary exertion of the finger (and hand) during the moment of key-depression, therefore, it is often overlooked and not supplied; and then the chord playing, or singingpassage, sounds "flabby." Hence, also, have arisen those stupid criticisms from some quarters, that "relaxation and Weight-touch, etc., lead to flabby playing!" Indeed, if you attempt to use your fingers in playing without due help from the arm (as other obtuse ones would recommend) then, indeed, your tone will certainly be "flabby," more flabby in fact than when you spoil your "Weight-louch" by not giving correspondingly adequate finger-and-hand exertions! It is therefore of extreme importance that you understand this radical distinction between Condition and Movement - the condition of your finger, hand and arm during the action of Touch, and the movements tuat may optionally accompany such changes of Condition muscularly - and most of these last are quite invisible.
举个例子:当你弹奏一个强音和弦时,看起来像是(但实际上并不是)整个手臂下降,手指似乎是被动的,然而,事实上,当你的指尖触碰键时,手指必须在按键的瞬间施加力量(可能相当激烈),手也是如此!除非它们被这样施加力量,否则就不会有和弦!然而,在按键的瞬间,看不到手指(和手)这种必要的施加力量,因此,它经常被忽视并未提供;然后和弦演奏或演唱段落听起来“松弛”。因此,也因此,一些地方出现了愚蠢的批评,声称“放松和重力触感等会导致松弛的演奏!”确实,如果你尝试在演奏中不得到手臂的适当帮助(就像其他愚钝的人会建议的那样),那么,你的音色肯定会“松弛”,事实上比你没有给予相应充分的手指和手部努力时更松弛! 因此,您理解“状态”和“动作”之间的根本区别至关重要 - 在触摸动作期间,手指、手和手臂的状态,以及可能伴随这些状态变化的肌肉运动 - 大多数这些运动是完全看不见的。
Until this distinction is clearly grasped, you cannot hope to form any rational idea whatever, of the processes (or rationale) of Touch or Technique.
直到这个区别被清楚地把握住,你才能希望形成任何理性的想法,无论是关于触觉还是技巧的过程(或基本原理)。

Action and Reaction: 行动与反应:

  1. It is now necessary to realize that Action and Reaction are always equal. Thus, when you exert your finger-tip against the key dowewards, there is an equal reaction (or recoil) at the other end of that finger-lever, upwards therefore at the knuckle. This invisible reaction or recoil upwards at the knuckle must again be countered at the knuckle by supplying a sufficiently stable Basis (or foundation) there for the desired action of the finger.
    现在有必要意识到,行动和反作用力总是相等的。因此,当你用手指尖向下按键时,手指杠杆的另一端会有相等的反作用力(或反冲),因此在指关节处向上。指关节处的这种看不见的反作用力或反冲必须再次在指关节处通过提供足够稳定的基础来抵消,以便手指的所需动作。
In short, the exerted finger needs a Basis at the knuckle-joint, equal to the force to be exerted against the Key.
简而言之,用力的手指需要在指关节处有一个基础,这个基础要与按键施加的力相等。
Nore. - This necessity of a firm basis for every action was instinctively felt even by some of the older pedagogues; unfortunately they were quite vague and unclear as to what it meant physiologically; hence arose their mistaken idea of "Fixation" - fixation of the joints during the moment of touch! A terrible mistake, leading to a paralyzing stiffening of the whole limb, unhappily copied by some recent authors. True, such Basis or Foundation must certainly be rendered stable and immobile during the moment of Touch, but it failed to occur to these writers that this stable condition can only be achieved by supplying an invisible stress from the next-door portion of the limb behind the joint or hinge in question!
Nore. - 即使是一些年长的教育家也本能地感到每一项行动都需要坚实基础的必要性;不幸的是,他们对于生理上的意义相当模糊和不清楚;因此,他们产生了错误的“固定”概念 - 在触摸瞬间固定关节!这是一个可怕的错误,导致整个肢体僵硬,不幸地被一些近期的作者效仿。的确,这样的基础或根基在触摸瞬间必须确实保持稳定和不动,但这些作家没有意识到,这种稳定状态只能通过从问题关节或铰链后面的邻近部位提供看不见的应力来实现!

Hand-exertion the Basis for the Finger:
手部运动是手指的基础

  1. This Basis for the Finger should be provided at the right moment by a downward exertion of the Hand - at the knuckle-
    手指的基础应该在适当的时候通过手的向下用力-在指关节处-提供

    joint. This exertion of the hand must be precisely timed along with the exertion of the finger itself, during the moment of keydepression. Realize again, that no movement of the hand need be visible - however marked the exertion of it "behind" the finger.
    关节。手部的用力必须与手指本身的用力精确配合,即在按键的瞬间。再次意识到,手部的任何动作都不需要可见 - 无论手部的用力有多明显“在”手指之后。
  2. Again in turn, the Hand also needs its own proper Basis during the moment of tone-production, else the wrist-joint will be driven-up by reaction or recoil, and Power and accuracy of tonal-result again lost.
    再次,手在音调产生的时刻也需要自己适当的基础,否则腕关节会被反作用或回弹推起,音调结果的力量和准确性再次丧失。

Arm as Basis for Hand-exertion:
手臂作为手部运动的基础:

  1. Now, at last, the Basis for this hand-exertion, must be provided by the Arm itself, in one of the six forms to be described in the next Chapter.
    现在,最后,这种手的努力的基础必须由手臂本身提供,在下一章中将描述其中的六种形式之一。
  2. Thus we see that the Playing Apparatus roughly consists of Four Components - of four Living Levers: -
    因此,我们看到演奏装置大致由四个组件组成 - 四个活动杠杆: -
We must now consider all these four Components or Elements of Touch in further detail.
我们现在必须进一步详细考虑触觉的这四个组成部分或元素。
1 Some little while ago an absurd controversy was raised on this point. The writer contended that "The Act of Touch" was inaccurate in thus speaking of these four "living levers." He contended that they could not be levers! That a lever must have a "fixed fulcrum," whereas my "supposed" levers could not be "levers" because the fulcrums were movable! For my reply to this quibble on words see Additional Note XIV. Wonderful, how some people only seem to think in words, instead of the facts the words stand for!
1 有一段时间以前,关于这一点引发了一场荒谬的争论。作者认为,“触摸的行为”在这样谈论这四个“活动杠杆”时是不准确的。他认为它们不能是杠杆!杠杆必须有一个“固定的支点”,而我的“假设”的杠杆不能是“杠杆”,因为支点是可移动的!关于我对这个词句上的吹毛求疵的回复,请参见附注 XIV。多么奇妙,有些人似乎只会用言辞思考,而不是言辞所代表的事实!

Chapter  

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL DETAILS
生理细节

A. The FINGER and how to use it:
A. 手指及其使用方法:

  1. The finger-tip is exerted downwards with the key during its moment of descent. The finger must not hit the key down; it must reach the key quite gently, but must then be exerted more or less forcibly, as needed by the tone.
    手指在琴键下降的时候向下用力。手指不能猛击琴键,必须轻轻触碰琴键,然后根据音调的需要施加或多或少的力。

The two distinct modes of Finger-use:
指法的两种独特模式:

  1. One can bring the finger to the key and exert it with the key during descent, in two quite distinct ways or directions: -
    一个人可以在下降时用手指触碰琴键,并以两种完全不同的方式或方向施加力量:-
(a) One can use it in a folding-in direction, as in everyday life, when grasping anything. It is the best and should be the most usual action at the Piano; or
(a)可以在折叠方向上使用它,就像在日常生活中抓住任何东西一样。这是钢琴上最好的,也应该是最常见的动作;或
(b) One can use it in the opposite direction, as an unfolding or opening-out of the finger. One sometimes uses the middle finger like that, for instance when playing at marbles!
(b)可以反过来使用,作为手指的展开或打开。有时候人们会这样使用中指,比如在玩弹珠时!
The condition of the upper-arm differs in sympathy with these two quite distinct finger-activities, as we shall see later.
上臂的状况会随着这两种完全不同的手指活动而有所不同,我们稍后会看到。
This difference in the direction or mode of the finger-action and exertion (which may be invisible) becomes visible when you play with ample preliminary movements to the key - that is, with a considerable preliminary raising of the fingers.
这种手指动作和用力的方向或方式的差异(可能是看不见的)在你进行充分的预备动作到键盘时变得明显,也就是说,手指预备抬起幅度相当大时。
In this case you will see that with ) (the "clinging" fingeraction) the finger when raised, is in a somewhat flattened-out position, and that it folds in when descending towards and with the key. Whereas with ) (the "thrusting" finger-action) the finger when raised, is considerably bent, or even fully bent into an arch, and in this case the finger opens out when descending towards and with the key. This last has also been termed "bent finger" action, while the other has been called "flat finger." Nevertheless, this "flat" finger may be quite curved when it is down with the key - in fact, may then be as much curved as in "bent finger" technique. See photos of these two finger-actions, given in the EPITOME, facing page 35 .
在这种情况下,您会看到,使用 )(“抓握”手指动作)时,手指抬起时处于略微扁平的位置,并且在朝向和与键盘一起下降时折叠。而使用 )(“推进”手指动作)时,手指抬起时弯曲程度较大,甚至完全弯曲成拱形,在这种情况下,手指在朝向和与键盘一起下降时打开。最后一种也被称为“弯曲手指”动作,而另一种被称为“扁平手指”。然而,当手指与键盘接触时,“扁平”手指可能会相当弯曲-事实上,在这种情况下,手指可能会像“弯曲手指”技术中那样弯曲。请参阅这两种手指动作的照片,位于 EPITOME 中,面向第 35 页。

The two ways of Finger-use, muscularly:
指法的两种方式,肌肉上:

  1. Most important of all is the fact that both these movements or exertions of the finger ("bent" or "flat") can be provided in two quite distinct ways musculardy. That is, you can produce the action of the finger either by: -
    最重要的是,这两种手指的运动或用力(“弯曲”或“平坦”)可以通过两种完全不同的肌肉方式提供。也就是说,您可以通过以下两种方式之一来产生手指的动作:-
  2. Exertion of its "small" (or weak) muscles only; or,
    仅仅发挥其“小”(或弱)肌肉;或,
  3. Exertion also of its "strong" (or large) muscles.
    其“强壮”(或大)肌肉的发力。
Now the "small" flexing muscles of the finger (the lumbricales) are situated on the inside of the hand, whereas its "strong" flexing muscles are situated on the forearm. To make this clear to you as sensation, try the following experiment: -
现在,“小”屈肌(腱肌)位于手的内侧,而“强大”的屈肌位于前臂。为了让您清楚地感受到这一点,请尝试以下实验:-
(a) Rest very lightly on a table with all five fingers and a loose-lying hand. Now repeatedly tap the table quite lightly with one finger only - and you will find, (provided you do this lightly enough) that you are now using only the "small" muscles of the finger - you feel no action beyond the Knuckle.
(a)用五指和松散的手轻轻地放在桌子上。现在只用一根手指轻轻地反复敲击桌子 - 你会发现,(只要你轻轻地做到这一点)你现在只使用手指的“小”肌肉 - 你感觉不到除了指关节以外的任何动作。
(b) Now, instead, press considerably upon the table with the same finger, and notice the marked reaction at the Wristjoint, and at the Knuckle also, which is almost driven up by it; you are now using the "strong" muscles of the finger, and you can feel a momentary tension on the under side of the wrist.
(b)现在,相反,用同一根手指在桌子上施加相当大的压力,注意手腕关节和指关节的明显反应,指关节几乎被推起;现在你正在使用手指的“强大”肌肉,你可以感受到手腕下方短暂的紧张感。
It is this second way of exerting the finger which you must employ in sounding the notes; whereas the first way suffices to hold
这是你必须在演奏音符时采用的第二种用手指的方式;而第一种方式足以保持

notes down once they are sounded. See of this Chapter, on the discoveries of the late John Hunter on this point.
一旦发出声音,就会记录下来。请参阅本章的 ,关于已故约翰·亨特在这一点上的发现。
Whenever you find your finger-passages "out of form," recall this experiment.
每当你发现你的手指技巧“失灵”时,请回想这个实验。

The second way of Finger-use needs Hand-exertion.
使用手指的第二种方式需要手部用力。

When the finger is exerted in the second way (by its strong muscles), this demands a down-exertion of the hand each time the finger is used, as will be explained presently. Both ways also demand accurate adjustment of the Forearm Rotational-stress, as, you will also realize later on.
当手指以第二种方式(由其强大的肌肉)施加压力时,每次使用手指都需要向下施加手的压力,这将很快解释。两种方式都需要准确调整前臂旋转应力,您以后也会意识到。

B. The HAND and how to use it:
B. 手部及其使用方法:

  1. To enable the finger to do its work efficiently with the key (as just indicated), you must exert the hand downwards upon it, each time momentarily and individually with each finger, during the moment of Key-descent, so as to form a stable Basis or Foundation for its action.
    为了让手指能够有效地与琴键配合(正如刚才所指示的),你必须在琴键下压手,每次在琴键下降的瞬间,用每个手指分别施加力量,以形成稳定的基础,为其行动打下基础。
Note. - To talk of "Anchorages" or "Fixations" in this connection, is only a vague and misleading way of stating the plain fact, that a certain portion of our playing-limb must either be (invisibly) exerted or left lax, so as to form a stable and secure Foundation or Basis for the exertion or movement of other portions.
注意。-在这种情况下谈论“锚地”或“固定”只是一种模糊和误导性的陈述方式,明显事实是,我们的某一部分运动肢体必须要么(看不见地)施加力量,要么保持松弛,以便为其他部分的运动或活动形成稳定和安全的基础。
Definite statements are here needed: as to which portions of a limb to leave passive or supported, and which to exert. That alone will help us. Whereas, merely to name the point (or joint or hinge) where the limb must be immobile during the act of touch, does not in the least inform us how to produce such immobility (or "Anchorage" or "Fixation") or stable Foundation from which to exert our limb effectively. We are not in the least instructed what to do, nor what not to do, by being directed to render immobile (for the moment) certain of our bodily hinges!
明确的陈述在这里是必要的:关于哪些部分的肢体应该 passively 或者得到支撑,哪些部分应该施加力量。仅仅命名肢体在触摸过程中必须保持静止的点(或关节或铰链),并没有告诉我们如何产生这种静止(或“锚定”或“固定点”)或者稳定的基础,以便有效地施加我们的肢体。我们并没有被告知该做什么,也没有被告知不该做什么,只是被指示在某一时刻使我们身体的某些铰链保持静止!
To be told to render such and such a bodily-hinge immobile, or set, or "fexed" or "anchored," can only lead to stiffress, and general technical incapacity.
被告知要使某个身体铰链固定、设置、"弯曲"或"锚定",只会导致僵硬和整体技术无能。
The term "Fixation" should therefore be strictly banished from the Pianist's vocabulary. It is incalculably harmful; and "anchorage," though not so evillysuggestive, is little better; while, as pointed out, both are quite uninformative as to the cause of well doing - as to what we have to do to produce such needed Stable Foundations for our work against the key.
因此,“固定”这个术语应该严格从钢琴家的词汇中消除。它是无法计算的有害的;而“锚地”,虽然没有那么邪恶的暗示,但也差不多;正如指出的那样,两者都无法提供关于成功的原因的信息 - 我们需要做些什么来为我们的工作打下这种必要的稳定基础,以对抗琴键。
See also Chapter XIV, "On Nomenclature."
另见第十四章“命名法”。
It is clear that without such help from the hand (visible or invisible) there is no foundation for the finger to work against for you cannot apply the "strong" muscles of the finger (see T 3 and ) without also exerting the hand; and without such hand-help, finger action alone is too uncertain and feeble.
很明显,如果没有手(可见或不可见)的帮助,手指就没有可以施力的基础,因为你不能仅凭手指的“强壮”肌肉(见 T 3 和 )而不用力用手;没有这种手的帮助,仅靠手指动作太不确定且无力。
Also, vice versa, it is obvious that you cannot bring your handforce to bear upon the key, without a corresponding exertion of the intervening finger - visible or invisible as the case may be.
同样,反之亦然,很明显,如果没有相应的中间手指的努力,你就无法将手力施加在琴键上,无论这个手指是可见的还是不可见的。
Note. - Indeed, it would be a great convenience, at the Piano, if we had a separate hand for each finger; much bad technique would be impossible! But as Wo need we only have one hand available for each set of five fingers, so we ten hands must be carefui to use it five times as often as we do the fingers, since that one hand has to do duty, individually, for each one of these five fingers!
注意。- 的确,在钢琴上,如果我们每个手指都有一个单独的手,那将会非常方便;很多不良技术将不可能发生!但由于我们只有一只手可用于每组五个手指,所以我们十只手必须小心使用它,比我们使用手指的次数多五倍,因为这只手必须分别为这五个手指中的每一个提供服务!
Whenever a so-called "finger-passage" is not clear-cut, or powerful enough, always recall the fact that you really need ten hands! The fault is corrected instantly if you correctly apply the hand-force (not Movement!) each time individually for each finger - unless you are holding yourself stiffy rotationally! See I 18, and also Chapter VI, "On Forearm Rotation."
每当所谓的“指法”不够清晰或不够有力时,永远记住你真的需要十只手!如果你每次都正确地为每根手指单独施加手力(而不是运动!),那么错误将立即得到纠正 - 除非你自己在旋转时保持僵硬!参见 I 18,还有第六章,“前臂旋转”。

Finger v. Hand Movement.
手指运动。

  1. Now, with this muscular combination (of Finger-force and Hand-force) you have two optional MovemenTS available.
    现在,有了这种肌肉组合(指力和手力),您有两种可选的移动方式。
(a) A movement of the finger alone - while the exertion of the hand remains invisible, or,
(a)仅手指的运动 - 手的运动是看不见的,或者,
(b) a movement of the hand instead, while the fingerexertion may here remain quite hidden from view.
(b) 或者是手的动作,而手指的运动可能在这里完全隐藏起来。
When the finger provides the movement, this is called "Fingertouch," although the action is here compounded of exertions both of the hand and the finger; the first invisible but the second visible.
当手指提供运动时,这被称为“指尖触摸”,尽管这里的动作是手和手指的共同努力;第一个是看不见的,但第二个是可见的。
Whereas, when the hand provides the actual movement, then it is called "Hand-touch," or in the old days, "Wrist-touch," although the action is here compounded of both finger and hand exertions - the first here invisible, but the second visible.
当手提供实际运动时,这就被称为“手触摸”,或者在旧时代被称为“腕触摸”,尽管这里的动作是由手指和手的努力共同构成的 - 第一个是看不见的,但第二个是可见的。
See Additional Note "The Pure Finger-work Myth."
查看附加说明"The Pure Finger-work Myth"。
See Chapter XIV, "On Nomenclature."
查看第十四章,“关于命名”。
Such difference in movement is determined by one of these two exertions being slightly in excess of the other; thus when the hand-exertion is slightly in excess of its fellow, we have "Handtouch"; whereas with the finger-exertion in excess, we have "Finger-touch."
这种运动上的差异是由这两种努力中的一种略微超过另一种所决定的;因此,当手部努力略微超过其伙伴时,我们称之为“手触”;而当手指努力超过时,我们称之为“手指触”。
Note. - This difference in Movement has little influence on the actual tone. It is merely a matter of convenience. Thus, for the quickest passages, the shortest lever, the finger, can more easily be reiterated than can be the hand along with the finger, since this forms a far longer lever.
注意。- 运动上的这种差异对实际音调几乎没有影响。这仅仅是一种便利性问题。因此,对于最快速的乐句,手指可以更容易地被重复,而手和手指一起则不太容易,因为这形成了一个更长的杠杆。
When the Tempo of the passage is slow enough to allow of it, we may, instead, use movements of those still longer levers - the Forearm or the Whole arm. But the longer and heavier the lever the heavier also is the mass of Inertia you have to cope with; since more force is required to overcome the sluggishness of a larger mass than that of a smaller mass, and this materially affects the problem of choice of Movement. See Chap. VII, on Movements, and Chap. XIII, "On Position."
当乐章的速度足够慢时,我们可以使用那些更长的杠杆——前臂或整个手臂的运动。但是,杠杆越长越重,你需要应对的惯性质量也越重;因为要克服较大质量的迟钝性需要更多的力量,而不同质量的惯性质量会对运动选择的问题产生实质性影响。请参阅第七章“运动”和第十三章“姿势”。

C. THE ARM and how it is needed.
C. 手臂及其必要性。

  • The Hand's Basis. 手的基础。
  1. The Hand, when vigorously applied in helping the fingers, again in turn needs a stable basis for its operation. This basis is here needed at the Wrist-joint, else the Wrist-joint itself would give way upwards, under the stress of the reaction or recoil arising from the down-exertion of the hand and finger against the moving key.
    手,当在帮助手指时,再次需要一个稳定的基础来进行操作。这个基础在这里需要在腕关节处,否则腕关节本身会在手和手指向下用力按动移动键时产生的反作用力或回弹的压力下向上移动。
For this purpose of Basis at the Wrist-joint, the ARm has to be employed; and it is available in Six Distinct Ways. Succinctly stated, these are as follows:
为了在腕关节处进行基础训练,需要运用手臂,有六种不同的方式可供选择。简而言之,它们如下:

The sir ways of Arm-functioning: -
Arm-functioning 的先生方式:-

I. The Poised-arm element
I. 平衡臂元素

II. The Forearm-rotation element
II. 前臂旋转元素

II. Forearm weight. II. 前臂重量。
IV. Whole arm weight.
IV. 整个手臂的重量。

V. Forearm down-exertion added to the full weight; and lastly
V. 前臂向下用力加到整个重量上;最后

VI. Upper arm forward-drive along with Forearm down-exertion -
VI. 上臂向前驱动,伴随着前臂向下用力 -

usually the cause of all bad Tone.
通常是所有不良音调的根源。
Note: A pull of the upper-arm, backwards, is often faultily substituted for No.Va seventh form of Arm-use! It should be avoided so far as possible, as it makes for harshness.
注意:向后拉动上臂经常错误地替代了第七种手臂使用形式!尽量避免这种情况,因为这会导致粗糙。
The first two of these six ways of using the Arm are invariably needed, whatever the nature of the passage - they are COMPOLSORY; whereas the last four ways of applying the Arm are needed only during the moment of key-descent. Choice here depends on the tone required; these last four ways are therefore OPTIONAL.
这六种使用手臂的方式中的前两种无论乐句的性质如何都是必需的;它们是强制的。而将手臂应用的后四种方式仅在按下关键时刻需要。选择取决于所需的音调;因此这四种方式是可选的。
We will first consider the two compulsory arm conditions the "Poised Arm" and the "Rotative Fore-arm," under A and , as follows:
我们首先考虑两个强制性的手臂条件“平衡臂”和“旋转前臂”,在 A 和 下,如下所示:
  1. A) The Poised Arm. You may "poise" (or balance) the whole arm by its raising muscles, causing it (as it were) to float above or on the keyboard. No part of its weight or force rests upon the keyboard when the arm is FuLLY poised - or completely balanced by its own muscles. When fully (or nearly fully) poised, its inertia, alone, suffices as a basis for the exertion of the hand-and-finger in light, rapid passages, etc. Also, thus poised, it serves, in every passage (in between the sounding of the notes), as Basis for the action of the fingers in holding down notes, as in "artificial" legato, etc.
    A)平衡的手臂。您可以通过其上举肌肉使整个手臂“平衡”,使其(可以说)漂浮在键盘上方或上面。当手臂完全平衡时,其重量或力量的任何部分都不会施加在键盘上 - 或完全由其自身的肌肉平衡。当完全(或几乎完全)平衡时,其惯性,单独,足以作为手和手指在轻快的乐句等中施加的基础。此外,这样平衡时,在每个乐句中(在音符发声之间),它作为手指按住音符的动作的基础,如“人工”连奏等。
Nors. - See Chapter XI, "On Legato and Staccato."
Nors. - 见第十一章,“关于连奏和断奏”。

Arm-vibration Touch: 手臂震动触摸:

  1. In rapid "Agility" passages, where you must thus use the fully-poised arm continuously, the tone is produced by individually-timed exertions of the finger and hand (either exhibited as finger movement or as hand-movement), and the arm itself will here be sympathetically driven into vibration by reaction from these individual and momentary impulses of the finger-andhand, against and with the keys. This constitutes "Arm-vibration touch," and all rapid but musical passages should thus be played by arm-vibration touch, whether legato or not.
    在快速的“敏捷”乐句中,您必须持续使用完全平衡的手臂,音调是通过手指和手部的个别定时努力产生的(无论是表现为手指运动还是手部运动),手臂本身将通过手指和手部的这些个别和瞬时冲动反应而共振,并与琴键一起。这构成了“手臂振动触感”,所有快速但音乐性的乐句都应该通过手臂振动触感演奏,无论是连奏还是非连奏。
That is: Sluggishness of response to a motion-impulse.
这是:对运动冲动的迟钝反应。

Weight-transfer Touch: 重心转移触感:

  1. Whereas, with the Arm less fully poised, a measure of its weight may actually come to bear continuously (although gently) upon the keybeds.
    然而,如果手臂没有完全悬空,它的重量可能会持续(尽管轻轻地)施加在键盘上。
This constitutes "Weight-transfer" or "Passing-on" touch. It also thus forms the basis of "Natural-legato," since it compels each finger in turn to hold down its note until relieved by the next finger. See .
这构成了“转移重量”或“传递”触感。因此,它也构成了“自然连奏”的基础,因为它迫使每个手指依次按住音符,直到下一个手指来释放为止。请参见
Note. - These matters are fully elucidated in Chapter XI, "On Legato and Staccato"; Chapter VIII, "On the Holding of Notes"; and Chapter XII, "Weight-transfer and Arm-vibration Touches."
注意。- 这些事项在第十一章“关于连奏和断奏”中得到充分阐明;第八章“关于音符的保持”;和第十二章“重心转移和手臂振动触键”。
  1. All successful Agility passages must necessarily be played either as "Arm-vibration" or as "Weight-transfer" touch; and speedy finger-passages form the very backbone of all real Pianomusic.
    所有成功的敏捷乐段必须以“手臂振动”或“重心转移”触感来演奏;而快速的手指乐段构成了所有真正钢琴音乐的核心。
Understanding of these matters is therefore of prime importance, and will be found fully dealt with in Chapter XII, which is wholly devoted to the further elucidation of these - the distinction between Weight-transfer touch and Arm-vibration touch. We will now further consider the Poised Arm Element.
因此,对这些问题的理解至关重要,并且将在第十二章中得到充分阐述,该章节完全致力于进一步阐明这些问题——即重量转移触感和手臂振动触感之间的区别。我们现在将进一步考虑平衡的手臂要素。
  1. With the arm fully poised the hand remains uninfluenced by its weight, and it can here lie quite loosely on the keyboardsurface.
    手臂完全准备好,手不受其重量影响,可以松松地放在键盘表面。
  2. The fully-poised condition of the arm may however be slightly modified in rapid finger passages, when played forte; a more substantial Basis is then needed for the rapidly succeeding but powerful finger-and-hand impulses, and the arm may then be allowed actually to rest a little on the Keyboard. This is feasible, provided the passage is sufficiently rapid to prevent such extra weight from coming to bear solidly and continuously on the Key-beds.
    手臂的完全平衡状态在快速的手指乐句中可能会稍作调整,当以强音演奏时;这时需要更坚实的基础来支撑迅速而有力的手指和手部冲击,手臂可以实际上稍微靠在键盘上。只要乐句足够迅速,就可以做到这一点,以防止额外的重量持续均匀地施加在键盘上。
NoTE. - If, however, the degree of the weight thus borne along is allowed to outbalance the sum of the upward reactions experienced (from the rapidly succeeding momentary finger-and-hand impulses against the keys), then the weight will after all come to bear continuously upon the key-beds, and we shall thus lose the advan-
注意。-然而,如果允许承受的重量程度超过所经历的向上反应之和(从迅速连续的瞬时手指和手部对键盘的冲击),那么重量最终将持续施加在键床上,我们将失去优势。

tages of Arm-vibration touch, and shall instead have Weight-transfer touch, with all its disadvantages musically, as shown in the next paragraphs, and in Chapter XII.
放弃手臂震动触感的优势,而应该选择重心转移触感,尽管在音乐上存在诸多不利之处,如下一段和第十二章所示。

Weight-transfer touch again:
重心转移再次触摸:

  1. We have seen ( ) that with the somewhat less fullypoised arm-condition (or heavier form of "Resting") this weight comes to bear continuously upon the key-beds, and when purely passed on from Key-bed to Key-bed forms "Weight-transfer" or "Passing-on" Touch.
    我们已经看到( ),在略微不太平衡的手臂状态(或更重的“休息”形式)下,这种重量持续施加在键床上,当纯粹从键床传递到键床形成“重量转移”或“传递”触感。
Nore. - "Purely passed-on weight" here signifies without those momentarily applied individual impulses of the finger-and-hand which constitute Arm-vibration Touch.
Nore. - “纯粹传递的重量”在这里表示没有那些构成手臂振动触感的瞬间施加的个人冲动。
Continuous Hand-exertions :
连续的手部运动:
  1. Realize, at once, the important fact, that any such continuously-resting Arm-weight on the Key-beds (as in Weighttransfer touch), although still light, in turn also compels you to EXERT YOUR HAND CONTINUOUSLY.
    立即意识到一个重要事实,即在键床上持续靠着的手臂重量(如在重量转移触感中),虽然仍然很轻,但反过来也迫使你不断用力。
In short: The main distinction between Weight-transfer and Arm-vibration lies in the cONTINUTTY or DISCONTINUITY of the exertion of the Hand. In Weight-transfer you have conTINUOUSLY applied hand-pressures (the degree of which is determined by the amount of weight carried), whereas, with Arm-vibration, the hand-exertions are applied INDIvmUALIy for each finger during key-descent only. This would indeed be much simpler, if we had TEN hands instead of two only!
简而言之:重心转移和手臂振动之间的主要区别在于手的用力是连续还是不连续。在重心转移中,您持续施加手压力(其程度由所承载的重量决定),而在手臂振动中,手的用力仅在按键下降时分别施加在每个手指上。如果我们有十只手而不仅仅是两只,那将会简单得多!
  1. Such continuously "passed-on" Weight and Hand-force may again be slightly increased to correspond to the required degree of tone.
    这种持续“传递”的重量和手力可能会再次略微增加,以符合所需的音调程度。

Continuous Rotatory stresses:
连续旋转应力:

Moreover, such continuously passed-on Weight may here compel the Forearm rotational-stresses also to be continuously
此外,这种持续传递的重量可能会迫使前臂的旋转应力也持续不断
That is, your hand cannot here lie loosely upon the keys in between the sounding of the notes, as with the Arm-vibration type of touch, but must be continuously exerted (although lightly) in direct proportion to the degree of the continuously resting Arm-weight here allowed to be transferred from key-bed to key-bed.
这意味着,在音符发声之间,你的手不能懒散地放在琴键上,就像臂部振动式的触感那样,而必须持续施加力量(尽管轻微),与允许从键床传递到键床的持续休息的臂部重量的程度成比例。

applied for "bunches" of notes at a time proceeding in the same direction.
一次申请“一堆”音符,朝着同一个方向前进。
  1. Finally, the inevitable drawback in the use of "Weighttransfer" touch lies in the fact that it very materially interferes with your ability to choose the tone for each note individually both with regard to loudness and duration, and thus to the detriment of your musical craftsmanship.
    最后,“重量转移”触摸使用中不可避免的缺点在于,它在选择每个音符的音调时干扰了您对响度和持续时间的个别选择能力,从而损害了您的音乐技艺。
  2. In short, with "Passing-on" (or Weight-transfer) touch, we can practically only have "Mass-production" effects swirls of crescendo and diminuendo, produced by the respective gradual increases or decreases of this passed-on Weight-basis.
    简而言之,通过“传递”(或重量转移)的触感,我们实际上只能产生由传递的重量基础逐渐增加或减少而产生的“大规模生产”效果,即渐强渐弱的涡旋效果。
Therefore strictly avoid "Weight-transfer" touch for all passages which need every note to be musically individualized - that is, for all melodic passages; since melodic passages always require meticulous selectivity of tone and duration for every note. All this is further elaborated in Chapter XII under "Weight-transfer . Arm-vibration."
因此,在所有需要使每个音符在音乐上个性化的乐句中严格避免“重量转移”触摸 - 也就是说,在所有旋律乐句中;因为旋律乐句总是需要对每个音符的音色和持续时间进行细致选择。所有这些在第十二章“重量转移 。手臂振动”中进一步阐述。

B) The Forearm Rotation Element
B) 前臂旋转要素

Forearm Rotatory Stresses mostly invisible:
前臂旋转应力大多是看不见的
  1. Forearm rotatory exertions and relaxations must be adjusted to every note you play. They are either repeated or reversed from note to note. Mostly, however, they are applied wITHOUT any outward indication whatever of their presence or absence. The Forearm Rotation Element applies all through your playing, and either makes or mars it. Without its application your hand would stand upright on the keyboard (with thumb up) instead of lying prone upon it.
    前臂的旋转运动必须根据您演奏的每个音符进行调整。它们要么重复,要么从一个音符转变为另一个音符。然而,大多数情况下,它们是在没有任何外在迹象的情况下应用的。前臂旋转元素贯穿您的演奏始终,会影响演奏的成败。如果不加以运用,您的手会直立在键盘上(拇指向上),而不是平卧在上面。
Indeed, you cannot touch the Piano without its incidence. It is needed for all single notes, octaves, chords, and for singing passages as well as for every note in the speediest of Agility "finger" passages, whatever the form or type of touch employed. It is required equally for loud or soft playing, for staccato and legato, and however slow or quick the passage. Most ruined playing is to be traced to ignorance of its inexorable laws.
确实,没有钢琴的触发,你无法弹奏。它需要用于所有单音、八度、和弦,以及用于歌唱段落,以及用于最快速的敏捷“手指”段落中的每个音符,无论采用何种形式或类型的触摸。它同样需要用于大声或轻柔的演奏,用于断音和连音,无论演奏速度是慢还是快。大多数糟糕的演奏都可以追溯到对其不可避免的规律的无知。
Understanding and mastery of Rotation is therefore usually the solution of most "finger-work" troubles. Attention to it indeed largely constitutes "L'art de délier les doigts," or "Fingerfertigkeit," to quote CzERNY.
因此,理解和掌握旋转通常是解决大多数“手指技巧”问题的方法。确实,对它的关注在很大程度上构成了“L'art de délier les doigts”或“Fingerfertigkeit”,引用 CzERNY 的话。
Of all the six forms of Arm-use or condition here enumerated, Forearm Rotation is the most important. It therefore needs far more detailed elucidation than is desirable at this stage, hence it receives a separate Chapter to itself further on - Chapter VI.
在这里列举的六种手臂使用或状态中,前臂旋转是最重要的。因此,它需要比目前所希望的更详细的阐明,因此它在后面有一个单独的章节——第六章。

The Four Optional Forms of Arm-use:
手法的四种选择形式:

  1. As already noted, the first two forms of Arm-use (the Poised arm and the Rotative arm) are COMPULSoRY in every passage, whatever its nature, whereas the remaining Four ways are OPTIONAL.
    正如已经指出的,Arm-use 的前两种形式(Poised arm 和 Rotative arm)在每个段落中都是强制的,无论其性质如何,而其余四种方式是可选的。
  2. These last four (optional) ways of arm-use are applied only during the moment of each individual Key-descent. They are required where the poised arm condition, alone, does not offer a sufficiently substantial Basis for the work of the finger and hand. Choice, therefore, here largely depends on the kind of tone required.
    这最后四种(可选)手臂运用方式仅在每个按键下降的瞬间应用。它们是必需的,当仅凭平衡的手臂状态无法为手指和手的工作提供足够坚实的基础时。因此,这里的选择很大程度上取决于所需的音调类型。
We will now consider these last four propositions in further detail, under I, II, III, and IV, as follows: -
我们现在将进一步详细考虑最后这四个命题,分别为 I、II、III 和 IV,如下所示:-

I) Forearm Weight. I)前臂重量。

  1. You can, during key-descent, set free (or "lapse") the weight of the forearm ONLx, as a Basis for the exertions of the finger and hand. This comparatively light weight (of the Fore-
    在按键下降时,可以释放(或“放松”)前臂的重量 ONLx,作为手指和手部努力的基础。这种相对较轻的重量(前臂的)
But do not forget that you also usually need "ten hands"! See Note, page 25.
但不要忘记,通常你也需要“十只手”!请参阅注释,第 25 页。

arm only) is very suitable for light chords, etc., where no great resonance is needed, and where the general musical effect is to be lightsome and delicate.
仅用手臂)非常适合轻柔和弦等,不需要很大的共鸣,并且整体音乐效果要轻盈而精致。
Realize, however, that this release of the upholding muscles of Movement re the forearm does not NECESSARILY entail any actual Condition again movement or "fall" of the arm.
请意识到,关于前臂运动支撑肌肉的释放并不一定意味着实际运动或手臂的“下降”。
Nore. - It seems incredible that anyone could be so dense as to misunderstand or misinterpret my teachings as to the Element of Weight. Recent authors, however, seem to believe that I refer to Movement, when, instead, I refer to those invisible changes of state in the limb, whence arise the phenomena of Weight set free. Apparently, I presumed too much on the intelligence of my earlier readers!
Nore. - 似乎难以置信,有人会如此愚蠢,误解或曲解我的有关重量元素的教导。然而,最近的作者似乎认为我指的是运动,而实际上,我指的是肢体中那些看不见的状态变化,从中产生了释放出来的重量现象。显然,我对早期读者的智力估计过高了!

"Arm off" not necessarily a Movement:
“Arm off” 不一定是一种动作:

Anyway, let it now be clearly understood that when I speak of "Arm off" it does not mean that the arm should be raised-up into the air! All I wish to convey by "Arm off" is that the incidence of this weight is here to be omitted; and, therefore, that the arm should here assume or resume its poised condition through its self-supporting muscles coming into action.
无论如何,现在让大家清楚地了解,当我说“Arm off”时,并不意味着手臂应该被举起到空中!我所要表达的是,“Arm off”只是指这个重量的发生在这里被省略;因此,手臂应该在这里通过其自支撑肌肉的作用而假定或恢复其平衡状态。

"Arm-on" also not necessarily a Movement.
“Arm-on”也不一定是一种动作。

Again, when I direct that the Arm-weight is to be "lapsed," this does not mean that the arm is necessarily actually to or move, but that the arm, for the moment, is to be left unsupported by its muscles (to the needed degree), so that this weight, invisibly supported and countered by the exertion of the hand and fingers, may thus serve as a Basis for their action.
再次,当我指示臂重要“放弃”时,并不意味着手臂必须实际 或移动,而是手臂在那一刻应该由于肌肉的支撑而无需支撑(在必要的程度上),这样,这种重量就会在手和手指的努力支撑和抵消下,作为它们行动的基础。
Indeed, the full weight of the arm can be applied (and mostly should be) without the slightest outward or visible indication of its presence.
事实上,手臂的全部重量可以施加(并且大多数情况下应该施加),而不会有任何外在或可见的存在迹象。

II) Whole-arm Weight. II) 整臂重量。

  1. In order to obtain louder effects, you need greater stability (or Basis) for your finger-and-hand actions than Forearmweight alone can give; you here need the weight of the whole Arm (both of the upper-arm and forearm) more or less liberally released. With a medium-sized arm this will offer ample basis for cantando and cantabile-tone in single notes, and for some chord-effects. Or No. III may be used - see page 35 .
    为了获得更响亮的效果,您需要比仅仅依靠前臂重力更稳定的手指和手部动作的基础;在这里,您需要释放上臂和前臂的整个重量。对于中等大小的手臂来说,这将为单音的歌唱和唱腔音色提供充足的基础,并可用于一些和弦效果。或者可以使用第三号 - 请参见第 35 页。
  2. Good Singing-tone, in the making, feels as if Weightrelease "produced" the tone. Weight alone, however, does not really occasion it. Remember, Weight only serves as a Basis, and it must correspond to the desired exertion of the finger and hand. In trying to give Arm-weight, do not instead pull the arm down, backwards.
    好的歌唱音色,在形成过程中,感觉就好像重力释放了音色。然而,仅仅靠重力并不能真正产生它。记住,重力只是作为基础,它必须与手指和手的所需用力相对应。在试图发挥手臂重力时,不要反而拉下手臂,向后拉。

Movements are optional: 动作是可选的:

Only one of these three Elements of touch-construction need be visible during the act of touch - that is, visible either as Finger, or Hand or Arm movement; the other two remaining invisible.
这三个触摸构造元素中只有一个需要在触摸过程中可见 - 即作为手指、手或手臂的运动可见;另外两个保持不可见。
Note. - Moreover, you may prompt into being this three-fold combination (of Arm, Hand and Finger for singing tone) in two ways - either by thinking of
注意。 - 此外,您可以通过两种方式使这种三重组合(手臂、手和手指用于歌唱音调)产生。
Weight . 重量
Muscularly"initiated" Touch the sensation of the Weight-release, or of the Exerrions implied.
肌肉"启动" 触摸释放重量的感觉,或者暗示的努力。
Thus (1), you may call up the feeling of the release of the Armweight, and rely on the finger and hand to do their work by sympathetic reflex-action, owing to the Weight being left unsupported - but see that they do their workl Or (2), you may call up the sensation of the work being done (by finger-and-hand exertion) and thus allow the required Weightlapse (No, no, not Movement!) to occur, owing to the sympathetic or co-ordinated sense of the need of a Basis.
因此(1),您可以唤起臂重释放的感觉,并依靠手指和手通过共鸣反射作用来完成它们的工作,因为重量没有支撑 - 但要确保它们完成工作!或者(2),您可以唤起手指和手努力完成工作的感觉,从而允许所需的重量下降(不,不是运动!)发生,这是由于对基础需求的共鸣或协调感。
This distinction I called "Weight-initiated" v. "Muscularly-initiated" touch in "The Act of Touch." It is further dealt with under T 34 of this Chapter. Also see "The Act of Touch" itself, pages 162-164, and also page 198.
这种区别我称之为《触摸的行为》中的“重量引发”与“肌肉引发”触感。在本章的 T 34 中进一步讨论。另请参阅《触摸的行为》本身,第 162-164 页,以及第 198 页。
1 Cantabile, however, not only implies good carrying tone, or tonal contrast, Cantabile needs but also needs good legato. It is through the legato and superboth good tone legato (legatissimo) inflections of Duration, that cantabile achieves and legato its charm.
1 Cantabile,然而,不仅意味着良好的音色携带,或音调对比,Cantabile 还需要良好的连贯性。正是通过连贯性和超级良好的音色连贯性(legatissimo)的持续性变化,cantabile 实现了其魅力和连贯性。

Both Weight and Exertion need Timing:
重量和用力都需要时机:

  1. Moreover, realize, that to produce a telling, vital tone, it does not suffice merely to provide the correct Weight and corresponding exertions. On the contrary, effectively to make use of such weight and exertion you must always carefully direct and time your finger and hand exertions along with the Weight release. That is, you must insist on giving the proper acceleration TO TEE KEY during its short journey downwards - in short, you must "think the key" unremittingly.
    此外,要意识到,要产生一种有力量、生气勃勃的音色,仅仅提供正确的重量和相应的用力是不够的。相反,要有效地利用这种重量和用力,你必须始终小心地引导和控制你的手指和手的用力,与重量的释放相配合。也就是说,在按键短暂向下运动的过程中,你必须坚持给予适当的加速度 - 简而言之,你必须不懈地“想着按键”。
Also, remember that this acceleration must always be "at increasing ratio" during the flash-like process of key-descent.
此外,请记住,在按键下降的闪电般过程中,这种加速必须始终是“按递增比率”。

First learn to play with Weight, then without.
先学会用重量弹奏,然后再学会不用。

  1. Thus you must first carefully learn to supply Weight (visibly or invisibly as the case may require), and then you must as carefully learn to omr it at the right moment, and on the right occasion.
    因此,您必须首先仔细学习如何在必要时明显或隐秘地提供重量,然后您必须同样仔细地学会在正确的时刻和正确的场合使用它。
Nore. - Thus, the very first step at the keyboard is to play by Weight-release only, , as shown in my "Child's First Steps" and "Nine Steps towards Fingerindividualization." Only when this principle has been grasped for chord and melody-playing, may you proceed to play with "Weight-oft"-as required for Agility-passages.
Nore. - 因此,键盘上的第一步是仅通过释放重量来演奏, ,如我所展示的“儿童的第一步”和“朝向手指个性化的九个步骤”。只有当这个原则被掌握用于和弦和旋律演奏时,您才可以继续使用“重量-轻”来演奏,这对于敏捷的乐句是必要的。

Heavy Resting-weight kills Music.
沉重的休息负担扼杀了音乐。

  1. Arm-weight, allowed to rest too heavily upon the keyboard in-between-the-sounding of the notes, inevitably does infinite harm both technically and musically. It will certainly mar all Agility and clearness, and cause "stickiness"; and it will also render every passage, thus misplayed, thoroughly dull and uninteresting musically, since such solidly-resting weight precludes that nice choice of the tone-colour for each note, so imperatively needed if the result is to be Music-making.
    手臂的重量,在音符之间过分沉重地压在键盘上,无论在技术上还是音乐上都会造成无限的伤害。它肯定会破坏所有的敏捷和清晰度,并导致“粘滞”;它还会使每个被错误演奏的乐句在音乐上变得枯燥乏味,因为这种沉重的压力会妨碍为每个音符选择音色,而这对于音乐制作是至关重要的。
Hence, you must learn correctly to apply the arm, and must learn also to avoid its incidence on the Keyboard, when not needed.
因此,您必须正确学习如何运用手臂,并且还必须学会在不需要时避免它在键盘上的触碰。
Indeed, the arm may badly mar technique as well as make it!
事实上,手臂可能会严重破坏技术,也可能会提升技术!
Nore. - More harm, in fact, has been done (and also, unhappily is still being done) by such false ideas of Weight-transfer touch, than was done in the past by
Nore. - 实际上,这种错误的重量转移触感观念造成的伤害更大,而且不幸的是,仍在继续造成伤害,比过去造成的伤害还要大。

False Weight- 虚假的重量-

transfer Touch a deliberate striking or hitting the keys down with its raunted "little hammerette" action of the fingers. Indeed, all teaching that recommends various more or less heavy grades of passed-on Arm-weight - or "Schwere Tastenbelastung" - should be strictly shunned. This more recent form of German mis-teaching (copied by recent writers who ought to know better) has done incalculable harm, and has crippled almost irretrievably many a would-be and promising pianist; in fact it has done as much harm (and perhaps more) than the older folly of forced finger-lifting.
The question of Weight-transfer (where it should be used, and where not) is fully elaborated in Chapter XII.
重心转移的问题(应该在哪里使用,以及在哪里不应该使用)在第十二章中得到了充分阐述。

III) Forearm Down-force with Upper-arm Weight.
III) 用上臂重量施加前臂向下压力。

  1. For fullest tone, both in Singing passages and everywhere else, you need a still more substantial basis than the fullest Arm-weight can supply, unaided. Here you must learn to add a down-exertion of the Forearm to the previously discussed momentary Weight-release of the whole arm. That is, you must leave free the weight of the whole arm, while you nevertheless exert your Forearm downwards; that is; a down-exertion of the Forearm in addition to this whole-arm Weight.
    为了获得最充实的音色,无论是在歌唱段落还是其他地方,你需要比充分的臂力更为坚实的基础,不能单凭臂力。在这里,你必须学会在之前讨论的整臂瞬时释放重量的基础上,添加前臂向下的用力。也就是说,你必须让整个臂的重量自由地释放,同时仍然向下用力前臂;也就是说,前臂的向下用力是在整臂重量的基础上额外增加的。

Use of the Forearm lever:
使用前臂杠杆:

Note. - This conjoint Forearm down-exertion with released Weight is needed for a certain penetrating singing-tone. Pure Weight-release does not suffice here. Use of the This exertion of the Forearm downwards is again quite a natural Forearm lever action. It is really a lifting action! For it is similar to the natural use of the bannisters as a help in mounting the stairs. The Shoulder, therefore, in this case becomes the Basis for your playing action - it is lifted against, and thus, through your shoulder, the whole mass of your body (quietly resting on the chair) becomes the ultimate Basis.
注意。- 这种联合的前臂向下用力与释放的重量对于产生一定的穿透性歌声是必要的。纯粹的重量释放在这里是不够的。再次使用前臂向下用力是一种非常自然的前臂杠杆作用。这实际上是一种抬升动作!因为它类似于在上楼梯时自然使用扶手作为帮助。因此,在这种情况下,肩膀成为您演奏动作的基础-它被抬起,因此,通过您的肩膀,您整个身体的质量(静静地靠在椅子上)成为最终基础。
  1. The main secret of producing large tone without harshness lies in this down-exertion of the forearm in conjunction with a FREE UPPER-ARM.
    产生大音量而不刺耳的主要秘诀在于前臂的向下用力,配合自由的上臂。
No doubt, we may also on rare occasions add a light downward (and backward) exertion of the upper-arm, thus helping the Elbow backwards. But remember,
毫无疑问,我们偶尔也可以轻轻向下(和向后)用力上臂,从而帮助肘部向后。但请记住,

IV) Upper-arm Forward-dig.
IV) 上臂向前挖掘。

  • The form of Arm-use to be avoided.
    应避免使用手臂的形式。
  1. Finally, we see that a fourth optional Form of Arm-use is possible. It is one, however, that should be carefully avoided - unless used very lightly indeed. Here, along with the downexertion of the Forearm, you drive forwards with the Upperarm, instead of leaving it lax as in No. III. It feels (and is) a horrible digging action into the keyboard with arm and elbow, and the Elbow feels thoroughly rigid during its perpetration.
    最后,我们看到第四种可选的手臂使用形式是可能的。然而,这是一种应该小心避免的方式 - 除非确实非常轻柔地使用。在这种情况下,随着前臂的向下施力,你用上臂向前推进,而不是像第三种情况那样让它松弛。这种感觉(也是如此)是一种可怕的用手臂和肘部在键盘上挖掘的动作,肘部在执行过程中感觉非常僵硬。
  2. This last (and undesirable) form of Arm-condition, the fourth, at once calls for more amplified consideration, as it forms one of the worst and most frequent causes of bad tone, and perhaps more often spoils musicality of effect than any of the many other possible forms of misdemeanor at the Pianoforte.
    这种最后(也是不可取的)形式的手臂状况,第四种,立即需要更加详细的考虑,因为它是产生不好音质的最糟糕和最常见的原因之一,也许比钢琴上其他许多可能的不端行为更经常破坏音乐性效果。
It is only too frequently heard in the playing of otherwise quite good pianists, and even popular artists. (Only the very rare, truly musical player avoids it consistently.)
在其他方面表现相当不错的钢琴家的演奏中,甚至在流行艺术家的演奏中,这种情况经常发生。(只有极少数真正具有音乐才华的演奏者能够始终避免这种情况。)
Nore. - Many artists, while achieving perfect beauty in cantabiles up to mf (by means of No. III genre of tone-production), unfortunately reverse all this, and apply the upper-arm forward-drive (the No. IV, and bad genre of tone) when they try to play a real forte. The Additional Note, No. IV, "On Beauty and Ugliness in Touch," is important in this connection (the use and misuse of the third and fourth optional ways of Arm-use) and this should therefore be carefully studied.
Nore. - 许多艺术家在达到完美的 cantabile 音乐时,不幸的是,当他们尝试演奏真正的 forte 时,他们会逆转所有这一切,并应用上臂向前推动(第四种音色的不良类型)。附加说明,第四部分,“触感中的美丽与丑陋”,在这方面非常重要(手臂使用的第三和第四种可选方式的使用和滥用),因此应该仔细研究。
  1. Certainly, this fourth way of Arm-use is the easiest, most natural - and nastiest - way of obtaining plenty of noise from the Piano. It is, in fact, an instinctive action in Self-defence!
    当然,这种使用手臂的第四种方式是从钢琴中获得大量噪音的最简单、最自然 - 也是最恶劣的方式。事实上,这是一种本能的自卫行为!
when this action is properly produced, the Elbow still feels perfectly free ard elastic, and tends to fall back, and thus pulls the fingers upon their keys. Also, do not forget in the meantime to intend, time, and aim that due acceleralion of the key during each Key-descent, without which good and controlled tone remains impossible.
当这个动作被正确执行时,肘部仍然感觉完全自由和弹性,倾向于回落,从而拉动手指按下键。同时,不要忘记在此期间意图、时间和瞄准每次按键下降时的适当加速,否则良好和受控的音调将无法实现。
Recall its helpfulness, should you have the misfortune to be attacked in some lonely lane one night! In that case, do use your pianistically strong arm just in Jujutsu at this way behind your fist, and you can easily deliver a splendidly the Piano effective knock-out blow! But avoid delivering such musically catastrophic knock-out blows upon the inoffensive strings of your Piano - if you
回想起它的帮助性,如果你不幸在某个偏僻的小巷被袭击!在那种情况下,确实要利用你强壮的钢琴手臂,就像在某种程度上背后用你的拳头进行柔术,你可以轻松地交付一个出色的钢琴有效的击倒一击!但要避免对你钢琴无辜的琴弦进行如此音乐上的灾难性的击倒一击 - 如果你
Its application in fact forms a strong confutation of that quasiscientific folly, the assertion that "quality-differences" cannot be produced by any treatment we may mete out to the Key.
事实上,它的应用构成了对那种准科学的愚蠢观点的有力驳斥,即“质量差异”不能由我们对关键施加的任何处理产生。
Note. - The fine experiments on this point by the American Steel and Wire Company's acoustical department under Professor William Braid White, have any-
注意。- 美国钢铁和线缆公司声学部门在威廉·布雷德·怀特教授的指导下对这一点进行了精彩的实验。
An experiment on Qualitycontrasts way proved that quality-differences do arise with differences of touch; although, so far, these experiments have only shown them to arise in conjunction with variations in Tone-intensity. Whether they cannot be given without change in tone-intensity still remains to be decided. This matter is elaborated in the previously alluded to Additional Note, No. TV, "On Beauty and Ugliness in Touch." . . . As an experiment, in the meantime, try a crescendo on a repeated single note, or chord, first in this horrible way (with an upper-arm forward-jerk along with Down-forearm and thrusting finger-andhand exertion), and then play the crescendo again, but with a properly free Upperarm and Elbow, and clinging-finger, along with the necessary Forearm downexertion to bring the tone up beyond a mere forte. It is irrefutably convincing which is the wrong way of treating the Pianoforte, and which is the right wayl
一项关于质量对比的实验证明,触感的差异确实会导致质量的差异;尽管到目前为止,这些实验只显示出它们与音强的变化同时出现。是否在不改变音强的情况下也能产生这种差异仍有待确定。这个问题在之前提到的附加说明中有详细阐述,编号为 TV 的“关于触感中的美与丑”。与此同时,作为一个实验,尝试在重复的单音或和弦上进行渐强,首先用这种可怕的方式(上臂向前猛推,伴随着前臂向下和指尖手掌的用力),然后再次演奏渐强,但要用适当自由的上臂和肘部,以及紧贴的手指,同时伴随着必要的前臂向下用力,使音色超过简单的强音。这无可辩驳地证明了如何错误地对待钢琴,以及正确的方式是什么。
But, as insisted upon in this Additional Note, No. IV, it really does not signify whether you ascribe the difference between good and bad effect to qualitydifferences, or to an over-forcing of the action in playing too loredly. The fact remains, that if you wish to behave in a civilized way at the Piano, you must learn to avoid the No. IV tone-destroying type of touch, and must instead make a habit of No. III, the true tone-producing method.
但是,正如在这个附注中坚持的那样,无论你将好坏效果的差异归因于质量差异,还是将其归因于在演奏中过度强调动作,都并不重要。事实仍然是,如果你希望在钢琴上表现得文明,你必须学会避免第四种破坏音色的触键方式,而是要养成第三种真正产生音色的习惯。
Moreover, be sure to make the suggested experiment with a really hord-hammered Piano - since a soft hammer materially hides such gross maltreatment.
此外,请务必使用一把真正被重击的钢琴进行建议的实验 - 因为软锤实质上掩盖了这种严重虐待。
Indeed it is from an instinct of self-preservation, that all Piano-makers are Soft . hard provoked to provide hammers with felts for 100 soft, and which hammer therefore tend to nullify our colouring efforts. It is naturally resorted to by the makers, to protect their good name from the onslaught of the forward-driving Piano-wrecker.
确实,所有钢琴制造商都是软 的本能,因此不得不为 100 软提供带毡的锤子,这些锤子因此倾向于抵消我们的着色努力。制造商自然而然地采取这种做法,以保护他们的声誉免受前进的钢琴破坏者的攻击。
The softer the hammer presented to the player, however, the harder is he compelled to learn to "drive," so as to obtain some measure of contrast, or colouring; and the better the player succeeds in this, the more does the maker try to counter him by still softer hammers! And so the struggle continues, like the fight between gun and ironside in the Navy!
越软的锤子呈现给演奏者,他就越被迫学会“驾驭”,以获得一定程度的对比或色彩;演奏者在这方面取得的成功越好,制作者就越试图通过更软的锤子来对抗他!这样斗争就会继续下去,就像海军中炮弹和铁甲舰之间的战斗一样!
Realize, here, that the most musical Piano is the one that can, at will, be made to sound quite harsh - within reason! Whereas, the most un-musical Piano is precisely the one that turns a pleasant face, however badly you pommel it!
认识到,在这里,最具音乐性的钢琴是那种可以随意发出相当刺耳声音的钢琴 - 在合理范围内!而最不具音乐性的钢琴恰恰是那种无论你如何猛击,它都能保持愉悦的外表!
would like it to remain in condition, or your hearer a friend! Such forward-drive touch, with its destructive resistless onslaught, is bound to knock the strings out of tune in the shortest possible time, even if you apply it with only moderate force. Whereas, if you apply it really viciously, you are likely to break strings and even hammer-shanks. Its only recommendation therefore is, that it is good for tradel
希望它保持在条件中,或者你的听众是一个朋友!这种前进的触感,以其毁灭性的无法抵抗的冲击,必然会在最短时间内使琴弦走调,即使你只施加适度的力量。然而,如果你真的狠狠地施加它,你很可能会断弦,甚至会打断琴键。因此,它唯一的推荐是,它对贸易有好处。
A soft-hammered Piano, with its pretty agreeable "ready-made" tone (as Chopin used to say) is a quite inartistic instrument. It is absolutely dishearten"Ready-made" ing to the musical artist who has learnt to USE his instrument tone useless rightly, and who is out to play with all possible shades of colourartistically ing. It is disheartening, just precisely because any real measure of quality-differences (as I prefer to call them) are almost unattainable with such woollen-blanket type of hammer.
一架轻击钢琴,带着它相当令人愉悦的“现成”音色(正如肖邦所说),是一种相当不艺术的乐器。对于那些已经学会正确使用乐器音色,并且希望以所有可能的色彩层次演奏的音乐艺术家来说,这是绝对令人沮丧的。这是令人沮丧的,正是因为几乎无法用这种羊毛毯式的敲击器获得任何真正的质量差异(我更愿意称之为)。
I, myself, when testing a new student's ear, always use the crescendo and decrescendo experiment previously noted, with its repeated chord played both ways alternately, and it is curious to note, that the colour-ear is far more frequently met with than the pitch-ear.
我自己在测试新学生的听力时,总是使用之前提到的渐强和渐弱实验,交替地演奏重复的和弦,有趣的是,发现颜色听力比音高听力更常见。
The obvious moral of this is, that if you wish to male the musical section of your public happy, carefully refrain from No. IV type of tone mal-production, and always rely upon No. III, even for your fullest fortes.
这显而易见的道理是,如果你希望让你的听众在音乐部分感到愉快,就要小心避免第四号音调错误的产生,始终依赖第三号,即使是在最强烈的部分。

Forward-drive occasionally appropriate:
前进驱动偶尔合适:

  1. This objectionable No. IV type of arm-combination nevertheless occasionally finds its use. Gently, it can be applied with good effect, for producing certain "dry" effects; and for that comparatively rare effect, a true staccatissimo, it serves admirably - used thus gently. It is also responsible for certain special colour effects - for instance, that gentle little knock, suggestive of distant "Horns," is produced in this way.
    这种令人反感的第四种武器组合类型偶尔还是会被使用。温和地使用时,它可以产生良好的效果,用于产生某些“干燥”的效果;对于那种相对罕见的真正的断奏效果,它在温和的情况下表现得非常出色。它还负责产生某些特殊的色彩效果 - 例如,那种轻轻的敲击声,暗示着远处的“号角”,就是这样产生的。

Upper-arm forward for :
上臂向前

  1. Also, strangely enough, this forward action of the upperarm can actually help us to obtain the very lightest effects. But to succeed in this, we must carefully avoid any vestige of Fore-arm down-drive with it, and indeed must also almost eliminate all forearm weight.
    同样,令人感到奇怪的是,上臂的向前动作实际上可以帮助我们获得非常轻盈的效果。但要成功,我们必须小心避免任何前臂向下推的痕迹,并且几乎也必须消除所有前臂的重量。
Thus, when you lightly exert the upper-arm forward (away from you) you really lift its weight off the keyboard - visibly or invisibly, as the case may be, and you can thus achieve light-
因此,当您轻轻向前(远离您)用力上臂时,您实际上将其重量从键盘上抬起 - 可见或不可见,视情况而定,因此您可以实现轻松-
A pupil of mine, however, suggests that this "Horn" effect is partly owing to a form of "half-pedalling" produced in this way by the fingers themselves, Horn instead of by the toes - and that the slight knock delivered with imitations this stiffish hand and fingers causes a slight momentary rebound of the key with its damper. Possibly he is right, and it seems to be a plausible explanation.
然而,我的一个学生认为,这种“号角”效果在一定程度上是由手指自己产生的一种“半踏板”形式造成的,而不是由脚趾产生的 - 而且,用这种有点僵硬的手和手指敲击键盘会导致键盘和它的弱音器产生轻微的瞬时反弹。也许他是对的,这似乎是一个合理的解释。

ness to any degree. But do not overdo this trick, else you will miss your notes!
不要过度使用这种技巧,否则你会错过音符!
As two noteworthy instances of its application you will find that it is the only way of playing with certainty the -beat (the opening note) of Beethoven's Sonata in A, Op. 2; and also the first note of the Fugue in the last movement of his Sonata in A, Op. 101.
作为其应用的两个值得注意的例子,您会发现这是演奏贝多芬 A 大调奏鸣曲 Op. 2 中 拍(开头音符)的唯一确定方法;以及他 A 大调奏鸣曲 Op. 101 最后乐章赋格曲的第一个音符。
From Op. 101: 从作品 101:
Weight-transfer or Passing-on Touch Again.
重心转移或再次传递触感。
  1. Arm weight, moreover, as we have seen in and 13, can also be correctly applied for tone-production while contimuously (but lightly) resting on the keyboard for certain light, soft effects. See Chapter XII on this subject. Also Note under of this present Chapter.
    手臂的重量,而且,正如我们在 和 13 中所看到的,也可以在轻轻地连续(但轻轻地)压在键盘上以产生某些轻柔效果时正确地应用于音色的产生。请参阅第十二章有关此主题的内容。还请注意本章节 下的注释。

The Truth about Weight-touch.
关于“Weight-touch”的真相。

_ "Free-fall of Arm" fallacy:
“手臂自由下落”谬误:
  1. Do not imagine that it is by an actual fall of the weight that tone is produced, and that "the greater the weight the quicker the speed." That is a total misapprehension, and quite untrue physically. An ounce falls with precisely the same
    不要想当然地认为音调是通过重物的实际下落产生的,也不要认为“重物越重速度越快”。这是完全的误解,在物理上是不正确的。一盎司的重物下落的速度与重量无关。

    speed as a ton - although the impact of a ton is a vastly different matter from the impact of an ounce!
    速度如同一吨 - 尽管一吨的影响力与一盎司的影响力大不相同!
Weight is needed solely as a Basis. True, the height from which a weight falls would influence the speed, for a weight gathers speed as it falls. But this fact cannot be taken advantage of in playing the Piano - since such "free fall" of the arm would preclude our attaining any musical certainty. The reason being, that if you "drop" your arm uncontrolled upon the key, you cannot possibly feel and judge how much force is needed by that key for that particularly desired tone - and it always should be a desired tone. Nor can you thus provide the due degree of acceleration needed during Key-descent. Such uncontrolled drop of the arm would instead reduce everything to mere guesswork and good luck - or more probably, bad luck!
重量仅作为基础是必要的。确实,重物下落的高度会影响速度,因为重物下落时会积累速度。但这个事实在弹钢琴时无法利用,因为这样的“自由落体”会妨碍我们达到任何音乐上的确定性。原因是,如果你无法控制地“放下”手臂到琴键上,你就无法感受和判断琴键需要多少力量来产生特定所需的音调 - 而且它总是应该是一个所需的音调。你也无法提供所需的加速度来降低琴键时的速度。这样无法控制的手臂下降反而会使一切都变成纯粹的猜测和好运气 - 或更可能是倒霉!
It is altogether alien to the expression of Music-sense. Therefore, never let your arm drop or fall upon the keys uncontrolled by its upholding muscles.
这完全与音乐感的表达格格不入。因此,永远不要让你的手臂无法受到支撑肌肉控制地落在琴键上。
  1. Deliberately to instruct the student to " drop the arm from a greater height the louder the required tone" is therefore sheer folly, and constitutes thoroughly bad, mischievous teaching.
    刻意指导学生“随着所需音调的响度增加,让手臂从更高处下落”是愚蠢之举,完全是糟糕的、有害的教学。
Nore. - Some two years ago an author published the following really comical statements as to my teaching of "Weight": - "A further defect that arose lay in Re a supposed the Unconlrolled use of the weight; too much insistence on drop of the complete instead of gradual and balanced relaxation of the conArm trolling muscles was the cause of this, and the result too often a hard tone. . . . Matthay's maximum of tone was limited by the amount that could be obtained by weight and its speed from diferent heights."
Nore. - 大约两年前,一位作者发表了以下真正滑稽的声明,关于我的“重量”教学:-“出现的另一个缺陷在于 Re 被认为是对重量的不受控制的使用;过分强调完全的下降而不是逐渐平衡放松控制肌肉的原因,结果往往是音色过硬。. . . 马塞的最大音量受到了通过重量和不同高度的速度获得的限制。”
This, among other fabrications as to my teachings, was also copied (possibly without investigation) in a more recent compilation. To attribute to me such folly as that the key should ever be struck or hit down by a Weight "dropped" from a greater or lesser height, is so incredibly stupid and comic that it hardly needs serious contradiction; yet there may be many who have never read "The Act of Touch"; or who may have glanced through it as cursarily and unintelligently as these authors seem to have done, and who therefore might accept such misstatements as truth! Other authors may or may not have taught such nonsense as this about Weight, but nothing I have ever written, said, or suggested could be thus misconstrued. Particularly when it is remembered that I have in- sisted all along (perhaps ad nauseaml) that one cannot possibly play musically if one hits the Key down, either by Weight, or in any other way.
这是我教导中的另一种虚构,最近的一部汇编中也被抄袭(可能是没有调查的情况下)。将如此愚蠢和滑稽的事情归因于我,即按下键应该由从更高或更低的高度“掉落”的重量来完成,是如此愚蠢和滑稽,以至于几乎不需要认真反驳;然而可能有许多人从未读过《触键的行为》;或者可能像这些作者似乎做的那样匆匆地和不明智地浏览过,因此可能会接受这种错误陈述作为真相!其他作者可能曾经或者没有教导过关于重量的这种胡说八道,但我曾经写过、说过或者暗示过的任何内容都不可能被曲解成这样。特别是要记住,我一直坚持(也许是令人作呕地)如果一个人通过重量或其他方式按下键,那么他就不可能演奏出音乐。
My reiterations on all these points however still seem to have been too infrequent to overcome the resisting obtuseness of some minds, complacently smothered by the old obsession of Movement, when confronted with an analysis of the Invisible in Touch - the thing that really matters! See โ35 on "The Truth about Weight."
然而,我对所有这些观点的重申似乎仍然太少,无法克服一些思维的抵制迟钝,他们对运动的旧执念感到自满,当面对触觉中的无形分析时 - 这才是真正重要的事情!请参阅“关于重量的真相”中的第 35 页。
EXTRA NOTE. - As a matter of fact, a good-sized arm, really "dropped" from a height of say eighteen inches or so from above the keyboard, and taken by a resistArm-drop real, ing finger and hand, would probably smash the strings or the or seeming hamomer or even the finger! If in doubt as to the truth of this, try it on your own Piano - but not on mine!
额外说明。-事实上,一个相当大的手臂,真的从键盘上方大约十八英寸的高度“掉落”,被一个抵抗手指和手接住,可能会击碎琴弦或似乎是锤子或甚至手指!如果对此的真实性有疑问,请在自己的钢琴上尝试一下-但不要在我的钢琴上!
The fact is, that again the eye is the deceiver. A freely descending arm certainly looks like a true "fall" or drop. A musical player, however, never adopts such mis-touch. Instead, he always controls the descent of the weight (by the p-muscles of his arm) so as to reach the surface of the keys with insufficient speed to knock the keys down. That is, he is careful to reach the key with not enough impact to preclude his taking hold upon the key, and depressing it as he feels its need during descent.
事实是,眼睛再次欺骗了我们。自由下降的手臂看起来确实像是真正的“下降”或掉落。然而,音乐演奏者从不采用这种误触。相反,他总是控制重量的下降(通过他手臂的 p-肌肉),以便以不足以击倒琴键的速度触及琴键表面。也就是说,他小心翼翼地以不足以阻止他在下降过程中抓住琴键并在感觉到需要时按下它的冲击力触及琴键。
In short, you must always give the necessary access of force when and after the key is met, and finger and hand can then provide the required proper acceleration by their guided co-operation - although all this may remain quite invisible.
简而言之,当和钥匙相遇时,您必须始终提供必要的力量访问,并且手指和手可以通过它们的引导合作提供所需的适当加速度 - 尽管所有这些可能仍然完全看不见。

Ample movement of Arm, when advantageous:
当有利时,充分运动手臂:

  1. When playing forte by arm-movement, it is an advantage to allow your arm to descend and subside from some little distance. The inertia (sluggishness) of its mass is thus in a measure overcome as a preliminary to the actual tone-producing act which, remember, must never begin until the surface of the keyboard is reached. Therefore, even in this case, you must reach the keys quite gently - so that you can still judge the resistance met with from them.
    当用手臂运动强奏时,允许手臂从一定距离下降和减弱是有利的。因此,其质量的惯性(迟钝)在一定程度上被克服,作为实际产生音调的前奏,记住,音调的产生绝不应该在键盘表面到达之前开始。因此,即使在这种情况下,你也必须轻轻地触及琴键 - 这样你仍然可以判断遇到的阻力。

Weight does not produce tone directly:
重量并不直接产生音调:

  1. Moreover, realize that Weight never really produces the tone. As already insisted upon, Weight can but form a Basis for the activities of the Finger and Hand. Arm-weight could only be said to "produce" the tone, if allowed to subside with the key unaided by any intervening exertion of finger and hand. This is manifestly impossible; therefore (as I pointed out in "The Act of Touch"), whenever you apply Weight never forget to use (exert) both hand and finger.
    此外,要意识到重量并不能真正产生音色。正如先前所坚持的,重量只能为手指和手的活动形成基础。如果手臂重量在按键时没有任何手指和手的干预而减弱,才能说是“产生”音色。这显然是不可能的;因此(正如我在《触键的行为》中指出的),每当你运用重量时,永远不要忘记同时运用手和手指。
Note. - The only case when Weight may be said to "produce" tone is, when you play with your fist sideways, as shown in No. I of my "Nine Steps towards
注意。- 唯一的情况是,当你用拳头侧面弹奏时,重量才能说是“产生”音调,如我《九步走向》中的第一步所示。
The sole case of Tone-production by Weight-release! Finger Individualization," - the four-page pamphlet issued by the Oxford University Press. Here, certainly, your whole arm and fist descend with the Keys and produce the required tone - if relaxed precisely to the needed extent. This alone exemplifies tone-ezcitation purely by Weight-descent - although a vestige of hand exertion, sideways, must participate even here! The moment, however, that you place your finger-tips upon the keys (as in "Step IV"), that moment your fingers and hand are compelled actively to respond (by reflex action) to what is felt as an impending descent of the Weight, and they then (in response) actively (exertionally) support that Weight upon the descending keys - arm, hand and fingers here descending as a whole. This visual effect has led to the stupid mistake made by some, that finger and hand are not exerted in "Weight-touch"!
通过释放重量进行音调产生的唯一案例!《牛津大学出版社》发行的四页小册子。在这里,当然,您的整个手臂和拳头与琴键一起下降,产生所需的 音调 - 如果放松到所需的程度。这就是仅仅通过重量下降来产生音调的例证 - 尽管手部努力的痕迹在这里甚至也必须参与!然而,一旦您将手指尖放在琴键上(如“第四步”中),您的手指和手就被迫积极地做出反应(通过反射作用),以应对所感受到的重量下降的即将发生,并且随后(作为回应)积极地(通过努力)支撑下降的琴键上的重量 - 手臂、手和手指在这里作为一个整体下降。这种视觉效果导致了一些人犯下的愚蠢错误,即认为手指和手在“重量触摸”中没有用力!
Moreover, if the finger and hand exertions are slightly in excess of the Armweight released, then they will move instead of the Arm. The Weight (or Weight-touch does not imply non-exertion of Finger and Arm) will therefore not be allowed to descend at all hereHand although its influence thus invisibly supplies the finger and hand with the required Basis for their action. Hence it is also clear, that although we call such process "Weight-touch," yet, truly speaking, "Weight-touch" really is touch by finger-and-hand exertions, although these are prompted into action by the Weight-release.
此外,如果手指和手的努力略微超过释放的手臂重量,那么它们将移动而不是手臂。重量(或重量触感并不意味着手指和手臂不用力)因此在这里手指和手虽然其影响以隐形方式为手指和手提供所需的行动基础,但不会被允许下降。因此,很明显,尽管我们称这种过程为“重量触感”,但实际上,“重量触感”确实是由手指和手的努力触摸,尽管这些努力是由释放的重量促使行动的。

The true function of Weight:
重量的真正功能:

In short, as already reiterated so often, the function of Weight in playing is solely that of Basis, whether it moves or not; that is, its function always is but to form a stable foundation, sufficient to resist the reactions of finger-and-hand exertions, so that these can be effectively applied to the Key.
简而言之,正如经常重申的那样,重量在演奏中的作用仅仅是作为基础,无论它是否移动;也就是说,它的作用始终只是形成一个稳定的基础,足以抵抗手指和手部努力的反应,以便这些努力可以有效地应用到键上。

Weight-initiated . Muscularly-initiated Weight-touch.
重量启动 。肌肉启动重量触摸。

  1. This is a psychological distinction rather than a physical one. It implies that the triple combination of Weight versus finger-and-hand exertion required for singing-tone can be prompted into co-operation in two ways. You can either (1) give your mind to the sensation of Weight-release of the arm; or (2) give your mind to the sensation of Work-to-bedone by the finger-and-hand.
    这是一种心理区分,而不是物理区分。这意味着唱调所需的重量与手指和手的用力的三重组合可以通过两种方式促使合作。你可以要么(1)将注意力放在手臂释放重量的感觉上;要么(2)将注意力放在手指和手的工作感上。
The timing of this complete Triple-combination will thus
这完整的三重组合的时机将会
Already indicated in Note to of this Chapter.
本章注释 中已经指明。

ensue somewhat differently, and will slightly affect the quality of the resultant touch-action. If you think of the sensation of Weight-lapse, the needed finger-and-hand exertions arise in response to it by reflex action, and are therefore slightly laggard in their response; whereas, if you recall the sensation of work being done (by finger and hand) then the Weight-response will be infinitesimally delayed in its incidence. The first will lead to better key-acceleration than the last, and therefore the tone will be "rounder" and "sharper" respectively. The difference is like slightly changing the "timing" of the magneto of your motor-car engine. Some will aver that there can be but little difference in the actual sound-quality arising from this distinction in touch. Possibly there may not be much, but the difference in sensation is quite marked - and therefore matters, since it leads to material (though subtle) differences musically; and such subtle distinctions in musical effect are everything, when we have risen beyond the mere strumming stage, and are out really to express the spiritual in Music.
稍有不同,会稍微影响结果触摸动作的质量。如果你想到重量减少的感觉,所需的手指和手部用力是出于反射作用而产生的,因此在其反应中会稍有滞后;而如果你回想手指和手部正在做工作的感觉,那么重量反应将微小延迟。前者将比后者导致更好的按键加速,因此音调将分别是“圆润”和“尖锐”的。这种差异就像稍微改变汽车发动机的磁轮定时一样。有人会说,在触摸上的这种区别所产生的实际音质差异可能不大。也许确实如此,但感觉上的差异是非常明显的,因此很重要,因为它导致音乐上的实质性(尽管微妙)差异;在音乐效果中这种微妙的区别是一切,当我们已经超越了简单的弹奏阶段,真正要表达音乐中的精神时。

The Dual Nature of the Muscular Equipment.
肌肉设备的双重性。

  1. The researches and discoveries of the Australian physiologist, the late Dr. Jorn HunTEr (as already indicated in of this Chapter), have important bearing on our work as Piano teachers. They indeed strikingly corroborate the teachings of "The Act of Touch" in many particulars; and the importance of his discovery of the dual nature of our muscular equipment cannot be overrated.
    澳大利亚生理学家乔恩·亨特博士(如本章 中已指出)的研究和发现对我们作为钢琴教师的工作具有重要意义。它们确实在许多方面引人注目地证实了“触摸行为”的教导;他发现我们肌肉装备的双重性质的重要性不可高估。
Nore. - These discoveries were first made known in a lecture delivered at London University in January, 1925, by Professor G. Elliot-Smith, and comJohn Hunter's mented upon by Sir Oliver Lodge in his Résumé (in The Daily discoveries News) of the previous year's "Memorable" doings, as "one of the biggest in possibilities that has been done for a long time." Dr. Elliot-Smith referred to the "culmination of the researches into muscular movement made by a brilliant young Australian, Dr. John Hunter," who had died recently in London upon the eve of describing his discoveries in a series of lectures. "Hunter showed" (said Dr. Elliot-Smith) "first that the muscular system is DuAL, one kind of muscle doing the actual work, and another maintaining position when the work is done. To
诺尔。-这些发现最早是由 G. Elliot-Smith 教授在 1925 年 1 月在伦敦大学的一场讲座中首次公开的,并由奥利弗·洛奇爵士在他在《每日发现新闻》中对前一年的“值得纪念的”事件进行评论,称之为“长期以来所做的最具潜力的之一。”埃利奥特-史密斯博士提到了“由一位才华横溢的年轻澳大利亚人约翰·亨特博士进行的肌肉运动研究的顶峰”,他最近在伦敦去世,就在描述他的发现的系列讲座前夕。 “亨特展示了”(埃利奥特-史密斯博士说)“首先,肌肉系统是双重的,一种肌肉进行实际工作,另一种在工作完成后保持位置。

illustrate: An oyster closes its shell with ' ' muscle, and keeps it closed with ' ' muscle. This diminishes fatigue and prevents jerkiness."
说明:牡蛎用 肌肉关闭贝壳,并用 肌肉保持关闭状态。这样可以减少疲劳并防止抖动。
  1. This discovery, that we possess two distinct sets of muscles for the same limb-action, one by which to do the serious work of a limb, and the other by which to do the light work, is most important, for we find this applies again and again in our Pianowork.
    这一发现表明,我们拥有两组不同的肌肉用于同一肢体动作,一组用于完成肢体的重要工作,另一组用于完成轻松的工作,这一发现非常重要,因为我们发现这种情况在我们的钢琴演奏中反复出现。
Nore. - Do not confuse this duality of muscle for a particular purpose with that implied by muscles with antagonistic function.
Nore. - 不要将肌肉的这种双重功能与具有拮抗功能的肌肉所暗示的双重功能混淆。

Examples of this Duality:
这种二元性的例子:

  1. As instances: (a) to raise your arm you are aware of the necessary muscular exertion, but to retain it raised seems no effort at all - because the "small" muscles alone then remain active. (b) To sound notes we have to use the "strong" flexor muscles of the fingers situated on the forearm, a fact we become conscious of by the sensation of tension through and at the lower side of the wrist-joint. Whereas, we can and should hold the Keys down quite lightly, after the sounding, by using only the activity of the "small" (or weak) muscles inside the band the "lumbricales." (c) Much of the failure to understand how Forearm rotational actions can help or mar playing, arises from the fact that we can so easily recognize that an exertion is necessary to turn the hand into its playing position, - for we then use the strong rotatory muscles. Whereas, to maintain the hand in its thus tumed-over position, we find that the small or weak muscles fulfill this duty quite well; but we are apt to overlook this fact, and are then likely to be deceived into imagining that we are "doing nothing" muscularly! Whence arises the fault, that when we try to use a finger at the fifth-finger side of the hand after the thumb, we are likely wrongfully to continue this unperceived light action of the rotatory small muscles towards the thumb (even when we do not commit the worse error of continuing the "strong" muscles action!) and we shall thus inevitably impede
    作为例子:(a)举起手臂时,您意识到必要的肌肉用力,但保持举起来似乎毫不费力-因为那时只有“小”肌肉保持活跃。 (b)发声音时,我们必须使用位于前臂上的“强大”屈肌,通过手腕关节下部的紧张感,我们意识到这一事实。 然而,我们可以并且应该轻轻按住琴键,发声后,只需使用手部内部的“小”(或弱)肌肉活动,“腱肌”。 (c)对于无法理解前臂旋转动作如何有助于或破坏演奏的很多失败,是因为我们很容易认识到需要用力扭转手臂到演奏位置-因为那时我们使用强大的旋转肌肉。然而,保持手臂处于这种翻转位置时,我们发现小或弱肌肉完全能胜任这项任务;但我们往往忽视这一事实,然后很可能被欺骗以为我们在肌肉上“什么也没做”! 出现这种错误的原因是,当我们试图在拇指之后手的第五指侧使用手指时,我们很可能错误地继续这种不为人察觉的旋转小肌肉朝着拇指的轻微动作(即使我们没有继续“强大”肌肉的更严重错误动作!)我们将不可避免地妨碍
See Chapter VIII on "The Holding of Notes," also page 23, I 3.
请参阅第八章“音符的保持”,另见第 23 页,I 3。

the exertion of those other fingers by destroying their rotative Basis. And so, also, has arisen all that folly as to the supposed "weakness" of the 4th and 5th fingers! They are bound to be amply strong if only we do not impede their action by continuing this faulty but invisible rotatory exertion towards the thumb - when it should be discontinued.
通过破坏它们的旋转基础来发挥其他手指的作用。因此,也产生了所有关于第 4 和第 5 指所谓“虚弱”的愚蠢观念!只要我们不通过继续朝拇指施加这种错误但看不见的旋转作用来阻碍它们的运动,它们必定会非常强壮 - 当应该停止这种作用时。
43 These discoveries in fact clarify and simplify the explanation - and the doing - of much that seemed somewhat difficult before. For instance, we used to think that in making a strong effort with the fingers and then continuing it lightly (as one should for tenuto or legato) that this implied reducing the same exertion to the precise minimum needed; whereas, we now realize, that at first we must exert both sets of the finger flexing-muscles concerned, but must then simply cease all activity, completely and promptly, of the powerful muscles, while carrying-on solely with the "weak" ones - a complete cutting-out process quite easy in comparison to the first.
43 这些发现实际上澄清并简化了以前似乎有些困难的解释和做法。例如,我们过去认为,用手指用力然后轻轻地继续(正如应该为 tenuto 或 legato 做的那样)意味着将相同的努力减少到所需的最低限度;然而,我们现在意识到,起初我们必须同时运用涉及的两组手指屈肌,但随后必须简单地停止所有活动,完全迅速地停止强大的肌肉活动,而仅继续“弱”肌肉的活动——与最初相比,这是一种完全简单的剔除过程。

Further Examples and Experiments on Strong v. Weak muscularaction:
进一步的例子和对强肌肉作用与弱肌肉作用的实验:

  1. Experiment and satisfy yourself on these points thus: -
    在这些方面进行实验并满足自己:-
I. Realize that the difference between holding your arm nicely "poised," and holding it clumsily and stiffy, depends precisely on this distinction. Evidently the arm should be sustained solely by its weak "up"-muscles - ample for the purpose, and not by the strong exertion you must employ, say, when pulling a tree up by its roots! As another instance: you cannot continue the comparatively strong exertion needed to lift your arm, when you afterwards try to keep it stationary half-way up, unless you then also employ an antagonistic exertion thus to keep it immovable - against this wrongly-continued exertion of the raising-muscles. What you must learn to do, is gently to raise the arm by its "strong" and weak muscles, and then sustain it in that position solely by its "weak" muscles left active, and while culting out the strong muscles. Try both methods; it is instructive.
我。认识到,优雅地保持手臂“姿势端正”和笨拙僵硬地保持手臂之间的区别,恰恰取决于这一区别。显然,手臂应该仅由其弱的“向上”肌肉支撑 - 这对于这个目的来说是足够的,而不是通过你必须施加的强大努力来支撑,比如说,当你用力将树根拔起时!再举一个例子:当你试图保持手臂在半空中静止时,你不能继续进行相对强大的努力,除非你随后也施加对抗性的努力来保持它不动 - 抵抗这种错误持续的提升肌肉的努力。你必须学会的是,轻轻地通过其“强大”和弱肌肉提起手臂,然后仅通过其留下的“弱”肌肉在那个位置支撑它,同时削弱强肌肉。尝试这两种方法;这是有启发性的。
II. Again, you will vitiate that light "tap" of the forearm, sometimes required, if you use the same down-forearm exertion required of it, which you need when you help yourself upstairs by the bannisters! Or when you need it (moderately) for tone beyond or as in that form of "arm-use" described earlier, under No. III. Try both methods!
II. 再次,如果你使用相同的下臂用力,就会破坏那种有时需要的轻微“轻击”,当你通过栏杆帮助自己上楼时,你需要这种用力!或者当你需要它(适度)用于超过 的音色时,就像之前在第三部分描述的“手臂使用”形式。尝试两种方法!
III. Sound the notes of a finger-passage forcibly and correctly as needed in forte, but then wrongly continue the action of these powerful muscles (as well as the weak ones) after sounding the notes, and thus unmistakably jam your hand down upon the keybeds, while ruining the passage - just as all bad players do. Then play it again, properly, sounding the notes strongly, yet afterwards holding them down quite lightly - solely therefore by the "small" muscles of the fingers, and with the hand itself almost if not quite inactive - or only active with its own small muscles, and thus realize the absurdity of doing the thing wrongly.
III. 根据需要强有力且准确地弹奏手指通道的音符,以强弱音一律为强,但在弹奏音符后错误地继续这些有力肌肉(以及弱肌肉)的动作,从而毫无疑问地将手重重按在键盘上,同时毁掉通道 - 就像所有糟糕的演奏者一样。然后再次演奏,正确地弹奏音符,强有力地发声,然后轻轻地按住它们 - 仅仅通过手指的“小”肌肉,手本身几乎不活跃 - 或者仅仅通过自身的小肌肉活跃,从而意识到错误地做事情的荒谬。
IV. Or play an octave passage (or any double-notes passage) with the hand jammed down upon the keybeds, and then repeat it with the notes held down quite lightly - again solely by the "weak" muscles of hand and finger.
IV. 或者用手压在键盘上演奏一个八度音程(或任何双音音程),然后用轻轻按住音符重复演奏 - 再次完全依靠手和手指的“弱”肌肉。
V. Or turn the hand over into its playing position, and hold it there firmly (and wrongly!) by a powerful rotatory exertion; and then again leave it there, apparently effortlessly - by the residual exertion only of its "weak" muscles.
V. 或者将手翻转到演奏位置,并通过强大的旋转运动牢牢地保持在那里(错误!);然后再次让它停留在那里,表面上毫不费力 - 仅通过其“弱”肌肉的残余运动。
Try both ways, and realize what is really implied by rotatory "adjustment."
尝试两种方式,并意识到旋转“调整”实际暗示着什么。
Here, in fact, you have a root-difference between playing easily and playing with the greatest possible difficulty - as you would do, if you obeyed the old teachers! Experiment on the above lines, and convince yourself of the truth of these facts, and how you can encompass Ease.
事实上,在这里,您可以看到轻松演奏和尽可能困难演奏之间的根本区别 - 就像您遵循老师的教导一样!在上述线条上进行实验,让自己相信这些事实的真相,以及您如何做到轻松。
Instinctive obedience to the Laws of Touch:
本能服从触觉法则:
  1. A technical genius (or so-called "Finger-talent") of course instinctively obeys all these laws (without knowing what they are) and he usually does not forget the right sensations by which to recall these right actions - unless, unhappily, his naturallygained facility is destroyed by the old iniquitous misteaching to "press dowen firmly upon the keybeds," or to "strike the keys well" with the "little hammerette action" or other such soul and musically-destructive ideas.
    一个技术天才(或所谓的“手指天赋”)当然本能地遵守所有这些法则(不知道它们是什么),他通常不会忘记正确的感觉,以便回忆这些正确的动作 - 除非,不幸的是,他天生的能力被那些老旧的不良教导所破坏,比如“牢牢按住键盘”,或者用“小锤动作”“好好敲击键”或其他类似的灵魂和音乐毁灭性的想法。

Coda. The Merging of Touch-forms:
Coda. 触觉形式的融合:

  1. Here it is well at once to realize that all touch-forms can in application merge or dissolve one into the other. All forms of Movement as well as all forms of Touch Construction can thus be modified and approximated in practice.
    在这里,我们要意识到所有的触摸形式在应用中都可以融合或相互转化。所有形式的运动以及所有形式的触摸构造都可以在实践中被修改和逼近。

A) Movement-merging: A) 运动融合:

  1. Thus, any desirable combination may be used in place of well-defined movements solely of the finger, hand or arm
    因此,可以使用任何理想的组合来取代仅仅是手指、手或手臂的明确定义的动作
(vertically or rotationally). That is, the movement may be a combination of finger and hand movements, or with vertical or rotational arm movements.
(垂直或旋转)。也就是说,动作可能是手指和手部运动的结合,或者是垂直或旋转的手臂运动。
1 Recently, it has even been tried to revive some of these pernicious teachings,
最近,甚至尝试重新振兴一些有害的教导
A proposed 一项提议
impossible 不可能
"Reconciliation" and it has been claimed that there can be a "Reconciliation" between our present-day knowledge of the facts, and these now happily exploded ideas of Key-hitting and keybed buwying of the tone-impulses. In fact, it is misdirected that one should press "deep" into the keybeds, "deep down," "past them" and "down to the floor!"
“和解”并且有人声称我们现今对事实的了解与这些现在已经幸运地被推翻的按键和键盘吸收音调脉冲的想法之间可以有一种“和解”。事实上,错误的是认为应该“深深”按下键盘,“深入”,“超越它们”并“按到地板上!”
Obviously, there can be no possible "Reconciliation" between ideas thus diametrically contradictory - between Knowhedge of the fundamental facts of Pianoplaying and Un-knowledge of them! You must subscribe either to one or the other, and if you are possessed with the old pernicious out-of-date ideas and cannot wipe them out of your mind, then Natural Selection will very probably eliminate you musically, and thus put an end to your Piana-misdoings! See Additional Note, No. XIV, "An Impossible Reconciliation."
显然,这两种截然相反的观念之间不可能有任何“和解”——即钢琴演奏的基本事实的了解和对它们的无知之间!你必须选择其中之一,如果你被那些陈旧有害的观念所困扰,无法将其从头脑中清除,那么自然选择很可能会在音乐上淘汰你,并结束你的钢琴错误!请参见附注 XIV,“一个不可能的和解”。
B) Touch-construction merging:
B) 触摸构建合并:
  1. In the same way, the various kinds of Touch-construction may also coalesce. For instance: during key-descent, to the always necessary finger-and-hand exertions and forearm rotational-changes, you need not solely add forearm weight, or solely whole-arm weight, or solely forearm down-force along with upper-arm weight.
    同样,各种触觉构造也可能融合在一起。例如:在按键下降过程中,除了始终必要的手指和手部运动以及前臂旋转变化外,您不仅需要增加前臂重量,或者仅增加整个手臂的重量,或者仅增加前臂向下的力量以及上臂的重量。
Instead, you may supply any desired in-between muscularinflection or combination; and may omit drawing a sharp line of distinction between them when desirable - they may merge one into the other at will. But the distinctions exist none the less.
相反,您可以提供任何所需的肌肉屈曲或组合;并且可以在需要时省略在它们之间划定明显的界线 - 它们可以随意相互融合。但是这些区别仍然存在。

Weight-transfer and Arm-vibration also may merge:
重心转移和手臂振动也可能合并:

  1. In the same way, there need be no well-defined distinction between Weight-transfer touch and Arm-vibration touch in certain passages - again the two forms may coalesce in a measure. Continuous Weight-transfer may thus imperceptibly pass over into individualized Arm-vibration touch, and vice versa. It is like a walk gradually becoming a trot, and finally a run - but with the distinction that at the Piano we can modify the weight, so as to render the running easier!
    同样,在某些乐句中,重量转移触感和手臂振动触感之间不需要有明确的区分 - 两种形式可能在一定程度上融合。连续的重量转移可能在不知不觉中转变为个性化的手臂振动触感,反之亦然。这就像一步步逐渐变成小跑,最终成为奔跑 - 但在钢琴上,我们可以调整重量,使奔跑更容易!

Mentally, all the Touch-distinctions must remain clear:
在精神上,所有的触摸区别必须保持清晰:

  1. Unless, however, you clearly understand all the various touch-elements and types discussed, and have them at your disposal in their unadulterated forms, you cannot choose the most appropriate for the passage in hand. For instance, you cannot fully realize the musical effect of a swift but melodic passage, if you allow a certain degree of weight-transfer musically to mar and muddy the needed pure, individualized Arm-vibration touch demanded in such passages - whether played resiliently or in true legato.
    除非您清楚地理解所有讨论过的各种触摸元素和类型,并且可以毫无掺杂地随时使用它们,否则您无法为手头的乐句选择最合适的。例如,如果您允许一定程度的音乐性重量转移破坏和混淆在这些乐句中所需的纯粹、个性化的臂部振动触感,那么您就无法完全体会到快速但旋律优美乐句的音乐效果 - 无论是弹奏有弹性还是真正的连贯。
Carefully, therefore, master all these distinctions of Construc-
因此,仔细掌握所有这些构造的区别

tion and Movement, and learn to apply them separately when needed, but also do not fear to combine them where that is desirable.
节奏和动态,并学会在需要时分别应用它们,但也不要害怕在需要时将它们结合起来。

Technique itself must become subconscious:
技术本身必须变得下意识:

  1. In the meantime, realize that when all these things have been learnt, they must be forgotten! That is, having purposefully learnt to obey all these physical and physiological laws involved in Technique, they must be relegated to the SubconsciousNess before they can truly help you in purposeful Musicalperformance.
    与此同时,要意识到当所有这些事情都学会了,它们必须被遗忘!也就是说,经过有意识地学习遵守与技术相关的所有这些物理和生理规律后,它们必须被放置到潜意识中,然后才能真正帮助你在有目的的音乐表演中。
Just as with any other language, all must be learnt; but a language cannot serve as a vehicle for expression until use of it has become second-nature - until it has become promptable by the Subconsciousness.
就像任何其他语言一样,所有的都必须学会;但一门语言直到使用变得如同第二天性,直到它可以被潜意识提示时,才能成为表达的工具。

Chapter VI 第六章

THE FOREARM-ROTATION ELEMENT
前臂旋转元素

Preamble. 序言。
  1. We must now undertake the further elucidation of this element - perhaps the most important of all pianistically, physiologically, and pedagogically. Hence this special chapter is
    我们现在必须进一步阐明这一要素 - 或许在钢琴演奏、生理学和教学方面都是最重要的。因此,这个特殊章节是
1 In a recent compilation the claim is made of a world-reeling Discovery, viz., the teaching of Technique by means of "Conscrous-Mental-MuscularControl." It is, however, conveniently overlooked that all this was taught in full detail nearly thirty years ago in The Act of Touck. True, I did not adopt it as a "slogan," etc. Unfortunately, it is also overlooked that I carefully wamed the student, even then, that while all technical Correct Doing can and should thus be taught, yet he must not be satisfied until all this has been made into Habit, so that it is available for free artistic speech in his purposeful efforts to Make Music.
最近的一份汇编中声称发现了一个让世界震惊的技术,即通过“意识-心理-肌肉控制”来教授技巧。然而,方便地忽略了这一切几乎三十年前在《触摸的行为》中详细教授过。诚然,我没有将其作为“口号”等。不幸的是,人们也忽略了我当时仔细警告学生,即虽然所有技术上的正确操作都可以并且应该这样教授,但他必须等到所有这些都变成习惯后才能满意,这样才能在他有目的的努力中自由地进行艺术表达,创作音乐。

devoted to it; and if the keen-minded reader finds overmuch reiteration and repetition, he must kindly bear with me for the sake of his less keen-witted fellows.
致力于它;如果敏锐的读者发现有太多的重复和重复,他必须友善地忍受我,为了那些不那么敏锐的人。
  1. Success or failure technically (and therefore musically) depends on a clear understanding and due mastery of these Forearm Rotatory-adjustments. Just here, however, we find perhaps more vagueness and misunderstanding than anywhere else. In spite of all that I have written and lectured on this very point, I am still persistently and stupidly misrepresented as dealing solely with rotatory movemenTs - movements which had already been recognized and approved "for occasional use" in tremolos, etc., half a century ago! Whereas, throughout, I am referring to rotatory actions or stresses, inactions and reactions, mostly unaccompanied by any movements whatsoever.
    成功或失败在技术上(因此在音乐上)取决于对这些前臂旋转调整的清晰理解和适当掌握。然而,就在这里,我们可能会发现比任何其他地方更多的含糊和误解。尽管我已经就这一点写了很多东西并进行了讲座,但我仍然被固执地和愚蠢地误解为仅仅处理旋转运动 - 这些运动在半个世纪前就已被认可和批准“偶尔使用”在颤音等方面!而我在整个过程中所指的是旋转动作或压力,这些动作或压力大多数情况下并不伴随任何运动。
Not Movements, but hidden actions.
不是动作,而是隐藏的行动。
  1. Let us be quite clear then, to begin with, that my discoveries on this point do not refer merely to the actual rotatory movements before-mentioned, but, on the contrary, deal particularly with those invisible changes of state rotationally (momentary reversals or repetitions of stress and relaxation rotationally) which, although unseen, are needed for every note we play, whether we know of them or not, and ever have been needed, and ever will be - so long as keyboards are used. The fact is, that no player ever has been successful, nor could be, without the closest conscious or unconscious obedience to these very laws of Forearmrotation, which although mostly unseen in their incidence, are nevertheless aurally and physically only too patent and inexorable.
    让我们非常清楚地开始,我的发现并不仅仅是指前面提到的实际旋转运动,相反,它们特别涉及那些旋转状态的看不见的变化(瞬时的应力和松弛的旋转反转或重复),尽管看不见,但每个音符我们演奏时都需要,无论我们是否知道,而且一直都需要,也将会需要 - 只要键盘被使用。事实上,没有任何演奏者能够成功,也不可能成功,除非密切地有意识或无意识地遵守这些前臂旋转的法则,尽管它们在发生时大多看不见,但在听觉和身体上却是显而易见且不可避免的。
  2. As these all-important alternations and repetitions of rotational stress are comparatively rarely disclosed to the eye (being usually unaccompanied by any rotational movement whatsoever) and, being thus hidden, they have totally escaped attention or recognition, alike by players and teachers during all these past centuries of keyboard use.
    由于这些至关重要的旋转应力的交替和重复相对很少被眼睛揭示(通常不伴随任何旋转运动),因此被隐藏起来,这些旋转应力完全未被注意或认可,无论是在过去几个世纪的键盘使用中,都未引起弹奏者和教师的注意。
Nors. - The trouble all along has been, that since these exertions were not disclosed by movements, they completely escaped notice; and teachers of the past, unaware of these facts, were therefore unable to belp their pupils easily to achieve technical mastery.
Nors. - 问题一直存在的是,由于这些努力没有通过动作来展示,它们完全没有被注意到;过去的老师们并不知道这些事实,因此无法帮助他们的学生轻松地实现技术上的精通。
Correct Doing was therefore only achieved in rare cases by the musically and physically supersensitive, who were able to semse the physical needs through their own musical insistence, and through repeated experimental failure to ultimate success. But what a pitiable waste of time!
因此,正确的表现只有在极少数音乐和身体上极为敏感的人才能够通过他们自己的音乐坚持感知到身体的需求,并通过反复的实验性失败最终取得成功。但这是多么可悲的浪费时间!

Successful players have always obeyed rotation:
成功的球员总是遵守轮换:

  1. Obviously, all players in the past, who successfully happened to master their instrument, must also have perfectly fulfilled these inexorable hidden changes in the Forearm stresses rotationally, although unaware they were obeying any natural laws. Yet such Master-artists (as always) were but few and far between; all the rest lumbered along with supposed irremediably "stift" limbs, and supposed "weak" fourth and fifth fingers.
    显然,过去所有成功掌握乐器的演奏者,也必须完美地满足前臂应力旋转中这些不可避免的隐藏变化,尽管他们并不知道自己在遵守任何自然法则。然而,这样的大师级艺术家(一如既往)寥寥无几;其他人则笨拙地继续前行,认为自己的手臂“僵硬”无法挽救,第四和第五根手指“虚弱”。
The ignorant use rotatory-exertions all the time:
愚昧的人一直在使用旋转运动
  1. Clearly realize that the fault of the unsuccessful player is not that he "does not use Rotation" (as often imagined!) but that, on the contrary, he does use Rotation most of the time too much, and does so violently and stiffly, and in fact has not learnt to omit rotatory-exertion when he should, and does not apply it freely when its application is needed. Indeed it cannot be reiterated too often, that without freedom rotationally - as everywhere else - there never has been any Easy Technique, nor can there be in the nature of things.
    清楚地认识到,不成功的球员的错误并不在于他“不使用旋转”(常常被想象!),而恰恰相反,他大部分时间使用了过多的旋转,而且做得很猛烈、僵硬,事实上他没有学会在应该省略旋转时省略,也没有在需要应用时自由地运用。事实上,不能再多强调,没有旋转自由,就像在其他任何地方一样,从来就没有轻松的技术,事实上在事物的本质上也不可能有。

Forearm Rotation in daily avocations:
日常工作中的前臂旋转:

  1. Moreover, Forearm rotatory-actions are not a special process, solely applicable for piano playing. Quite the contrary, for Forearm rotatory-exertions and relaxations are used everywhere in our daily lives. A few instances: You have to apply them when you bring your fork down to your plate, prongs downwards, and again when you bring your food to your mouth - unless you impolitely use your fork as a spoon! In writing, it is
    此外,前臂旋转动作并不是一种专门适用于钢琴演奏的过程。相反,前臂的旋转运动和放松在我们日常生活中随处可见。举几个例子:当你把叉子放到盘子上,叉子朝下时,你必须运用它们,当你把食物送到嘴里时也是如此 - 除非你不礼貌地把叉子当勺子使用!在写作中,也要运用这种动作。

    the invisible rotatory exertion of your Forearm which turns your hand over, and which presses your pen upon the paper. You turn your door-handle, your key in its lock - you apply the rotational force invisibly until the door-handle or the key gives way, and discloses the true nature of the exertion in movement. Obviously, you wind your watch by visibly disclosed rotatory exertions. The screwdriver and the bradawl need Forearm rotatory-actions, both visible and invisible.
    你前臂看不见的旋转作用让你的手翻转,压着笔在纸上。你转动门把手,插入锁中的钥匙 - 你看不见地施加旋转力,直到门把手或钥匙让路,揭示运动中的真正作用。显然,你通过可见的旋转作用来上发条。螺丝刀和尖锥需要前臂的旋转动作,既可见又不可见。
You use it (mostly invisibly) when you play Tennis, Golf or Cricket; and you cannot hold your Billiard-cue without its constant help.
当你打网球、高尔夫或板球时,你会(大多数时候是看不见的)使用它;而且你不能没有它的持续帮助拿着你的台球杆。
As a inal example, you cannot properly press your bow on your Violin or 'Cello strings, without such invisible rotatory-exertion of the Forearm, freely given! Hence so much bad bowing, since this fact has been overlooked by teachers, through ignorance of such invisible rotatory actions.
作为最后一个例子,如果没有前臂进行这种看不见的旋转运动,你就无法正确地按压小提琴或大提琴的琴弦!因此,由于教师们忽视了这一事实,即对这种看不见的旋转动作的无知,所以出现了这么多不好的拉弓。
Nors. - I have heard of Violinists and 'Cellists who despaired of attaining a
Nors. - 我听说过小提琴手和大提琴手们对于达到一定水平感到绝望。
Invisible 隐形
rotatoryoxertions and the Bow-arm free action of the bow-arm, but who, after only sir weeks' accidental practice at the Piano of my "First Solo Book" and "Pianist's First Music-making," found, to their astonishment, that they had cured a life-long fault - rotational stiffness of the bowarm, and had acquired a free, full tone!
旋转性动作和弓臂的自由动作,但是在仅仅六周的偶然练习后,在我的《第一独奏书》和《钢琴家的初次音乐制作》钢琴上,他们惊讶地发现,他们已经纠正了一生的错误 - 弓臂的旋转僵硬,并且获得了自由、饱满的音色!
  1. There is, then, hardly any action in everyday life that does not largely depend upon visible or invisible Forearm rotatoryhelp; and when we come to so delicate an operation as Pianoplaying, the least disobedience to its laws inevitably mars all our playing.
    在日常生活中,几乎没有任何行动不在很大程度上依赖于可见或不可见的前臂旋转帮助;当我们进行如此精细的操作,如钢琴演奏时,对其规律稍有违抗,必然会破坏我们所有的演奏。

The Nature of the Action:
行动的本质:

  1. Yet, strictly speaking, there is no such thing as true Forearm rotation. Not "Rotation" in the sense that the Forearm itself rotates as a whole, with the Elbow as a pivot - as it seems to the eye.
    然而,严格来说,真正的前臂旋转并不存在。并非指前臂整体像以肘部为支点那样旋转,就像眼睛所看到的那样。
The fact is, that you can only "rotate" the Forearm at its wrist-end, and the wrist-joint and hand turm along with it; and you can only rotate about half a turn. It is really a twisting process of the Forearm-bones.
事实上,您只能在前臂的手腕端“旋转”,手腕关节和手会随之转动;而且您只能旋转大约半圈。这实际上是前臂骨的扭转过程。
  1. The Forearm consists of two bones, normally lying side by side. These are pivoted both at the Elbow and at the Wristjoints; you can feel their position by touching the elbow, and the hand at the wrist.
    前臂由两根骨头组成,通常并排放置。这些骨头在肘关节和腕关节都有枢轴;您可以通过触摸肘部和手腕来感受它们的位置。
Now, when you turn (or "rotate") your hand into its playing position, palm downwards, you twist the outer of these two bones, the "radius," upon the inner bone, the "ulna," just as you can twist one finger over another. In this way you obtain that partial rotation of the wrist by which the hand is swung over into its playing position.
现在,当您将手转向演奏位置,手掌朝下时,您扭转这两根骨头中的外侧骨头,“桡骨”,在内侧骨头“尺骨”上,就像您可以将一根手指扭转到另一根手指上一样。通过这种方式,您可以获得腕部的部分旋转,使手摆动到演奏位置。
  1. Obviously, everyone (whether he understands Rotation or not) is compelled (and always has been compelled) to make this rotatory movement to bring his hand into the playing position, palm
    显然,每个人(无论他是否理解旋转)都被迫(并且一直被迫)进行这种旋转运动,将手移动到演奏位置,掌心
Diagrammatic Representation of the Two Forearm Bones of the Left Arm, before rotation and after. downwards. He is also compelled to continue a slight, although now invisible, exertion (rotationally) to retain his hand thus in level position; although the hand itself may in the meantime be lying quite loose and inactive on the keyboard. Moreover, to sound the thumb-note at all strongly, he is compelled momentarily to increase the rotary-exertion of the Forearm inwards, so that the thumb may be amply helped to move its key down efficiently.
左臂两根前臂骨的示意图,在旋转之前和之后。向下。他也被迫继续轻微的努力(旋转),以保持手臂处于水平位置;尽管手掌本身可能同时完全松弛无力地放在键盘上。此外,为了强有力地发出拇指音符,他被迫瞬间增加前臂向内的旋转努力,以便拇指能够有效地按下其键。

Again a double muscular action:
再次双重肌肉动作:

  1. Evidently we also possess "strong" and "weak" muscles rotationally, just as in the case of the finger. The hand is evidently turned over into its playing-position (or "supination") by the exertion of both the "strong" and "weak" muscles concerned in Forearm-rotation; whereas the "weak" muscles evidently suffice to retain it thus turned over, and the "strong" muscles may therefore promptly and completely stop work.
    显然,我们的肌肉在旋转方面也有“强壮”和“虚弱”之分,就像手指一样。手显然是通过前臂旋转中涉及的“强壮”和“虚弱”肌肉的努力才能翻转到演奏位置(或“旋前”);而“虚弱”肌肉显然足以保持它翻转状态,因此“强壮”肌肉可能会迅速完全停止工作。
Nore. - Obviously, it is this prompt and complete cessation of the strong, "inward-twisting" muscles that has led to the delusion that no muscular exertion is needed to retain the hand in its level playing position.
Nore. - 很明显,正是这种迅速而完全停止强大的“向内扭曲”的肌肉活动,导致了一种错觉,即保持手在水平演奏位置上不需要任何肌肉运动。
To help the thumb to sound its note (as already noted) a momentary action of the "strong" muscles is needed. The application of these "strong" muscles is therefore always intermittent and momentary; whereas the action of the "weak" muscles may be continuous for a time. Realize also, that even in forte, it is actually but a comparatively gentle exertion of the Forearm rotationally, that is needed. This is not noticeable unless attention is drawn to it. In fact, as already said, none of the exertions used in playing should ever be really violent. If they are, you may be sure you are playing stiffly, and badly!
为了帮助拇指发出音符(如前所述),需要“强大”肌肉的瞬时作用。因此,这些“强大”肌肉的应用总是间歇性和瞬时的;而“弱”肌肉的作用可能连续一段时间。还要意识到,即使在强音中,实际上只需要旋转前臂的相对温和的用力。除非引起注意,否则这是不明显的。事实上,正如前面所说的,演奏中使用的任何用力都不应该真的很剧烈。如果是这样,你可以肯定你的演奏是僵硬的,而且糟糕!

Timing the cessation of Rotation:
停止旋转的时机:

  1. Now, the trouble is, if this exertion inwards (momentarily required to help the thumb) is instead CONTINUED at full strength, then the Basis for the action of the other fingers is taken away from them; and they will then seem weak and incapable. Hence the invention of those thousands of futile exercises designed to overcome this supposed "weakness" of these fingers. Whereas we now know, that these supposed "weak" fingers are rendered quite "strong," the very moment this unneeded and paralyzing (but unseen) exertion rotatorily towards the thumb is ceased.
    现在的问题是,如果向内用力(短暂需要帮助拇指)的努力被继续以全力进行,那么其他手指的行动基础就会被夺走;它们看起来会变得虚弱且无能。因此,出现了成千上万个无效的练习的发明,旨在克服这些手指所谓的“虚弱”。而我们现在知道,这些所谓“虚弱”的手指在这种不需要的、但会让手指无法动弹的向拇指旋转的用力停止的那一刻就变得相当“强壮”。
Note. - Such exertion towards the thumb may, however, be so very slight that we are likely to overlook it. Any exertion, nevertheless, in the wrong direction, will here inevitably impair the efficacy of the finger next used. Be sure therefore that you avoid any such residue of rotatory exertion in the wrong direction, even from the "weak" rotation muscles! It is owing to non-comprehension of this point that has arisen the superstition as to the supposed "weakness" of the fourth and fifth fingers at the Piano. Hence, also, so much sticky, clumsy and uncertain Technique, generally. Remember, these fingers are indeed rendeted helpless so long as you continue a strong rotational exertion towards the thumb after it is played, and thus deprive those other fingers of the necessary basis for their action against their keys; whereas these fingers are instantly transformed into "strong" ones, provided that when you wish to use them you are careful to eliminate (inhibit, or cease) any residue of unneeded rotatory exertion towards the thumb - even of the "weak" rotation-muscles!
注意。-然而,对拇指的这种努力可能是非常微小的,以至于我们很可能会忽视它。然而,任何错误方向的努力在这里都将不可避免地损害下一个使用的手指的效力。因此,请务必避免任何错误方向的旋转努力的残留,即使是来自“弱”旋转肌肉!正是由于对这一点的不理解,才产生了关于钢琴上第四和第五指所谓“虚弱”的迷信。因此,通常会出现粘滞、笨拙和不确定的技术。请记住,只要在弹奏后继续向拇指施加强大的旋转努力,从而剥夺其他手指对键盘行动所需的基础,这些手指就会变得无助;而只要在使用这些手指时,您小心消除(抑制或停止)任何不必要的朝拇指方向的旋转努力的残留,即使是“弱”旋转肌肉,这些手指将立即变成“强壮”的手指!
As a matter of fact, these supposed "weak" fingers themselves are naturally really stronger at the Piano than the thumb itself - with its sideway action, provided you do not spoil their effectiveness by leaving your forearm rotationally stiff, or even antagonistic to their well-being, pianistically.
事实上,这些所谓的“弱”手指本身在钢琴上实际上比拇指本身更强大 - 假如你不通过让前臂旋转僵硬,甚至对他们的良好状态产生敌意,从而破坏它们的效果。

Rotatory relaxation often suffices:
旋转放松通常就足够了

  1. With the hand lying loosely on the keyboard the hand will quite naturally roll upward onto its side (with the little finger as a pivot) when you cease the slight rotatory exertion towards the thumb. Now, if at that very moment, however, you sufficiently exert the little finger, it will act as a strut, and will thus prevent the hand from rolling upward. You cannot see any rotatory movement, but you can feel the stress in the direction of the little finger, and how this is thereby helped.
    手松放在键盘上时,当你停止朝拇指施加轻微的旋转力时,手会自然地向上翻转到侧面(以小指为支点)。现在,如果在那个时刻,你足够用力小指,它将起到支撑作用,从而防止手向上翻转。你看不到任何旋转运动,但你可以感受到朝小指方向的压力,以及这样如何有所帮助。
  2. For soft notes, cessation of all the rotatory exertion towards the thumb hence suffices to give the little finger the necessary basis for its work in sounding that soft note. But when more tone is required, then you must, BESDES ceasing the exertion towards the thumb, also add a rotatory exertion towards the little-finger side, to enable you sufficiently to exert that finger.
    对于轻柔的音符,停止所有朝拇指的旋转努力就足以为小指提供必要的基础,让它发出那个轻柔的音符。但是当需要更多的音量时,除了停止朝拇指的努力外,还必须朝小指的一侧加上旋转的努力,以使你能够充分发挥那根手指的作用。
Noтe. - To recapitulate: Be sure to realize through experiment at the keyboard, that if you cease the exertion Inwards (towards the thumb) this will leave the fore-
注意。- 总结一下:一定要通过在键盘上的实验来意识到,如果你停止向内(朝拇指方向)的努力,这将使前指。
The relationship of Rotatory-help to Rotatory Movement arm and hand free to roll over Outwards (towards the little finger), and that this tumbling-over tendency of the forearm, thus caused by relaxation, can provide for more tone from your little finger than you would at first credit, with so little Basis for it. For greater tone, however, you must, in addition, exeri the forearm outwards, although this rotative exertion is not necessarily displayed as morement, neither in this case nor the former one. As everywhere else in Technique, movement or its absence is no criterion whatever that you are doing rightly or wrongly. For instance, if you cease the rotatory exertion towards the thumb (as just discussed), the hand would naturally fall over to its side, but such rotatory movement will be prevented if you accurately time a sufficient exertion of the little finger (or other finger) at that moment, and you then have only a finger-movement with the key, while the rotational relaxation is not in the least disclosed to the eye.
Rotatory-help 与 Rotatory Movement 之间的关系,手臂和手自由向外翻滚(朝向小指),由此引起的前臂翻滚倾向,因此由放松引起,可以为您的小指提供比您最初想象的更多音色,尽管基础很少。然而,为了获得更大的音色,您必须另外向外用力前臂,尽管这种旋转用力在这种情况或前一种情况下都不一定显示为运动。就像技术的其他地方一样,运动或其缺乏根本不是您是否正确或错误地做事的标准。例如,如果您停止向拇指施加旋转作用(如刚才讨论的),手自然会倾倒到一侧,但如果您准确计时在那一刻对小指(或其他手指)施加足够的作用力,那么这种旋转运动将被阻止,然后您只需用手指与琴键进行运动,而旋转放松对眼睛来说根本不会显露出来。
That is, the rotatory change towards the little finger will not be seen, if you hide it by a sufficient exertion (and movement) of the little-finger, or fourth finger or any other finger at that moment. On the other hand, the exertion of the finger itself will be hidden, if you outbalance it during key-descent by a
这意味着,如果你通过足够的小指、第四指或其他手指的努力(和动作)来隐藏它,那么向小指旋转的变化就不会被看到。另一方面,如果你在按键下降时通过失衡来隐藏手指的努力,手指本身的努力就会被隐藏。

greater exertion (and movement rotationally) of the Forearm - and you then have rotative movement (or "Rotation-touch") in place of finger movement (or "finger-touch") with the key. 1 In slower passages (as beforesaid) actual rocking or rotatory movements may optionally be employed, but in really quick passages there is no time for such. In short: Finger-movements are usually preferable in quick passages, but of course with the proper individual Forearmstresses invisibly applied, along with the exertion of each individual finger.
前臂的更大用力(和旋转运动)-然后你就有旋转运动(或“旋转触摸”)代替手指运动(或“手指触摸”)与琴键。在较慢的乐句中(如前所述),实际的摇摆或旋转运动可以选择性地使用,但在真正快速的乐句中,没有时间进行这样的动作。简而言之:手指运动通常在快速乐句中更可取,但当然要配合适当的个体前臂压力不可见地施加,以及每个手指的用力。

Direction of Rotatory-help:
旋转帮助的方向:

  1. Realize next, that the direction of rotatory help is always from the finger last used, and towards the finger being used and you must always supply such rotatory help with perfect freedom.
    认识到接下来,旋转帮助的方向总是从最后使用的手指向正在使用的手指,你必须始终自由地提供这种旋转帮助。
  2. Thus, when a passage moves melodically alternately upwards and downwards, the rotational stresses are alternately Inwards and Outwards. Try the following: -
    因此,当一个乐句在旋律上交替向上和向下移动时,旋转应力也会交替向内和向外。请尝试以下操作:-
  1. Per contra, when the melodic movement proceeds in the same direction, as in a straight-on five-finger exercise, then you must repeat your rotative stresses in the direction of the passage, instead of alternating them.
    相反,当旋律运动朝着同一方向进行时,就像直线进行五指练习一样,那么你必须在通道方向重复你的旋转重音,而不是交替它们。
Now it is easy to realize that in repeating the same note you must repeat the same stress rotationally; yet it is not so easy when you have to repeat the same rotational stresses, but with different fingers. Thus:-
现在很容易意识到,在重复相同的音符时,您必须旋转重复相同的重音;但是当您必须用不同的手指重复相同的旋转重音时,情况就不那么容易了。因此:-
In the straight-on five-finger succession of notes, evidently you must help your thumb by a rotatory exertion Inwards - towards it - during the moment of moving the key. But when you use your index-finger after it, you must reverse all this - the Inward rotatory exertion must cease, and a relaxation Outwards (or even an exertion Outwards) must replace the Inward-stress while you depress the key with that index-finger. For the next note (played by the middle-finger) the index-finger serves as a pivot (from either the surface or depressed level of the keyboard), and rotational help for it is again outwards; therefore you must repeat what you did for the last note. The ring-finger needs another similar repetition of the outward rotational-impulse (with pivot on third finger), and the fifth finger likewise (from fourth finger). Thus, after the thumb (with its Inward rotation) you have four Outward impulses (or stresses) rotationally; and when returning (after the little finger with its Outward impulse) you must then provide four inward impulses rotationally to help these fingers. Refer to the Examples given on p. 22 of Epitome.
在直接的五指音阶中,显然你必须通过旋转向内的努力来帮助你的拇指 - 在按下琴键的瞬间。但当你在它之后使用食指时,你必须颠倒所有这些 - 向内的旋转努力必须停止,而在按下琴键时,向外放松(甚至向外用力)必须取代向内的压力。对于下一个音符(由中指演奏),食指充当支点(从键盘表面或按下的水平面),并且再次向外旋转帮助它;因此,你必须重复你为上一个音符所做的事情。无名指需要另一个类似的向外旋转冲动的重复(以第三指为支点),小指同样如此(从第四指开始)。因此,在拇指(带有向内旋转)之后,你有四个向外的冲动(或压力)旋转;当返回(在小指带有向外冲动之后),你必须提供四个向内的冲动旋转来帮助这些手指。请参考《Epitome》第 22 页上的示例。
  1. Taken slowly, you can show these stresses by actual rotatory movements each time, as directed. The hand, in this case, turns back (each time) before each rotatory-movement, and then turns again in the direction of (and along with) the next finger you play.
    慢慢地进行,您可以按照指示每次通过实际的旋转运动来展示这些压力。在这种情况下,手在每次旋转运动之前都会转回,然后再朝着(并沿着)您弹奏的下一个手指的方向再次转动。
  2. In a quick passage, however, such rotatory-movements cannot be attempted - there is not time for them.
    在一个快速的乐句中,然而,这种旋转运动是无法尝试的 - 没有时间去做。
Instead, the rotational-stresses are here completely disguised, hidden and replaced by finger movements. Nevertheless, you must supply the necessary help individually for each note by invisible forearm rotative exertions or relaxations, precisely as you do when you allow actual rotative movements to accompany each note.
相反,这里完全隐藏了旋转应力,并被手指动作所取代。然而,当你允许实际的旋转运动伴随每个音符时,你必须通过看不见的前臂旋转的努力或放松为每个音符提供必要的帮助。
  1. The law hence becomes clear, that the direction of rotation (whether accompanied by actual rotatory-movement or not) is always in the Direction of the new finger and away from the last finger, which each time becomes the pivot for the new action.
    因此,法则变得清晰,旋转的方向(无论是否伴随实际的旋转运动)始终朝着新手指的方向,远离上一个手指,每次上一个手指都成为新动作的支点。
Nore. - Thus, when you play the Middle-finger afier the Thumb, rotational help is given to it outwards, whereas when you play it after the Little-finger, rotational help is inwords - towards the Thumb.
Nore. - 因此,当您在拇指后弹中指时,会向外旋转帮助它,而当您在小指后弹时,旋转帮助是向内的 - 朝向拇指。

Rotatory direction with thumb under a finger:
拇指在手指下方旋转方向:

  1. The rule applies with equal force when you turn a finger over the thumb, unexpected although it may seem. Therefore, to help a finger turned over the thumb, you must still give the invisible or visible rotatory help outwards (towards the littlefinger side), in spite of the fact that the note sounded by the finger is on the wrong side of the thumb.
    规则同样适用于当你把手指翻过拇指时,尽管这看起来可能出乎意料。因此,为了帮助手指翻过拇指,你仍然必须向外(朝小指侧)提供不可见或可见的旋转帮助,尽管手指发出的音符位于拇指的错误一侧。
Thus, in a shake played with a finger turned over the thumb, you should give alternate rotations Inwards and Outwards whether visible or not. Thus:-
因此,在用手指翻转拇指弹奏时,无论是否可见,都应该交替向内和向外旋转。因此:-

Inere signifies Rotation towards thumb, and siguifles Rotation towards little finger
Inere 表示向拇指旋转, 表示向小指旋转
Try it with rotation supplied first in the correct direction and then in the wrong direction. It is quite convincing!
尝试首先以正确方向提供旋转,然后以错误方向提供旋转。这是非常令人信服的!

Bad Scales : 糟糕的音阶:

  1. Much scale-playing, etc., is uneven and sticky, because this rule has not been grasped.
    许多音阶练习等都不够均匀流畅,因为这个规则还没有掌握。
This rule, however, is precisely reversed when you turn a long finger over a short one, as in double-notes scales, etc. Hence, when the middle-finger is turned over the fifth, you must here help the middle-finger by a rotational-stress towards the thumbside!
然而,当你把一根长手指翻转到一根短手指上时,例如在双音阶音阶中,规则就完全颠倒了。因此,当中指翻转到第五指时,你必须通过向拇指侧施加旋转应力来帮助中指!
  1. In the Epitome I have noted the first steps towards acquiring this required co-ordination between Forearm and Finger, and it is useless to reprint them here.
    在《精华》中,我已经记录了获得前臂和手指之间所需协调的第一步,重印它们在这里是没有意义的。
Note. - These First Steps (for Young and Old) are more fully dealt with in my "Nine Steps towards Finger-individualization" (Oxford University Press); "Child's First Steps" (Joseph Williams); "Pianist's First Music Making" (Oxford University Press) and "First Solo Book," etc. (Oxford University Press).
注意。- 这些初步步骤(适合年轻人和老年人)在我的“通向手指个性化的九步”(牛津大学出版社)中有更详细的介绍;“孩子的第一步”(约瑟夫·威廉姆斯);“钢琴家的初次音乐创作”(牛津大学出版社)和“第一独奏曲集”等(牛津大学出版社)。
Some additional warnings may, however, here be useful:
然而,这里可能需要一些额外的警告:

The purpose of Rotation:
旋律的目的:

  1. In the meantime, do not forget to bear in mind the ultimate purpose of these rotational stresses and relaxations. Whether allowed to become visible as actual rocking movements or not, the purpose is to help the fingers in their work by correct rotational stresses, and not to impede them by wrong ones. Therefore, do not forget to exert the fingers themselves. If you forget that, all is lost!
    与此同时,不要忘记牢记这些旋转应力和放松的最终目的。无论是否允许作为实际摇摆运动显现,其目的都是通过正确的旋转应力来帮助手指完成工作,而不是通过错误的应力来阻碍它们。因此,不要忘记使手指自身发力。如果你忘记了这一点,一切都将丧失!

Rotation-stresses must be given freely:
旋律压力必须自由地给予:

  1. Remember, the rotatory possibilities of the forearm must always be applied at their free-est. That is, always without the exertion of both "pronation" and "supination" muscles at the same moment - in plain English, without exerting the forearm rotationally both outwards and inwoards at the same moment which would create a technique-destroying muscular conflict. You must contrive to send your nerve-message solely to one set of muscles, and must not allow some of it to leak or stray over to the opposite or " antagonistic" side.
    记住,前臂的旋转可能性必须始终以最自由的方式应用。也就是说,始终不要同时用力“旋前”和“旋后”肌肉 - 简单来说,不要在同一时刻旋转前臂向外和向内,这将造成破坏技术的肌肉冲突。你必须设法将神经信息仅发送到一组肌肉,并且不允许部分信息泄漏或偏离到相反或“对抗性”一侧。
Nors. - In short, when you use your arm rotationally, be sure to exert it only in the required direction, and strictly inhibit the opposite exertion of it.
Nors. - 简而言之,当您旋转手臂时,请确保仅在所需方向施加力量,并严格抑制其相反的施加。
Passages by similar motion made "difficult" by rotatory conflict:
由旋转冲突使相似运动的段落变得“困难”:
  1. Such antagonistic action is, however, very likely to arise in passages where the two hands move by similar motion melodically. Here the rotatory impulses are needed for the most part in contrary direction in the two hands. Hence such passages are often found not so easy to play as to write! The direction of rotation is confused by the two hands moving alike melodically - and our ear actually may mislead us here. Hence "stiffening" ensues. This difficulty vanishes forthwith when this rotatory contrariness is duly recognized.
    这种对抗性的动作很可能出现在两只手在旋律上以相似的方式移动的地方。在这种情况下,两只手大部分时间需要以相反的方向进行旋转推动。因此,这样的乐句通常发现不像写作那样容易演奏!旋转方向被两只手在旋律上相似地移动所混淆 - 我们的耳朵实际上可能会在这里误导我们。因此会出现“僵硬”。当这种旋转的对立性得到充分认可时,这种困难立即消失。
  2. Moreover, this tendency thus to make "difficulties" may
    此外,这种倾向因此会制造“困难”
Also applies, when hands played in succession also supervene when the two hands are not played simultaneously, but when a melodically-alike passage is repeated in close succession by the two hands, as in a canon.
当两只手不同时演奏,而是连续演奏时,也会出现这种情况,就像在一个卡农中,两只手紧密连续地重复演奏类似旋律的段落。
Nork. - Play through the first sixteen bars of Bach's C-sharp major Prelude, from the first Book of the Forty-eight; and you will feel that there is a great temptation to play the theme in its left-hand version with the same rotatory impulses as before used for the right hand, thus leading to its impairment and your confusion!
Nork. - 演奏巴赫 C#大调前奏曲的前十六小节,来自《四十八首前奏曲》第一册;你会感觉到有一种强烈的诱惑,以与右手之前相同的旋转冲动来演奏左手版本的主题,从而导致其受损和你的困惑!

Passages by contrary motion first:
首先是对位运动的乐段:

  1. Because of these reasons, co-ordination between forearm rotation and fingers should first be studied in passages needing reversal, rotationally, each time from note to note; and when the hands are first played together, passages should be chosen, so far as possible, which need the rotational help in similar direction in both hands, and which, therefore, move melodically by contrary motion.
    由于这些原因,前臂旋转和手指之间的协调应首先在需要 逆转的乐句中进行研究,每次从一个音符旋转到另一个音符;当双手首次同时演奏时,应选择尽可能需要双手同向旋转帮助的乐句,并且因此以相反运动的方式旋律移动。
  2. In the early stages - both in the case of a real beginner, and, in the far worse case, of one who has been playing upsidedown technically for years, this practice of passages by contrary motion melodically, and with constant reversals from note to note, rotationally, should be insisted upon for a while - since in this way the rotatory adjustments are more likely to be provided correctly, almost instinctively. Studies and pieces which exemplify such conditions should therefore be chosen. Music for the student, at this early stage, should also be written in accordance with these principles.
    在早期阶段 - 无论是真正的初学者,还是更糟糕的情况下,已经在技术上颠倒弹奏多年的人,都应该坚持一段时间以相反运动旋律地练习这些乐句,并且不断地从一个音符到另一个音符进行旋转 - 因为这样旋转调整更有可能被正确地提供,几乎是本能的。因此应选择体现这种条件的研究和乐曲。在这个早期阶段,学生的音乐也应根据这些原则来写作。
Note. - I have myself tried to set a good example for composers in this respect, but it is not easy to evolve interesting matter under such onerous restrictions. The reader may, however, be referred to my "Playthings for Litlle Players," Book I, and my "First Solo Book" (Oxford University Press). Several numbers in these works conform quite strictly to these rather severe restrictions. The Preface to these sets of little pieces fully explains these desirable restrictions. Also, in "The Pianist's First Music Making" (Oxford University Press), the dry first
注意。- 我自己尝试为这方面的作曲家树立一个良好的榜样,但在如此沉重的限制下演变出有趣的内容并不容易。然而,读者可以参考我的《小玩意儿》第一册和我的《第一独奏曲集》(牛津大学出版社)。这些作品中的几首曲目相当严格地符合这些相当严格的限制。这些小曲集的序言充分解释了这些可取的限制。此外,在《钢琴家的初次音乐创作》(牛津大学出版社)中,干燥的第一

steps are made interesting by the addition of a Duet accompaniment, for the teacher. These I consider to be quite a manifestation of genius on the part of my collaborator here - FeLLT SWINSTEAd.
通过为老师添加二重奏伴奏,使得这些步骤变得更有趣。我认为这在这里是我合作者 FeLLT SWINSTEAd 的天才体现。

Stiffness possible, while apparently passive:
可能僵硬,看似被动:

  1. It is even possible to make this mistake of antagonistic and self-defeating rotational actions, while your hand, itself, lies quite loosely and inactive upon the keyboard. Try it! Let your hand lie loosely on the keyboard-surface, and see whether your forearm is really quite free rotationally, and is not perhaps slightly stiffened-up." This rotatively "free" condition of the forearm is always a pleasant sensation - or absence of sensation - to a Pianist, since it gives him confidence that he is going to play easily - and is not going to play with irksome, troublesome technical restraint.
    甚至可能犯这种对抗性和自我毁灭性的旋转动作的错误,而你的手本身则松松地搁在键盘上。试试看!让你的手松松地搁在键盘表面,看看你的前臂是否真的在旋转时非常自由,而不是可能略微僵硬。前臂的这种旋转“自由”状态对钢琴家来说总是一种愉快的感觉,或者说是一种没有感觉,因为这让他确信自己将会轻松演奏,而不会受到烦人的技术限制。

Upper-arm re Forearm Rotation:
上臂与前臂旋转:

  1. Another and perhaps important warning is, never to substitute -arm rotation-stresses where those of the Forearm are called for.
    另一个也许很重要的警告是,永远不要用 -臂旋转应力替代需要前臂的地方。
  2. Understand the distinction: It is possible to bring your hand into playing position by raising the upper arm and elbow sideways and outwards with the hand upon the keyboard. Thus the sockets of the two forearm bones at the elbow are themselves turned outwards, and brought almost perpendicularly one over the other.
    理解区别:通过将上臂和肘部向侧面和外侧抬起,手放在键盘上,可以将手放在演奏位置。因此,肘部两根前臂骨的插座本身向外转动,并几乎垂直地放在彼此上方。
True, you could try to help the thumb to sound its note in this - ridiculous - way; but to substitute such clumsy action in place of the natural and easy one of Forearm-rotation is obvious folly!
当然,你可以尝试用这种荒谬的方式帮助拇指发出它的音符;但是用这种笨拙的动作代替自然而简单的前臂旋转显然是愚蠢的!
NoTe. - It is necessary, however, to allude to this possibility, since a comparatively recent author has seriously suggested this. Upper-arm rotatory process (with its digging action) in place of Forearm-rotation - which he pronounces to be "impossible in quick passages"! - and since copied elsewhere. This, of course, only proves that the author has had no inkling of the real meaning of my Forearm-rotation teaching; and imagines it to refer solely to rotational Movements, as so wildly misunderstood also by some not unrecent German writers! See Additional Note , "On Forearm-rotation Misunderstandings," etc.
注意。然而,有必要提到这种可能性,因为最近有一位相对较新的作者认真地提出了这个观点。上臂旋转过程(具有挖掘动作)代替前臂旋转 - 他宣称在快速乐句中“不可能”! - 并且在其他地方抄袭。当然,这只证明作者对我关于前臂旋转教学的真正含义一无所知;并且认为它仅仅指旋转运动,就像一些不久前的德国作家也被误解得如此离谱!请参见附加说明 ,“关于前臂旋转误解等”。

Upper-arm . Forearm-rotation Test:
上臂 。前臂旋转测试:

  1. If you are not quite sure of this distinction between Upper- and Fore-arm rotation, refer to the following convincing "Test-exercises":
    如果您对上臂旋转和前臂旋转之间的区别不太确定,请参考以下令人信服的“测试练习”:
  2. Fold your arm in front of your chest. Poise it nicely and freely. Now rotate the forearm, while thus in front of you, as easily and freely as you should do when executing a tolerably quick tremolo. With the arm thus bent at right angles, you are bound to use solely forearm rotation, and Upper-arm rotation is altogether "cut out" for the time being.
    将手臂交叉放在胸前。优雅而自如地保持姿势。现在旋转前臂,就像在你面前这样,就像执行相当快速的颤音时应该那样轻松自如。手臂弯曲成直角时,你必须只使用前臂旋转,此时完全不需要上臂旋转。
  3. Next, stretch your whole arm straight out in front of you, and again, with the Forearm only, execute your free and easy tremolo movements.
    接下来,将整只手臂伸直到你面前,再次,只用前臂,执行自由轻松的颤音运动。
  4. And now, instead of this comfortable Forearm-rotatory tremolo, try to substitute a twisting of the whole arm from the shoulder-socket - Upper-arm rotation. Although you may partially succeed in doing this (but accompanied by very ugly and clumsy circular movements of the Elbow itself), you will still find that the Forearm rotatory-vibration is incomparably more easy and natural.
    现在,不要使用这种舒适的前臂旋转颤音,尝试用整个手臂从肩膀插座扭动来替代 - 上臂旋转。虽然你可能部分成功地做到这一点(但伴随着非常难看和笨拙的肘部本身的圆形运动),你仍会发现前臂旋转振动无疑更容易和自然。
  5. Now apply the rotatory tremolo of the Forearm to the keyboard itself, via any two fingers.
    现在将前臂的旋转颤音应用到键盘本身,通过任意两根手指。
Finally, again try to execute it instead by means of Upperarm rotation, and the folly of this mistake is amusingly evident - for it would need a circling elbow, and would be sure to be stiff at that! Carefully eliminate any such false and ugly technique from your technical scheme.
最后,再次尝试通过上臂旋转来执行它,这个错误的愚蠢之处是令人发笑的明显 - 因为它需要一个环绕的肘部,而且肯定会很僵硬!仔细从你的技术方案中消除任何这种虚假且丑陋的技术。
Octaves, etc., need Rotation invisibly provided:
八度音程等需要隐形旋转。
  1. FOR OCTAVEs, and passages in double-notes (double-thirds, sixths, etc.), the law is, that the rotatory conditions must be remade each time, individually, for each double-note effect; but in the meantime do not forget the required exertions of the two fingers concerned! Double-third passages, rotationally, are often a cross between octave and single note playing. In some places the rotational effect has merely to be repeated, whereas in others a single finger acts as a pivot, and the rule as to single notes, rotationally, then supervenes. Difficulty in octave passage playing is most frequently traceable to disobedience of this law. Remake the required set of conditions each time for each octave, and the difficulty forthwith vanishes. Give sufficient rotatoryexertion each time towards the thumb to enable this adequately to sound its note; and also, be sure to provide for each successive octave, individually, the exertion each time of the thumb and little finger during key-descent.
    对于八度音程和双音(双三度、六度等)的乐句,法则是,旋转条件必须每次重新制定,针对每个双音效果单独制定;但同时不要忘记涉及的两根手指所需的努力!双三度的乐句,在旋转方面,常常是八度音和单音演奏之间的交叉。在某些地方,旋转效果只需重复一次,而在其他地方,一个手指充当枢轴,然后单音的旋转规则就会出现。八度乐句演奏中的困难往往可以追溯到对这一法则的违反。每次为每个八度重新制定所需的条件,困难立即消失。每次都向拇指施加足够的旋转力量,以使其充分发出音符;同时,确保为每个连续的八度,单独为拇指和小指在按键下降时施加力量。
Nore. - The hand cannot be "formed" for the octave passage, as the old teachers so fondly imagined - and hence wrought so much mischief technically. The folly of To attempt any setting or "fixation" of the fingers, would only "hand-forming" for octaves result in stiff fingers and hands, unable to do their work, and a stiff forearm unable to fulfill its duties. In the old days, only geniuses could play so-called "lightning octaves" - because their healthy instinct compelled them to disobey their teachers! Nowadays, however, every student can and should be directly taught this "great secret"-of gliding along the surface of the keyboard, and for each octave remaking a momentary rotational exertion to help the momentary finger-and-hand exertions.
Nore. - 手不能像老师们所幻想的那样“形成”八度音程,因此在技术上造成了很多混乱。试图设置或“固定”手指的愚蠢行为只会导致手指和手部僵硬,无法完成工作,以及僵硬的前臂无法履行其职责。在过去,只有天才才能演奏所谓的“闪电八度” - 因为他们健康的本能驱使他们违抗老师!然而,如今,每个学生都可以并且应该直接学习这个“伟大的秘密” - 沿着键盘表面滑动,并为每个八度重新进行瞬时的旋转努力,以帮助瞬时的手指和手部努力。

"Finger-work" defined: “指法”定义:

  1. We realize, then, that not only is there no "Fingertechnique" without Hand- and Arm-help in some form or other, but also, that the Forearm rotatory help must always be provided for every note played, whatever the form of touch used.
    我们意识到,不仅在某种形式上没有“手指技术”而没有手和臂的帮助,而且,无论使用何种触感,每个音符都必须提供前臂旋转帮助。
Note. - So-called "Finger-work" is never finger-exertion only, but always implies finger-exertions either invisibly or visibly backed up by Forearm rotativestresses and hand-exertions, plus the other arm elements, when and where required.
注意。- 所谓的“手指技术”从来不仅仅是手指的努力,而总是意味着手指的努力,无论是隐形地还是明显地由前臂的旋转压力和手部的努力支持,再加上其他手臂元素,必要时。
Or, we might go even further, and define "Finger" passagework as consisting of: -
或者,我们甚至可以进一步定义“指法”为以下内容:-
"Individually applied FOREARM-rotation impulses TRANSMITTED to the keyboard by the OBEDIENT exertion of the finger and hand for each note," that is: Forearm-rotational and Hand-and-Finger impulses accurately timed for each key-descent, and optionally helped by the other arm elements when required.
通过手指和手的服从努力,将单独施加的前臂旋转冲击传递到键盘上的每个音符,即:为每个按键下降准确计时的前臂旋转和手指冲击,必要时可由其他手臂元素协助。

Rotatory Movements: 旋转运动:

  1. As to rotatory movements themselves (as indicated earlier) these are optional. During slow passages they are not only harmless, but may even be particularly helpful. Whereas, in quick passages they may become a hindrance, and even impossible, and finger-movements must here be substituted - but do not in the meantime lose the benefit of the INvisible rotational help given individually for each note.
    至于旋转运动本身(如前所示),这是可选的。在慢速段落中,它们不仅是无害的,甚至可能特别有帮助。而在快速段落中,它们可能成为一种阻碍,甚至不可能,这时手指运动必须代替 - 但同时不要失去为每个音符单独提供的隐形旋转帮助的好处。
  2. Whether, in the end, you choose to exhibit rotative Movements in a passage, or instead choose finger or hand Movements, depends upon which of these three components you place in the ascendant at the moment.
    无论最终你选择在一个乐句中展示旋转运动,还是选择手指或手部运动,取决于你在那一刻将这三个组成部分中的哪一个放在主导地位。
Note. - For further information on Rotation, read the Additional Note, No. III, and also refer to "Forearm-Rotation" and "Child's First Steps" (Joseph Williams). Also "First Solo Book" (with its Preface); "Playthings for Little Players" (two books), and "Pianist's First Music Making" (three books) and "Nine Sheps towards Finger-Individualization" (Oxford University Press).
注意。-有关旋转的更多信息,请阅读附注 III,并参考“前臂旋转”和“孩子的第一步”(Joseph Williams)。还有“第一独奏曲集”(附有序言);“小小演奏家的玩具”(两本书),以及“钢琴演奏家的初次演奏”(三本书)和“九只羊朝向手指个性化”(牛津大学出版社)。

Rotational Analysis of passages:
旋转分析的段落:

  1. Finally, since correct Rotation is so all-important, whenever a passage "goes doubtfully" play it through once or twice so slowly that you can analyse and re-analyse the DIRECTion of the succession of its rotatory-impulses. Do this so slowly that you can actually rock the hand from side to side for each note - a rolling or rocking movement towards each note, after first rocking backwards. Thus you impress upon your mind
    最后,由于正确的旋转非常重要,每当一个乐句“走得不确定”时,都要慢慢地演奏一两次,以便你可以分析和重新分析其旋转脉冲的连续方向。要做到这一点,要慢到你实际上可以为每个音符从一侧摇摆到另一侧 - 首先向后摇摆,然后向每个音符做一个滚动或摇摆的动作。这样你就能印在你的脑海中。

    the direction of the rotational help which eventually you have to provide invisibly and wirHout actual rotatory movement, and yet correct in the incidence of its rotational stresses for every note.
    旋转帮助的方向,最终你必须无形地提供,并且没有实际的旋转运动,但对每个音符的旋转应力发生的情况是正确的。
Note. - As there has been a good deal of misunderstanding (and worse) as to the true nature of the Forearm-rotation Element (and apparently still is in some benighted quarters), I again refer the interested reader to the Additional Note, No. III, which fully deals with all the points raised.
注意。- 由于对前臂旋转要素的真实性质存在相当多的误解(甚至更糟),显然在某些愚昧的地方仍然存在,我再次将感兴趣的读者转至附加说明,第 III 号,该说明完全涵盖了提出的所有要点。

Chapter VII 第七章

ON THE MOVEMENTS OF TOUCH
- during and before Key-descent
触摸的动作 - 在按键下降期间和之前

  1. Ample preliminary movements to the key are not to be discouraged, provided the Tempo of the passage admits of such. Often they are quite helpful when used in the right way.
    充足的前奏动作不应受到打击,只要乐句的速度允许。当以正确的方式使用时,它们通常是非常有帮助的。

Right and Wrong ways of reaching the Key:
到达关键的正确和错误方式:

The right way is to reach the keys always quite gently with your finger-tips. The resistance of the key can then be gauged on the way down; whereas, the wrong way is to "lift" the fingers, etc., "so that the key may be hit down" - a now exploded theory of the past.
正确的方法是用指尖轻轻触碰琴键。琴键的阻力可以在按下的过程中感知到;而错误的方法是“抬起”手指等,“以便按下琴键” - 这是过去的一个已被推翻的理论。
  1. Remember, it is only after your finger-tip has reached the surface of the key that the true tone-producing action must "follow-on." There need not necessarily be any break between the two distinct activities of reaching the key and bringing the same into motion. The finger-movement to the key should always be quite light; whereas, the tone-producing stress during the "follow-on" may be quite forcible at times.
    记住,只有在你的指尖触及键面后,真正的产生音调的动作才会“跟随”进行。在到达键面和使其运动之间并不一定需要有任何间断。到达键面的手指运动应该始终很轻;而在“跟随”过程中产生音调的压力有时可能会相当有力。
  2. Thus, for instance, when you turn your hand over into its playing position, your thumb reaches the key-surface quite gently; but to sound its note, the forearm rotatory exertion as well as the thumb exertion must both be materially increased during the moment of Key-descent.
    因此,例如,当您将手翻转到演奏位置时,您的拇指会轻轻触及键面;但为了发出音符,前臂的旋转运动以及拇指的运动在按键下降的瞬间都必须显著增加。
  3. The Movement during key-descent may, in this case, be either a movement of the thumb, or of the forearm rotationally. Movement of the Thumb results when its exertion outbalances that of the Forearm; whereas an actual rotatory movement of the Forearm results when that element is in the ascendant.
    在这种情况下,按键下降时的运动可能是拇指的运动,也可能是前臂的旋转运动。当拇指的作用超过前臂时,就会出现拇指的运动;而当前臂的运动占优势时,就会出现前臂的实际旋转运动。

Finger-lifting and striking:
指弹和弹击:

To teach finger-lifting so as to be able to "strike" better, was one of the worst fallacies and superstitions of the teachers of the Past; and this, because it precludes any judging of the key's resistance, and therefore also precludes musical playing - if really carried out.
教授指法提升以便更好地“击键”,是过去教师们最糟糕的谬论和迷信之一;这是因为它排除了对键盘阻力的判断,因此也排除了音乐演奏——如果真的执行。

Reiterated notes: 重复的音符:

  1. For quickly reiterated notes do not leave the surface of the key at all; and for very soft effects do not even allow the keys to rise fully to surface-level.
    对于快速重复的音符,完全不要离开键面;对于非常柔和的效果,甚至不要让键完全升至表面水平。
  2. If you have already formed the habit of ridiculously pulling up your fingers, it is best for a time never to raise the tips beyond key-level, until you have made a saner habit-that of taking hold upon the key so that you can use it to make Music.
    如果你已经养成了荒谬地抬起手指的习惯,最好在一段时间内不要将手指尖抬高过键位,直到你养成了一个更理智的习惯——抓住琴键,以便你可以用它来演奏音乐。
Note. - The really musical pupil of course never did obey such injunctions, and his ear and his instincts instead forced him to play correctly, in spite of his "teaching"!
注意。- 当然,真正音乐天赋的学生从来不会遵守这样的命令,他的耳朵和直觉反而迫使他正确演奏,尽管有“教导”!
  1. For a slow succession of notes, the whole arm (or the forearm only) may be moved; for quicker passages, the hand; and for the quickest, finger-movement only is available.
    对于缓慢的音符连续,整个手臂(或仅前臂)可以移动;对于更快的乐句,使用手;对于最快的乐句,只能使用手指移动。
1 Neither the "strong" muscles of the Forearm, rotationally, need participate until the key is reached, nor those of the finger.
1 前臂的“强壮”肌肉在旋转时不需要参与,直到达到按键位置,手指的肌肉也是如此。
  1. Further details of Mowement are given in the Epitome, Section VII, page 27, to which refer. Also see Note to of next chapter.
    在《摘要》第七部分第 27 页中提供了 Mowement 的更多细节,请参阅。另请参阅下一章节 的注释。

Test movements not necessarily essential:
测试动作不一定是必要的

  1. Certain vertical moveraents of the wrist-joint, with hand on the keyboard and elbow quiescent, are recommended in my "Relaxation Studies" in learaing to "aim" the tone-producing impulse required in "Weight-touch." 1 I find, however, that these testing movements have been misunderstood by some (or purposely misinterpreted) to signify that insist on such movements as a necessary part of the technical process! Must I repeat for the th time that such up-and-down movements of the wrist have been suggested only as test-movements during the learning stage, and that I bave not recommended them during actual performance except as an occasional reference-test for freedom?
    手腕关节的特定垂直运动,手放在键盘上,肘部静止,建议在我的“放松研究”中,学习“瞄准”“重触”所需的音色产生冲动。然而,我发现,一些人(或者故意曲解)误解了这些测试性动作,认为我坚持认为这些动作是技术过程中必不可少的一部分!我必须重复第 次吗,手腕的上下运动仅被建议作为学习阶段的测试性动作,并且我并未建议在实际演奏中使用,除非作为自由度的偶尔参考测试?
The exercises in question certainly form an admirable way of acquiring that necessary co-ordination (and timing during keydescent) between finger-and-band exertion and lapse of armweight, needed to ensure success technically - but they are not a necessary part of Technique.
问题中的练习确实是获得必要的协调(以及在按键下降过程中的节奏)的令人钦佩的方式,需要手指和带的努力与臂重的消退之间的协调,以确保在技术上取得成功 - 但它们并不是技术的必要部分。
NorE. - The full weight of the armo (f lll lapse of the arm) can indeed be quite well applied during tone-production without showing the slightest hint of any movement of the arm or wrist whatever! The arm can be either fully or partially relaxed irrespective of any actual nowememt of it - provided the finger-and-hand exertions are ample and are properly timed - or "aimed" to the tone.
NorE. - 在音调产生过程中,手臂的全部重量(手臂的全部松弛)确实可以很好地施加,而完全不显示手臂或手腕的任何移动迹象!手臂可以完全或部分放松,而不管手臂的实际运动如何 - 只要手指和手的努力足够,并且时间恰当 - 或者“瞄准”到音调。
The same question arises with regard to the constant reversals and repetitions of the Forearm-rotational conditions required from note to note. They may be allowed to become evident as actual movements, or they may be totally hidden from view, while a movement of the finger w.nly may be substituted. In fact, most of the processes of tone-production need not be disclosed as movements, and vice rersa, visible, actual movements form no sure indication of the actual processes employed or needed in Touch.
关于从一个音符到另一个音符所需的前臂旋转条件的不断逆转和重复,同样的问题也会出现。它们可以被允许显露为实际的动作,或者可以完全隐藏起来,而仅仅手指的运动可能被替代。事实上,大多数音色产生的过程不需要被公开为动作,反之亦然,可见的实际动作并不能确切指示在触摸中所采用或需要的实际过程。
See Section II, page 9, Resarration Studies (Bosworth).
查看第 II 部分,第 9 页,复原研究(博斯沃斯)。

Chapter VIII 第八章

THE PROCESS OF HOLDING NOTES DOWN
按住音符的过程

  • the Right way and the Wrong way.
    正确的方式和错误的方式。
  1. As important as the proper sounding of notes is also the proper mode of holding them down once they are sounded.
    与音符的正确发声一样重要的是一旦发声就要正确按住它们的方式。
  2. All accuracy, musically, and ease in keyboard progression is instantly ruined if you hold notes down wrongly, by continuing the same force needed to sound them - except in ; it will ruin Agility, and accuracy of tone-response to your wish. As already insisted upon, however powerfully you may need to move the key down, once it is down it must be held quite lightly. This is a first law of Technique.
    如果你按错了音符,继续用相同的力量按下去,所有的准确性、音乐性和键盘演奏的轻松感都会瞬间荡然无存——除非在 ;这会破坏敏捷性,以及对你愿望的音调反应的准确性。然而,正如已经强调的那样,无论你需要多大力气按下琴键,一旦按下去,就必须轻轻地保持按住。这是技巧的第一法则。
  3. Now recall that you can only satisfactorily sound a note when you actuate the finger by its "strong" muscles - which are situated on the forearm. During the flash of key-descent you will therefore quite properly feel a slight tension on the underside of the wrist-joint.
    现在回想一下,只有当你通过手臂上的“强壮”肌肉来激活手指时,你才能令音符发出令人满意的声音。因此,在按键下降的一瞬间,你会感到手腕关节下方有轻微的紧张感。
  4. But in sounding the note you are also using the "small" muscles of the finger, which are situated on the inside of the hand.
    但是在发出音符时,您也在使用手指的“小”肌肉,这些肌肉位于手的内侧。

Notes held only by the weak muscles:
只有弱肌肉才能保持的音符:

Now, it is imperative to learn to hold notes down solely by continuing the action of these last, the so-called "small" muscles (or "lumbricales") of the finger.
现在,必须学会通过继续这些最后的动作,即所谓的“小”肌肉(或“腱肌”)来保持音符的持续。
  1. Remember, precisely the same applies with regard to the Hand. When helping the finger-exertion by hand-exertion during key-descent, you may use the "strong" flexor muscles of the hand; whereas to hold the notes down these are no longer required.
    记住,同样适用于手。在按键下降过程中通过手的努力帮助手指的努力时,您可以使用手的“强大”屈肌;而为了按住音符,这些就不再需要了。
  2. The moment, therefore, that you have completed the action of sounding a note, you must instantly cease the action of the "strong" muscles - with their slight straining across the wrist, underneath; and you must fulfil the holding of that note in tenuto or legato solely by the "weak" (or "small") muscles, with complete cessation therefore of the strain across the wrist-joint, and it will then feel as if the holding were done on the underside of the fingers themselves - in fact, it may seem as if there were no effort at all!
    因此,当你完成了发声的动作时,你必须立即停止“强大”肌肉的动作 - 它们在腕部下方略微紧绷;你必须仅通过“弱”(或“小”)肌肉来保持那个音符的持续或连贯,完全停止跨腕关节的紧绷,然后感觉就好像是在手指的下侧进行保持 - 实际上,似乎根本没有任何努力!
Simplicity of transition from powerful to gentle effort:
从强大到温柔的努力转变的简单性:
  1. This complete and accurately-timed Transition from the powerful sounding-effort to the gentle holding-effort, which I have shown to be requisite for all musical playing, seemed a rather complex process before the advent of Dr. John Hunter's wonderful discovery of the dual nature of the muscular equipment.
    这种完整且精确计时的过渡,从强有力的发声努力到温和的保持努力,我已经证明对所有音乐演奏都是必需的,这在约翰·亨特博士发现肌肉设备的双重性质之前,似乎是一个相当复杂的过程。
We now see why this transition is a perfectly natural process, perfectly simple, neat, and easy to control.
我们现在明白为什么这个过渡是一个完全自然的过程,非常简单、整洁且易于控制。
Thus, to recapitulate: in sounding the note, we can quite forcibly apply both the "strong" and "weak" sets of in-folding ("flexing") muscles both of the finger AND hand, and we can nevertheless completely cease the action of the strong flexors (both of finger and hand) at the right moment, and then carry on solely with the weak ones to hold our note down - a perfectly simple process!
因此,总结一下:在发声时,我们可以强有力地运用手指和手部的内收(弯曲)肌肉组,同时完全停止强屈肌(手指和手部的)的作用,然后仅使用弱屈肌来保持音符 - 这是一个非常简单的过程!
Briefly: exert your finger and hand as fully as you like during Key-descent to attain that duly required acceleration just up to the point of sound, and then completely cease all that work, and hold on to the key solely by that gentle elastic action of finger and hand which leaves knuckles, wrist, and fingers quite elastic.
简而言之:在按键下降过程中,尽情运用手指和手部,以达到所需的加速度,直至声音产生,然后完全停止所有动作,仅通过手指和手部的轻柔弹性动作保持按键,使指关节、手腕和手指保持弹性。

See again Note to of Chapter V.
再次查看第 V 章 的注释。

In other words: Exert the strong flexors both of the finger and hand during key-descent, but hold the notes solely by the continuance of the weak ones.
换句话说:在按键下降时,要发挥手指和手部的强大屈肌,但只靠弱屈肌的持续来保持音符。
Note. - Remember that excellent example of the Oyster, quoted by Hunter, and it should not prove an insuperable difficulty for an intelligent would-be Pianostudent to learn thus to sound a note rightly, and yet hold it correctly afterwards even at his first lesson!
注意。-记住亨特引用的牡蛎的优秀例子,对于一个聪明的准备学钢琴的学生来说,学会正确发声,甚至在第一堂课上就能正确保持音符并不应该是一个难以克服的困难!
  1. This law of holding lightly (by means solely of the "weak" finger muscles) applies equally, whether you hold the notes fully depressed (as for Tenuto or Legato) or whether you hold the notes instead at their surface-level, as in staccato, and in all light Agility passages.
    这种轻握的法则(仅通过“弱”手指肌肉)同样适用,无论您是完全按下音符(如 Tenuto 或 Legato)还是将音符保持在表面水平,如 staccato,以及所有轻快的乐段。

Tests for holding rightly:
正确握持的测试:

  1. The TEST for correct action in this respect is found in watching for mobility at the knuckle-joint. If you can freely sway the knuckle of the hand up-and-down while holding the notes down, this proves that you are using the right fingermuscles - the "small" ones; whereas, the slightest impediment in this floating, vertical movement at the Knuckle, is proof that you are using the wrong ones. Frequently test in this way, even during the actual performance of passages.
    在这方面正确行动的测试是观察指关节的灵活性。如果你能够在按住音符的同时自由地摇动手指关节,这证明你正在使用正确的手指肌肉——“小”肌肉;而在指关节的浮动垂直运动中稍有阻碍,则证明你正在使用错误的手指肌肉。经常以这种方式进行测试,甚至在演奏乐句时也要如此。
Note. - But this does not mean that you must always sway the knuckles up and down while playing! Such swaying merely serves as a visible Test to ensure knuckle-mobility - which last is usually invisible.
注意。- 但这并不意味着您在演奏时必须始终摇动指关节上下!这种摇摆仅仅是为了确保指关节的灵活性而进行的可见测试-而这通常是看不见的。
  1. To demonstrate the possibility of this two-fold action, experiment as follows:-
    为了展示这种双重作用的可能性,可以进行如下实验:-
Clench your hand somewhat firmly, pressing your fingertips well into the palm of your hand. Notice, that while you continue doing this, there is a slight strain across the wrist, on its under-side. Now move the hand slightly and very carefully up-and-down, and you will notice this tension better. Now completely relax this straining across the wrist-joint, while still leaving the tips of your fingers gently in contact with the palm of your hand. It is solely this second form of quite light, gentle pressure that is required of your fingers, when you hold down the notes of your Pianoforte correctly.
稍微用力握紧手,将指尖压入手掌。请注意,当您继续这样做时,手腕下方会有轻微的紧张感。现在轻轻地小心地将手上下移动,您会更清楚地感受到这种紧张感。现在完全放松手腕关节上的紧张感,同时仍然让手指尖轻轻接触手掌。当您正确按下钢琴音符时,只需要这种第二种形式的轻柔压力。
You can also test for this correct holding of notes, by seeing whether the knuckles can float up-and-down while you hold the notes down.
您还可以通过观察指关节是否能够在您按住音符的同时上下浮动来测试音符是否被正确按住。

Further Tests: 进一步测试:

  1. Test also for mobility at the wrist-joint. There must never be any so-called (and mis-called) "fixing." Such "fixing" should instead imply the sufficient exertion only of the folding-in muscles of the fingers, during the moment of key-descent, in conjunction with a down-exertion of the hand when required, and should never be allowed to degenerate into a general stiffening or fixing of the whole limb (owing to the use of antagonistic muscles) which inevitably destroys all Technique.
    在腕关节也要测试灵活性。绝对不能有所谓的(并且被错误地称为)“固定”。这种“固定”应该只意味着在按键下降的瞬间,手指的屈肌必须充分发力,必要时配合手部向下用力,绝不能演变成整个肢体僵硬或固定(由于拮抗肌肉的使用)而毁坏所有的技术。
  2. In my "Relaxation Studies" are described many other tests and exercises to assist in the acquisition of requisite skill in this particular respect. Very helpful are the first two quoted in Section of that work.
    在我的“放松研究”中描述了许多其他测试和练习,以帮助在这方面获得必要技能。在该作品的第 部分中引用的前两个测试非常有帮助。
Nore. - These forward-and-backward Tests of the Arm. and up-and-down swayings of the Wrist-joint, which I there recommend (in my Relaxation Studies)
Nore. - 这些我推荐的手臂前后测试和手腕关节上下摇摆,在我的放松研究中。
TheUndulatory, Curvilinear, or "Kurren" Theories of Touch solely as tests, are no doubt akin to the puerile "undulatory Theories of Touch" of some recent writers; but, whereas I put these (and rotational Movements) forward in 1911 as occasional Tests for Freedom at the knuckles and wrist-joint, these "undulatory theories" have been seriously proposed as an integral part (and explanation) of the processes of Touch in general!
触觉的波动、曲线或“库伦”理论仅仅作为测试,无疑类似于一些近期作家提出的幼稚的“触觉波动理论”;但是,我在 1911 年提出这些(以及旋转运动)作为指示指关节和腕关节自由度的偶发测试,而这些“波动理论”却被认真提出作为触觉过程的整体部分(和解释)!
As indicated elsewhere, these undulatory theories are obviously again the result of trying to analyse touch from the outside - from the movements exhibited by successful players. Almost every artist sooner or later develops certain amiable little fads of movement, quite unessential, but which he has accidentally associated with the sense of freedom in certain passages; such harmless movements are of course actually of the same nature as these very Tests, here alluded to. They are adopted by such artists simply as Tests for freedom at the knuckle and wrist and for rotation, and which are therefore movements quite extraneous to the Act of Touch itself. The incapable analyst, however, comes on the scene (himself probably quite incapable of playing rightly) and imagines that these quite unessential movements form "The Great Secret" of the witnessed artist's success! And the poor student is then instructed when playing certain rising successions of notes (such as the ascending five-finger exercise) that he must wave his arms forwards, upwards, and roundwise (rotationally), and must, for the descending succession of notes, reverse these wriggles, and unwind himself.
正如其他地方所指出的那样,这些波动理论显然又是试图从外部分析触感的结果 - 从成功演奏者展示的动作。几乎每位艺术家迟早都会发展出某些可爱的小动作,这些动作并不重要,但他们却偶然地与某些乐句中的自由感联系在一起;这些无害的动作当然实际上与这些被提到的测试的性质完全相同。这些动作被这样的艺术家采用,仅仅是作为对指关节和手腕自由度的测试,以及旋转的测试,因此这些动作实际上与触感本身的行为毫不相关。然而,无能的分析家出现了(他自己可能完全无法正确演奏),并想象这些完全不重要的动作构成了被观察艺术家成功的“伟大秘密”!然后,可怜的学生在演奏某些上升音阶(例如上升的五指练习)时被告知,他必须向前、向上、以及旋转地挥动手臂,而对于下降的音阶,他必须反转这些扭动,并解开自己。
But there is nothing new under the sun! Even Ludwig DePPe (born 1828), who was valiantly trying to break away from the horribly stiff pedagogy then in vogue, is found still using such empirical "Suggestion-devices" in his "Kurven" Theories - curvilinear (or "undulatory") up-and-down and rotational swayings, which he imagined to be a necessary part of the process of playing Arpeggios, etc.!
但是太阳底下并没有什么新鲜事!即使是路德维希·德佩(出生于 1828 年),他勇敢地试图摆脱当时流行的可怕僵化教学法,却发现他仍在他的“曲线”理论中使用这种经验主义的“建议设备” - 曲线(或“波浪状”)的上下和旋转摇摆,他认为这是演奏琶音等过程中必不可少的一部分!
While such movements might optionally accompany passages successfully played, imitation of such (sometimes amiable) fads will certainly not necessarily conduce to the acquisition of correct habits of Key-treatment, nor do they give any inkling of the things that matter. Moreover, the fact is, that the public does not enjoy them, and is apt to become restless under the infliction.
尽管这些动作可能会在成功演奏的乐段中选择性地出现,但模仿这些(有时可爱的)时尚肯定不会必然导致正确的键盘处理习惯的养成,也不会透露出重要的事情。此外,事实是,公众并不喜欢它们,并且很可能在受折磨时变得不耐烦。

The "Holding-notes" Test-exercise:
“保持音符” 测试练习:

  1. Perhaps the most important and useful of such Technical Tests are the age-known "Holding-notes Exercises." They must, however, be practised correctly in the way shown in my aforesaid "Relaxation Studies." Practised wrongly, as they mostly were in the past - with the notes held down "firmly" as we were told to do - they are bound to prove more baneful than any other mis-practised exercises. In fact, thus practised, they would tend to build up a sure bar to one's ever acquiring a correct Technique!
    也许这些技术测试中最重要和最有用的是众所周知的“保持音练习”。然而,它们必须按照我前述的“放松研究”中所示的方式正确练习。如果练习错误,就像过去大多数情况下那样——我们被告知要“牢固”按住音符——它们肯定会比任何其他练习错误更有害。事实上,如果这样练习,它们会成为一个确保你永远无法获得正确技巧的障碍!
NoTe. - Holding the notes "at surface level" was certainly a step forward, but even with this improvement, the "Holding-notes" exercise is still bound to be dangerous, since one can hold one's hand quite stiffly while thus executing it!
NoTe. - 将音符保持在“表面水平”上无疑是一大进步,但即使有了这一改进,“保持音符”的练习仍然很危险,因为执行时手可能会变得非常僵硬!
The only safeguard is to insist on the test for freedom at the knuckle-joint. The proper mode of practice is fully explained in Set XIV, pp. 106 and 107 of these "Relaxation Studies" of mine, which see.
唯一的保障是坚持在指关节进行自由测试。正确的实践方式在我这本《放松研究》的第十四套中得到了充分解释,详见第 106 页和 107 页。
  1. The most efficacious positions of this holding-notes Test are the three following ones, and they cover the ground.
    这个保持音符测试最有效的位置是以下三个,它们涵盖了整个领域。
Sound the sf note quite strongly by the strong finger muscles (and hand-exertion also) - but then at once hold it quite lightly by the small finger-muscles, so lightly indeed that your knuckles can be swayed up-and-down freely as a Test while you sound the subsequent notes. See next page:
用强壮的手指肌肉(以及手部用力)强烈地发出 sf 音符的声音 - 但随后立即用小手指肌肉轻轻地按住它,确实是如此轻,以至于在您发出后续音符时,您的指关节可以自由地上下摆动。请参见下一页:

  1. The "Throw-of" and "Float-off" Test-exercises - and others - quoted under Set III, pages 24-33 of these "Relaxation Studies," incidentally also serve this very same purpose.
    这些“放开”和“漂浮”测试练习 - 以及其他练习 - 在这些“放松研究”的第 III 套,第 24-33 页中被引用,顺便也达到了同样的目的。

Chapter  

THE BENT AND FLAT FINGER-ACTIONS
弯曲和平坦的手指动作

  1. There are two quite opposite forms of finger-action possible, as already described in Chapter IV, T 2, etc. Formerly this difference was but vaguely understood. Hence arose the terms "Bent-finger" and "Flat-finger," because of the visual difference when the finger is much raised from the keyboard, in its preliminary movement. See Chapter V, .
    有两种完全相反的手指动作形式,如已在第四章 IV,T 2 等中描述。以前这种差异只是模糊地理解。因此出现了“弯曲手指”和“平坦手指”这些术语,因为当手指在其初步运动中远离键盘时,视觉上有明显差异。请参阅第五章
  2. The point to understand is, that you can move towards the key and with the key, in two quite distinct and opposite ways. With either of these two actions, however, once the finger has fulfilled its movement, and the key is down, your finger may actually be equally more or less flat or bent. See the photographs given on page 34 of the EpItOME.
    理解的关键是,您可以朝着音调的方向以及与音调相反的两种方式移动。然而,无论采取这两种行动中的哪一种,一旦手指完成了移动,按键被按下,您的手指实际上可能是平的或弯曲的。请参阅《EpItOME》第 34 页上提供的照片。

A curling or uncurling action:
卷曲或展开的动作:

  1. Thus, (a) you can exert or move your finger in a folding or curling-in direction; or (b) you can do the opposite thing, and open-out or uncurl the finger as it moves towards and with the key.
    因此,(a)您可以朝折叠或卷曲的方向用力或移动手指;或者(b)您可以做相反的事情,打开或展开手指,使其朝着并与按键一起移动。
  2. With the folding-in action against the key, you will in a measure exert a pulling or clinging action upon the key with the finger-tips; hence its designation "clinging-touch" (or flatfinger) because, if you lift the finger well beforehand, you will then start this folding-in action with the finger in a more or less straightened-out or flat preliminary position.
    通过对按键的折叠动作,你将在一定程度上用指尖对按键施加拉扯或粘附作用;因此它被称为“粘触”(或平指)因为,如果你提前将手指抬起,那么你将以手指处于较为伸直或平坦的初始位置开始这种折叠动作。

Clinging-finger, a gripping action:
紧握手指,一种紧握的动作:

  1. This folding-in or "clinging" action is the most natural and generally useful one at the Piano. It is precisely the same action of the finger as in all our ordinary avocations when we grip hold of anything. It is the same action as folding your finger-tips into the palm of your hand; but at the Piano this complete folding-in of the finger is baulked, since the keyboard intervenes.
    这种折叠或“紧贴”动作是钢琴上最自然且普遍有用的动作。这正是手指在我们所有日常活动中抓住任何东西时的动作。这与将手指尖折叠到手掌中完全相同;但在钢琴上,手指的完全折叠被键盘阻挡。

The Bent-finger unbends in moving down:
弯曲的手指在向下移动时伸直:

  1. With the opposite action - the unfolding or opening-out action, you will, on the contrary, thrust or shove with your finger against the key - in place of that pulling of it towards you, which you experience with the "clinging" form of touch.
    通过相反的动作——展开或打开的动作,相反地,你会用手指推或推按键,而不是拉向你的动作,这是你在“粘着”触摸形式中体验到的。
In this shoving, or thrusting action (as I have called it), if you start from a well-raised position, you will find that the finger is more or less fully bent or curved - hence its name; but when you move down towards (and with) the key, you actually open it out, or uncurl it, more or less. The nail-phalange (or nailjoint), however, here remains more or less vertical throughout.
在这种推挤动作中(正如我所称呼的),如果你从一个高高抬起的位置开始,你会发现手指或多或少地完全弯曲 - 因此得名;但当你向下移动到(和)按键时,实际上你会打开它,或多或少地展开它。然而,在这里,指甲指节(或指甲关节)始终保持或多或少地垂直。
  1. This thrusting action of the finger is more artificial and complex than is the clinging or gripping action; and this, because when you descend towards (and with) the key by this
    手指的这种推进动作比抓握动作更人为和复杂;这是因为当你通过这种方式向键盘下降时

    form of finger-action, you have actually to raise the two outermost portions of the finger (the nail and middle phalanges), relatively to the descending knuckle-phalange - indeed, a much more complex and conflicting action when compared to the natural gripping process of clinging or flat finger.
    以手指动作的形式,实际上你必须相对于下降的指关节指骨,提起手指的两个最外侧部分(指甲和中节骨),这与自然抓握或平指的过程相比,是一种更复杂和矛盾的动作。

Bent-finger needs Elbow forward:
弯曲的手指需要向前伸出肘部:

  1. Moreover, the bent or thrusting finger-action, being in the nature of a thrust or shove, has this disadvantage, that it needs, as a basis for its shove, either a forwardly poised or actually forwardly exerted upper-arm, or Elbow.
    此外,弯曲或推进的手指动作,由于本质上是一种推进或推挤,具有这样的缺点,即它需要作为推挤基础的要么是向前摆动的或实际向前用力的上臂,要么是肘部。
In this case, however, you totally cut out any assistance from Upper-arm weight. Whereas with the clinging-finger, the Upperarm can be relaxed more or less fully, thus providing a far more satisfactory basis for (pleasant) tone-making than does the "straight from the shoulder" action or bent finger, with its more or less forward driven Upper-arm and downward-acting Forearm.
在这种情况下,您完全剔除了来自上臂重量的任何帮助。而使用紧握手指时,上臂可以更多或更少地放松,从而为(愉悦的)音色制作提供了比“直来直去”的动作或弯曲手指更令人满意的基础,后者带有更多或更少向前推动的上臂和向下作用的前臂。
  1. As already pointed out (Chapter V, ) this forwardlypoised Upper-arm, with its thrusting finger, is however sometimes required for soft light passages, since the weight is thus taken off the keyboard - provided you avoid any fore-arm down-exertion in the meantime.
    正如已经指出的(第五章, ),这个向前伸出的上臂,以及它的推进手指,有时候确实需要用于轻柔的演奏部分,因为这样可以减轻键盘的压力 - 前提是同时避免任何前臂向下用力。
With such poised condition of the Upper-arm you may optionally employ either "flat" or "bent" finge