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ON THE 2 ' AT DELPHI
关于 2 ' 在德尔斐

Browne's Miscellany Tract On Oracles
布朗的《神谕杂录

(In the Pronaos of the temple at Delphi the visitor was confronted by certain inscriptions
(在德尔斐神庙的普罗纳奥斯,游客看到了一些碑文

exhortations to wisdom or prudence (Plato, Charmides, 163-4). To these is to be added, on the sole authority of Plutarch's Dialogue,** the letter E, pronounced EI.)
柏拉图,《查密德篇》,163-4)。除此以外,根据普鲁塔克《对话录》** 的唯一权威,还要加上字母 E,读作 EI)。
THE SPEAKERS 发言人
Ammonius, the Platonist philosopher, Plutarch's teacher.
阿摩尼乌斯,柏拉图主义哲学家,普鲁塔克的老师。
LAMPRIAS, Plutarch's brother.
兰普利斯,普鲁塔克的弟弟。
PLUTARCH. 普鲁塔什
THEON, a literary friend.
THEON,一位文学界的朋友。
EUSTROPHUS, an Athenian.
EUSTROPHUS, 雅典人。
NICANDER, a priest of the temple.
尼坎德,神庙祭司。
I. A day or two ago, dear Serapion, I met with some rather good lines, addressed, Dicaearchus thinks, to Archelaus by Euripides:
I.一两天前,亲爱的塞拉皮翁,我看到了几句非常好的诗句,狄卡阿卡斯认为是欧里庇得斯写给阿切劳斯的:
No gifts, my wealthy friend, from humble me;
没有礼物,我富有的朋友,来自卑微的我;
You'll think me fool, or think I did but beg.
你会认为我是个傻瓜,或者认为我只是在乞讨。
He who out of his narrow store offers trifles to men of great possessions, confers no favour; no one believes that he gives something for nothing, and he gets credit for a jealous and ungenerous temper. Now surely as money presents fall far below those of literature and learning, so there is beauty in giving these, and beauty in claiming a return in kind. At any rate, I am sending to you, and so to my friends down there, some of our Pythian Dialogues, as a sort of firstfruits; and in doing so, confess that I expect others from you, and more and better ones, since you enjoy a great city and abundant leisure, with many books and discussions of every sort. Well, then, our kind Apollo, in the oracles which he gives his consultants, seems to solve the problems of life and to find a remedy, while problems of the intellect he actually suggests and propounds to the born love of wisdom in the soul, thus implanting an appetite which leads to truth. Among other instances, this is made clear as to the consecration of the letter ' '. We may well guess that it was not by chance, or by lot, that, along among the letters, it received pre-eminence in the God's house, and took rank as a sacred offering and a show object. No, the officials of the God in early times, when they came to speculate, either saw in it a special and extraordinary virtue, or found it a symbol for something else of serious importance, and so adopted it. I had often myself avoided the question and quietly declined it when raised in the school. However, I was lately surprised by my sons in earnest discussion with certain strangers, who were just starting from Delphi; it was not decent to put them off with excuses, they were so anxious to receive some account. We sat down near the temple, and I began to raise questions with myself, and to put others to them; and the place, and what they said, reminded me of a discussion which we heard a long time ago from Ammonius and others, at the time of Nero's visit, when the same problem had been stated in the same way.
他用自己拮据的积蓄向拥有巨额财富的人提供微不足道的东西,不会得到任何好感;没有人会相信他是不劳而获,他会因嫉妒和不慷慨的脾气而得到赞誉。就像金钱礼物远远比不上文学和学问礼物一样,赠送这些礼物也是一种美,而索取实物回报也是一种美。无论如何,我都要给你,也给我在那里的朋友们,寄去一些我们的毕达哥拉斯对话录,作为第一批果实;同时,我也承认,我期待着你寄来其他的,而且是更多更好的,因为你有一个巨大的城市 ,有丰富的闲暇,有许多书籍和各种讨论。那么,我们仁慈的阿波罗在给他的顾问们的神谕中,似乎是在解决生活中的问题,并找到补救办法,而智力问题,他实际上是在向灵魂中天生热爱智慧的人建议和提议,从而植入一种通向真理的欲望。在其他例子中," "这个字母的神圣性就说明了这一点。我们完全可以猜测,它在神的殿堂中与其他信件一样,被置于显要位置,成为神圣的祭品和展示品,并不是偶然的,也不是抽签决定的。不,神的官员们在早期进行推测时,要么在它身上看到了特殊而非凡的美德,要么发现它是其他重要事物的象征,于是就采用了它。在学校里,当有人提出这个问题时,我常常避而不谈,默默地拒绝了。然而,最近我的儿子们与几个刚从德尔斐出发的陌生人进行了认真的讨论,这让我大吃一惊。我们在神庙附近坐了下来,我开始向自己提出问题,也向其他人提出问题;这个地方和他们所说的话,让我想起了很久以前我们从阿摩尼乌斯和其他人那里听到的讨论,当时尼禄来访,同样的问题也是以同样的方式提出的。
II. That the God is no less philosopher than he is prophet appeared to all to come out directly from the exposition which Ammonius gives us of each of his names. He is 'Pythian' (The Inquirer) to those who are beginning to learn and to inquire; 'Delian' (The Clear One) and 'Phanaean' to those who are already getting something clear and a glimmering of the truth; 'Ismenian' (The Knowing) to those who possess the knowledge; 'Leschenorian' (God of Discourse) when they are in active enjoyment of dialectical and philosophic intercourse. 'Now since,' he continued, 'Philosophy embraces inquiry, wonder, and doubt, it seems natural that most of the things relating to the God should have been hidden away in riddles, and should require some account of their purpose, and an explanation of the cause. For instance, in the case of the undying fire, why the only woods used here are pine for burning and laurel for fumigation; again, why two Fates are here installed, whereas their number is everywhere else taken as three; why no woman is allowed to approach the place of the oracles; questions about the tripod, and the rest. These problems when suggested to persons not altogether wanting in reason and soul, lure them on, and challenge them to inquire, to listen, and to discuss. Look again at those inscriptions, KNOW THYSELF and NOTHING TOO MUCH; how many philosophic inquiries have they provoked! What a multitude of arguments has sprung up out of each, as from a seed! Not one of them I think is more fruitful in this way than the subject of our present inquiry.'
II.从阿摩尼乌斯(Ammonius)对神的每个名字的解释中,我们可以直接看出,神既是哲学家,又是先知。对于那些刚刚开始学习和探究的人,他是'Pythian'(探究者);对于那些已经有了一些清晰的认识和真理曙光的人,他是'Delian'(清晰者)和'Phanaean';对于那些拥有知识的人,他是'Ismanian'(知识者);当他们积极享受辩证和哲学的交流时,他是'Leschenorian'(对话之神)。他接着说:"既然哲学包含了探究、惊奇和怀疑,那么与神有关的大多数事情似乎都很自然地隐藏在谜语之中,并需要对其目的做出一些解释,对其原因做出一些说明。例如,关于不灭之火,为什么这里只用松树来燃烧,月桂树来熏蒸; ,为什么这里有两个命运女神,而其他地方都是三个;为什么不允许女人接近神谕之地;还有关于三脚架的问题,等等。这些问题一旦向那些并非完全缺乏理性和灵魂的人提出,就会引诱他们去探究、倾听和讨论。再看看那些 "知己知彼,百战不殆 "的铭文,它们引发了多少哲学探究!每一个字都像种子一样萌发出无数的论点!我认为,没有一个论点比我们现在探讨的主题更富有成效。
III. When Ammonius had said this, my brother Lamprias spoke: 'After all, the account which we have heard of the matter is simple enough and quite short. They say that the famous Wise Men, also called by some "Sophists", were properly only five, Chilon, Thales, Solon, Bias, and Pittacus. But Cleobulus, tyrant of Lindos, and, later on, Periander of Corinth, men with no wisdom or virtue in them, but forcing public opinion by influence, friends, and favours, thrust themselves into the list of the wise, and disseminated through Greece maxims and sayings resembling the utterances of the five. Then the five were vexed, but did not choose to expose the imposture, or to have an open quarrel on the matter of title, and to fight it out with such powerful persons. They met here by themselves; and after discussing the matter, dedicated the letter which is fifth in the alphabet, and also as a number signifies five, thus making their own protest before the God, that they were five, discarding and rejecting the seventh and the sixth, as having no part or lot with themselves. That this account is not beside the mark may be recognized by any one who has heard the officials of the temple naming the golden "E" as that of Livia the wife of Cæsar, the brazen one as that of the Athenians, whereas the original and oldest letter, which is of wood, is to this day called that "Of the Wise Men", as having been offered of all in common, not of any one of them.'
III.阿摩尼乌斯说完这些,我的兄弟兰普里亚斯说话了:'毕竟,我们听到的关于这件事的说法很简单,也很简短。他们说,著名的智者(也有人称之为 "诡辩家")只有五人,即奇隆、泰勒斯、索隆、比亚斯和皮塔克斯。但是,林多斯的僭主克利奥布鲁斯和后来科林斯的佩里安德尔,这些人既没有智慧也没有美德,却靠影响力、朋友和恩惠蛊惑公众舆论,把自己推上智者之列,并在希腊传播类似五人言论的格言和箴言。于是,五人恼羞成怒,但并没有选择揭穿这个骗局,也没有选择就头衔问题公开争吵,与这样有权势的人一决高下。他们自己在这里开会,讨论了这件事之后,把字母表中第五个字母,也是表示五的数字,献给了上帝,从而在上帝面前提出了自己的抗议,说他们是五个人,抛弃和拒绝了第七个和第六个,因为他们与自己没有任何关系或命运。 如果有人听到神庙的官员把金色的 "E "说成是凯撒的妻子利维亚的 "E",把铜制的 "E "说成是雅典人的 "E",而最原始、最古老的木制字母至今仍被称为 "智者的字母",因为它是所有人共同献上的,而不是其中任何一个人的。
IV. Ammonius gave a quiet smile; he had a suspicion that Lamprias had been giving us a view of his own, making up history and legend at discretion. Some one else said that it was like the nonsense which they had heard from the Chaldæan stranger a day or so before; that there were seven letters which were vowels, seven stars that have an independent motion and are unattached to the heavens; moreover that ' ' is the second vowel from the beginning, and the sun the second planet, after the moon, and that all Greeks, or nearly all, identify Apollo with the sun.
IV.阿摩尼乌斯平静地笑了笑;他怀疑兰普里亚斯在向我们讲述他自己的观点,随意编造历史和传说。还有人说,这就像他们一天前从迦勒底陌生人那里听到的无稽之谈;有七个字母是元音,有七颗星独立运动,与天无关;此外," "是开头的第二个元音,太阳是继月亮之后的第二颗行星,所有希腊人,或者说几乎所有希腊人,都将阿波罗与太阳相提并论。
'But all that', he said, 'is pernicious nonsense. Lamprias, however, has, probably without knowing it, made a move which stirs up all who have to do with the temple against his view. What he told us was unknown to any of the
但所有这些",他说,"都是有害的无稽之谈。然而,兰普里亚斯可能在不知不觉中,已经在 上做了手脚,激起了所有与神庙有关的人反对他的观点。他告诉我们的事情,没有一个人知道。
Delphians; they used to give the regular guides' account, that neither the appearance nor the sound of the letter has any significance, but only the name.'
德尔菲人;他们过去常说,字母的外观和声音都没有任何意义,只有名字才有意义。
V. 'No, the Delphic Officials', said Nicander the priest, speaking for them, 'believe that it is a vehicle, a form assumed by the petition addressed to the God; it has a leading place in the questions of those who consult him, and inquire, If they shall conquer; If they shall marry; If it is advisable to sail; If to farm; If to travel. The God in his wisdom would bow out the dialecticians when they think that nothing practical comes of the "If" part with its clause attached; he admits as practical, in his sense of the word, all questions so attached. Then, since it is our personal concern to question him as prophet, but a general concern to pray to him as God, they hold that the letter embraces the virtue of prayer no less than that of inquiry; "O, If I might!" says every one who prays, as Archiolochus
V.不,德尔斐官员",祭司尼坎德代表他们说,"他们认为这只是一种载体,是向神请愿的一种形式;它在那些向神请愿的人的问题中占据着主导地位,他们询问: 如果征服;如果结婚;如果出海;如果耕种;如果旅行。当辩证法学家们认为 "如果 "部分附带的分句没有任何实际意义时,上帝会以他的智慧让 ;他承认,在他的意义上,所有附带的问题都是实际的。那么,既然询问作为先知的他是我们个人的事,而向作为上帝的他祈祷则是普遍的事,他们认为这封信所包含的祈祷的美德不亚于询问的美德。
If it might be mine, prevailing, Neobule's hand to touch!
如果这可能是我的,那么,Neobule 的手就可以触摸到了!
When If-so-be is used, the latter part is dragged in (compare Sophron's "Bereaved of children, I trow"12, or Homer's "As I will break thy might, I trow"13). But If gives the sense of prayer sufficiently.'
当使用 "If-so-be "时,后半部分被拖入(比较索弗隆的 "Bereaved of children, I trow "12 或荷马的 "As I will break thy might, I trow "13 )。但是,'如果'充分体现了祈祷的意义。
VI. When Nicander had finished, our friend Theon, whom I am sure you know, asked Ammonius whether Dialectic might speak freely, after the insulting remarks to which she had been treated. Ammonius told him to speak out on her behalf. 'That the God is a master of Dialectic,' Theon said, 'is shown clearly by most of his oracles; for you will grant that the solution of puzzles belongs to the same person as their invention. Again, as Plato used to say, when a response was given that the altar at Delos should be doubled, a matter requiring the most advanced geometry, the God was not merely enjoining this, but was also putting his strong command upon the Greeks to practice geometry. Just so, when the God puts out ambiguous oracles, he is exalting and establishing Dialectic, as essential to the right understanding of himself. You will grant again, that in Dialectic this conjunctive particle has great force, because it formulates the most logical of all sentences. This is certainly the "conjunctive", seeing that the other animals know the existence of things, but man alone has been gifted by nature with the power of observing and discerning their sequence. That "it is day" and "it is light" we may take it that wolves and dogs and birds perceive. But "if it is day it is light", is intelligible only to man; he alone can apprehend antecedent and consequent, the enunciation of each and their connexion, their mutual relation and difference, and it is in these that all demonstration has its first and governing principle. Since then Philosophy is concerned with truth, and the light of truth is demonstration, and the principle of demonstration is the conjunctive proposition, the faculty which includes and produces this was rightly consecrated by the wise men to that God who is above all things a lover of truth. Also, the God is a prophet, and prophetic art deals with that future which is to come out of things present or things past. Nothing comes into being without a cause, nothing is known beforehand without a reason. Things which come into being follow things which have been, things which are to be follow things which now are coming into being, all bound in one continuous chain of evolution. Therefore he who knows how to link causes together into one, and combine them into a natural process, can also declare beforehand things
VI.尼坎德说完后,我们的朋友提翁(我相信你们都认识他)问阿摩尼乌斯,在辩证法受到侮辱之后,她是否可以畅所欲言。阿摩尼乌斯让他替她说出来。提翁说:'神是辩证法的大师,''他的大部分神谕都清楚地表明了这一点;因为你会同意,谜题的解答和谜题的发明属于同一个人。同样,正如柏拉图常说的那样,当神谕要求把德洛斯的祭坛加高一倍时, ,这需要最先进的几何学,神不仅仅是命令这样做,而且还强烈要求希腊人练习几何学。同样,当神发布模棱两可的神谕时,他也是在推崇和确立辩证法,认为辩证法是正确认识自己的关键。你们会再次承认,在辩证法中,这个连接词具有强大的力量,因为它构成了所有句子中最具逻辑性的句子。这当然是 "连词",因为其他动物都知道事物的存在,只有人类被自然赋予了观察和辨别事物顺序的能力。我们可以认为,狼、狗和鸟都能感知 "是白天 "和 "是光明"。但是,"如果是白天,那就是光明",只有人才能理解;只有人才能理解前因后果,理解它们各自的表述和联系,理解它们之间的相互关系和区别,而正是在这些方面,所有的论证都有其首要的和支配性的原则。既然哲学是关于真理的,而真理之光就是论证,论证的原则就是联言命题,那么,智者们就把包含和产生联言命题的能力献给了上帝,因为上帝最热爱真理。此外,上帝也是一位先知,而先知的艺术涉及的是从现在或过去的事物中产生的未来。没有任何事物是无缘无故产生的,没有任何事物是无缘无故预先知道的。出现的事物紧跟着已经出现的事物,将要出现的事物紧跟着正在出现的事物,所有这些都被捆绑在一个连续的进化链条中。因此,知道如何把各种原因连成一体,并把它们结合成一个自然过程的人,也能预先宣布事物
Homer did well in putting the present first, the future next, and the past last. Inference starts with the present, and works by the force of the conjunction: "If this is, that was its antecedent", "If this is, that will be". As we have said, the technical and logical requirement is knowledge of consequence; sense supplies the minor premiss. Hence, though it may perhaps seem a petty thing to say, I will not shrink from it; the real tripod of truth is the logical process which assumes the relation of consequent to antecedent, then introduces the fact, and so establishes the conclusion. If the Pythian God really finds pleasure in music, and in the voices of swans, and the tones of the lyre, what wonder is it that as a friend to Dialectic, he should welcome and love that part of speech which he sees philosophers use more, and more often, than any other. So Hercules, when he had not yet loosed Prometheus, nor yet conversed with the sophists Chiron and Atlas, but was young and just a Boeotian, first abolished Dialectic, made a mock at the "If the first then the second", and bethought him to remove the tripod by force, and to try conclusions with the God for his art. At any rate, as time went on, he also appears to have become a great prophet and a great dialectician.'
荷马做得很好,他把现在放在前面,把未来放在后面,把过去放在最后。推理从现在开始,通过连词的力量进行:"如果现在是这样,那么过去就是这样","如果现在是这样,那么将来就是这样"。正如我们所说,技术和逻辑上的要求是对结果的认识,而感性则提供了小前提。因此,尽管这样说似乎有些小题大做,但我不会因此而退缩;真理的真正三脚架是这样一个逻辑过程:先假定结果与前因后果的关系,然后引入事实,从而确立结论。如果毕达哥拉斯之神真的喜欢音乐,喜欢天鹅的声音和琴声,那么,作为辩证法的朋友,他欢迎和喜爱他看到哲学家们比任何其他语言都更多和更经常使用的那部分语言,又有什么奇怪的呢?因此,当赫拉克勒斯还没有松开普罗米修斯,还没有与诡辩家奇龙和阿特拉斯交谈,只是一个年轻的波欧提亚人时,他首先废除了辩证法,嘲笑 "如果第一,那么第二", ,并想到用武力移开三脚架,与神一起尝试他的艺术结论。无论如何,随着时间的推移,他似乎也成了一位伟大的先知和伟大的辩证法家'。
VII. When Theon had done, I think it was Eustrophus of Athens who addressed us: 'Do you see with what a will Theon backs Dialectic? He has only to put on the lion's skin! Now then for you who put down under number all things in one mass, all natures and principles divine as well as human, and take it to be leader and lord in all that is beautiful and honourable! It is time for you to keep quiet; offer to the god a first-fruits of your dear Mathematics, if you think that "E" rises above the other letters, not in its own right by power or shape, or by its meaning as a word, but as the honoured symbol of an absolutely great and sovereign number, the "Pempad", from which the Wise Men took their verb "to count". Eustrophus was not jesting when he said this to us; he said it because I was at the time passionately devoted to Mathematics, though soon to find the value of the maxim, 'NOTHING TOO MUCH', having joined the Academy.
VII.当席翁说完之后,我想是雅典的欧斯特罗夫斯对我们说:'你们看到席翁是以怎样的意志支持辩证法的吗?他只需要披上狮子的皮!现在,对于你们这些把万事万物、一切神性和原则以及人性都归结为一个整体,并把它当作一切美好和尊贵事物的领袖和主宰的人来说!如果你们认为 "E "超越了其他字母,不是因为它本身的力量或形状,也不是因为它作为一个词的意义,而是因为它是一个绝对伟大和至高无上的数字 "Pempad "的尊贵象征,而智者们的动词 "计算 "就来自这个数字,那么, ,你们就应该保持沉默;向神献上你们亲爱的数学的第一个果实。 欧斯特罗夫斯对我们说这番话并不是在开玩笑;他之所以这么说,是因为我当时正热衷于数学,虽然加入学院后很快就发现了 "不要太多 "这句格言的价值。
VIII. So I said that Eustrophus' solution of the problem by number was excellent. 'For since,' I continued, 'when all number is divided into even and odd, unity alone is in its effect common to both, and therefore, if added to an odd number makes it even, and vice versa; and since even numbers start with two, odd numbers with three, and five is produced by combination of these, it has rightly received honour as the product of first principles, and it has further been called "Marriage", because even resembles the female, odd the male. For when we divide the several numbers into equal segments, the even parts asunder perfectly, and leaves inside a sort of recipient principle or space; if the odd is treated the same way, a middle part is always left over, which is generative. Hence the odd is the more generative, and when brought into combination invariably prevails; in no combination does it give an even result, but in all cases an odd. Moreover, when each is applied to itself and added, the difference is shown. Even with even never gives odd, or passes out of its proper nature; it wants the strength to produce anything different. Odd numbers with odd yield even numbers in plenty because of their unfailing fertility. The other powers of numbers and their distinctions cannot be now pursued in detail. However, the Pythagoreans called five "Marriage", as produced by the union of the first male number and the first female. From another point of view it has been called "Nature", because when multiplied into itself it ends at last in itself. For as Nature takes a grain of wheat, and in the intermediate stages of growth gives forms and shapes in abundance, through which she brings her work to perfection, and, after them all, shows us again a
VIII.所以我说,尤斯特洛夫斯用数字解决问题的方法非常好。'因为,'我继续说,'当所有的数被分为偶数和奇数时,只有统一性在其效果上是两者所共有的,因此,如果加到奇数上,奇数就会变成偶数,反之亦然; ,因为偶数是从二开始的,奇数是从三开始的,而五是由这些数的组合产生的,所以它作为第一原理的产物理所当然地获得了荣誉,它还被称为 "婚姻",因为偶数像雌性,奇数像雄性。因为当我们把几个数分成相等的数段时,偶数会完全分开,并在里面留下一种接受原则或空间;如果用同样的方法处理奇数,则总是会留下一个中间部分,这是生成性的。因此,奇数的生成性更强,在组合时总是占上风;在任何组合中,奇数都不会产生偶数,而在所有情况下都会产生奇数。 此外,当每一种都应用于自身并相加时,差异就会显现出来。偶数与偶数的结合永远不会产生奇数,也不会脱离其应有的性质;它需要力量来产生任何不同的结果。奇数与奇数相加会产生大量的偶数,因为偶数具有永不衰竭的生命力。关于数字的其他力量及其区别,现在无法详述。不过,毕达哥拉斯人把第一个男性数字和第一个女性数字结合产生的 5 称为 "婚姻"。从另一个角度看,它被称作 "自然",因为当它与自身相乘时,最终归于自身。就像大自然从一粒麦子开始,在生长的中间阶段赋予了它丰富的形态和形状,通过这些形态和形状,她使自己的作品达到了完美,而在这些形态和形状之后,她又向我们展示了一个

grain of wheat, thus restoring the beginning in the end of the whole process, so it is with numbers. When other numbers are multiplied into themselves they end in different numbers after being squared; only those formed of five or six recover and preserve themselves every time. Thus six times six gives thirty-six, five times five twenty-five. And again, a number formed of six does this only once, in the single case of being squared. Five has the same property in multiplication, and also a special property of its own when added to itself; it produces alternately itself or ten, and that to infinity. For this number mimics the principle which orders all things. As Heraclitus tells us that Nature successively produces the universe out of herself and herself out of the universe, bartering "fire for things and things for fire, as goods for gold and gold for goods", even so it is with the Pempad. In union with itself, it does not by its nature produce anything imperfect or foreign. All its changes are defined; it either produces itself or the Decad, either the homogeneous or the perfect.
数字也是如此。当其他数字与自己相乘时,它们在平方后的结果是不同的;只有那些由 5 或 6 组成的数字每次都能恢复和保持自己。因此,六乘以六得三十六,五乘以五得二十五。同样,由六个数组成的数只有一次这样的情况,那就是被平方。五在乘法中也有同样的性质,并且在与自身相加时也有自己的特殊性质;它交替产生自身或十,直到无穷大。因为这个数字模仿了安排万物的原则。赫拉克利特告诉我们,大自然从自身中产生出宇宙,又从宇宙中产生出自身,以 "火换物,物换火,就像货换金,金换货",潘帕德也是如此。在与自身的结合中,它的本性不会产生任何不完美或外来的东西。它的所有变化都是确定的;要么产生自身,要么产生 "十日",要么产生同质的,要么产生完美的。
IX. 'Then if any one ask "What is all this to Apollo?" Much, we will answer, not to Apollo only but also to Dionysus, who has no less to do with Delphi than has Apollo. Now we hear theologians saying or singing, in poems or in plain prose, that the God subsists indestructible and eternal, and that, by force of some appointed plan and method, he passes through changes of his person; at one time he sets fire to Nature and so makes all like unto all, at another passes through all phases of difference - shapes, sufferings, powers - at the present time, for instance, he becomes "Cosmos", and that is his most familiar name. The wiser people disguise from the vulgar the change into fire, and call him "Apollo" from his isolation, "Phoebus" from his undefiled purity. As for his passage and distribution into waves and water, and earth, and stars, and nascent plants and animals, they hint at the actual change undergone as a rending and dismemberment, but name the God himself Dionysus or Zagreus or Nyctelius or Isodaites. Deaths too and vanishings do they construct, passages out of life and new births, all riddles and tales to match the changes mentioned. So they sing to Dionysus dithyrambic strains, charged with sufferings and a change wherein are wanderings and dismemberment. For Aeschylus says:
九如果有人问 "这一切与阿波罗有什么关系?" 我们会回答,这不仅仅是阿波罗的事,也是狄俄尼索斯的事,他与德尔斐的关系不亚于阿波罗。现在,我们听到神学家们在诗歌或普通散文中说或唱,神是不灭的,是永恒的,在某种指定的计划和方法的作用下,他经历了人格的变化;一会儿,他点燃自然,使万物与万物相似;一会儿,他又经历了各种不同的阶段--形状、痛苦、力量--比如,现在,他变成了 "宇宙",这是他最熟悉的名字。更聪明的人则把他变成火的过程掩盖起来,称他为 "阿波罗",因为他与世隔绝; ,称他为 "菲比斯",因为他纯洁无暇。至于他进入波浪和水、大地、星辰、新生动植物的过程和分布,他们暗示实际发生的变化是一种撕裂和肢解,但却将神本身命名为狄俄尼索斯或扎格雷乌斯或尼克特利乌斯或伊索代特斯。他们还编造了死亡和消失、生命的流逝和新生,所有这些谜语和故事都与所提到的变化相吻合。因此,他们为狄俄尼索斯唱起了二律背反的曲调,充满了苦难和变化,其中有流浪和肢解。埃斯库罗斯说:
In mingled cries the dithyramb should ring, With Dionysus revelling, its King.
在混杂的呐喊声中,迪西拉姆应该响起,它的国王狄俄尼索斯正在狂欢。
'But Apollo has the Pæan, a set and sober music. Apollo is ever ageless and young; Dionysus has many forms and many shapes as represented in paintings and sculpture, which attribute to Apollo smoothness and order and a gravity with no admixture, to Dionysus a blend of sport and sauciness with seriousness and frenzy:
但阿波罗有《庇安神曲》,这是一种固定而清醒的音乐。阿波罗是永恒的、年轻的;狄俄尼索斯则有多种形态,在绘画和雕塑中也有多种表现形式,阿波罗被赋予平滑、有序和不掺杂任何杂质的严肃,而狄俄尼索斯则将运动和俏皮与严肃和狂热融为一体:
God that sett'st maiden's blood Dancing in frenzied mood, Blooming with pageantry! Evoe! we cry
上帝啊,让少女的鲜血在狂热的情绪中翩翩起舞,绽放出绚丽的光彩!我们呐喊
'So do they summon him, rightly catching the character of either change. But since the periods of change are not equal, that called "satiety" being longer, that of "stint" shorter, they here preserve a proportion, and use the Pæan with their sacrifice for the rest of the year, but at the beginning of winter revive the dithyramb, and stop the Pæan, and invoke this God instead of the other,
'他们也是这样召唤他的,正确地抓住了两种变化的特征。但是,由于变化的时间并不等同,"饱食 "的时间较长,"吝啬 "的时间较短,因此他们在这里保留了一个比例,在一年的其余时间里使用《斐安经》和他们的祭祀,但在冬季开始时恢复了 dithyramb,停止了《斐安经》,并召唤这个神而不是另一个神、

supposing that this ratio of three to one is that of the "Arrangement" to the "Conflagration". 23
假设三比一的比例是 "安排 "与 "冲突 "的比例。23
X. 'But perhaps this has been drawn out at too great length for the present opportunity. This much is clear, that they do associate the pempad with the God, as it now produces its own self like fire, and again produces the Decad out of itself like the universe. Now take music, which the God favours so highly: are we not to suppose that this number has its share here?
X.'但也许这已经说得太长了,不适合现在的机会。但有一点是很清楚的,那就是他们确实把 "pempad "与神联系在一起,因为它现在像火一样产生了自己,又像宇宙一样从自身中产生了 "Decad"。现在,就拿上帝如此青睐的音乐来说吧:难道我们不能认为这个数字在这里也有自己的份额吗?
'Most of the science of harmonies, to put it in a word, is concerned with consonances. That these are five and no more is proved by reason, as against the man who is all for strings and holes, and wants to explore these points irrationally by the senses: they all have their origin in numerical ratios. The ratio of the fourth is four to three, of the fifth three to two, of the octave two to one, of the octave and fifth three to one, of the double octave four to one. The additional consonance which writers of harmony introduce under the name of octave and fourth, does not merit admission, being extra-metrical; to admit it would be to indulge the irrational side of our sense of hearing, and to violate reason, or law. Passing by then five arrangements of tetrachords, and the first five "tones", or "tropes", or "harmonies", whichever name is right, by variations of which, made higher or lower, the remaining scales, high and low, are produced, is it not true that, though intervals are many, indeed infinite, the principles of melody are five only, quarter tone, half tone, tone, tone and a half, double tone? In sounds no other interval of high and low, be it smaller or greater, can be used for melody.
用一句话来概括,和声学的大部分内容都与谐音有关。和声有五种,没有更多,这一点可以用理性来证明,而不是像那些一味追求弦和孔的人那样,想用感官来非理性地探索这些要点:它们都源于数字比例。四度的比例是四比三,五度的比例是三比二,八度的比例是二比一,八度和五度的比例是三比一,双八度的比例是四比一。和声学家在八度和四度的名义下引入的额外的协和不值得承认,因为它是格律之外的;承认它就等于放纵了我们听觉的非理性一面,违反了理性或规律。通过四和弦的五种排列方式,以及前五种 "音调"、"调式 "或 "和声"(无论哪种名称合适),通过它们的变奏,或高或低,产生了其余的音阶,即高音和低音。在声音中,没有任何其他的高低音程,无论是小音程还是大音程,可以用于旋律。
XI. 'Passing over many similar points, I will', I said, 'adduce Plato, who, in discussing the question of a single universe, says that if there are others besides ours, and it is not alone, then the whole number of them is five and no more; not but that, if ours is the only universe in being, as Aristotle also thinks, even this one is in a fashion composite and formed out of five; one of earth, one of water, a third of fire, and a fourth of air, while the fifth is called heaven or light or air, or by others "fifth essence"26 to which alone of all bodies circular motion is natural, not due to force or other accidental cause. Therefore it is that Plato, observing the five perfect figures of Nature - Pyramid, Cube, Octahedron, Eicosahedron, and Dodecahedron - assigned them to the elements, each to each.
XI.我说,'在讨论了许多类似的观点之后,我将引用柏拉图的观点, ,他在讨论单一宇宙的问题时说,如果除了我们的宇宙之外还有其他宇宙,而我们的宇宙并不是唯一的,那么它们的总数就是五个,没有更多的;而不是说,如果我们的宇宙是存在的唯一宇宙,就像亚里士多德 也认为的那样,即使这个宇宙在某种程度上也是由五个宇宙复合而成的;一个是土,一个是水,第三个是火,第四个是空气,而第五个则被称为天、光或空气,或被其他人称为 "第五本质 "26 ,在所有天体中,只有它的圆周运动是自然的,而不是由于力或其他偶然的原因。因此,柏拉图在观察自然界的五个完美图形--金字塔、立方体、八面体、二十面体和十二面体--时,将它们分别归属于各个元素。
XII. 'There are some who appropriate to the same elements our own senses, also five in number. Touch, as they see, is resistent and earthy. Taste takes in properties by moisture in the things tasted. Air when struck becomes audible voice or sound. There remain two: smell, the object of our olfactory sense, is an exhalation engendered by heat, and so resembles a fire; sight is akin to air and light, which give it a luminous passage, so there is a commixture of both which is sympathetic. Besides these, the animal has no other sense, and the universe no other substance, which is simple and not blended. A marvellous apportionment of the five to the five!'
十二.有些人把我们自己的感官也归为同样的元素,也是五个。在他们看来,触觉是有抵抗力的,是泥土味的。味觉通过所尝之物中的水分吸收特性。空气在受到撞击时会发出声音。剩下的还有两种:嗅觉,即我们嗅觉的对象,是一种由热量产生的呼气,因此类似于火;视觉类似于空气和光,空气和光给它提供了一个发光的通道,因此两者混合在一起,具有共鸣性。除此以外,动物没有其他感官,宇宙也没有其他单纯而不混合的物质。五者之间的分配真是不可思议!'
Here, I think, I paused, and after an interval I went on: 'What has happened to us, Eustrophus? We have almost forgotten Homer, as if he had not been the first to divide the universe into five parts, assigning the three in the middle to the extremes, Olympus and earth, one the limit of what is below, the other of what is above. "We must cry back", as Euripides says. Now those who exalt the number four as the basis of the genesis of every body, make out a fairly good
我想,我在这里停顿了一下,隔了一会儿,我又继续说下去:我们怎么了,尤斯特洛夫斯?我们几乎忘记了荷马, ,好像他不是第一个把宇宙分成五个部分的人,他把中间的三个部分分配给了两个极端,奥林匹斯山和大地,一个是下面的极限,另一个是上面的极限。正如欧里庇得斯所说,"我们必须回头呐喊"。 现在,那些把数字四 作为每一个身体起源的基础的人,提出了一个相当不错的观点。

case. For every solid body possesses length, breadth, and depth; but length presupposes a point as an unit; the line is called length without breadth, and is length; the movement of a line in breadth produces a plane surface, and that is three; add depth, and we get to a solid with four factors. Any one can see that the number four carries Nature up to this point, that is, to the formation of a complete body, which may be touched, weighed, or struck; there it has left her, wanting in what is greatest. For that which has no soul is, in plain terms, orphaned and incomplete and fit for nothing, unless it be employed by soul. But the movement or disposition which sets soul therein - a change introducing a fifth factor - restores to Nature her completeness, its rational basis is as much more commanding than that of the Tetrad as the animal is above the inanimate. Further, the symmetry and potency of the whole five prevails, so as not to allow the animate to form classes without limit, but gives five types for all living things. There are Gods, we know, and dæmons, and heroes, and after these, fourth in all, the race of men: fifth, and last, the irrational order of brutes. Again, if you make a natural division of the soul itself, the first and least distinct principle is that of growth; second is that of sense, then comes appetite, then the spirited part; when it has reached the power of reasoning and perfected its nature, it stays at rest in the fifth stage as its upper limit.
因为每个实体都有长度、宽度和深度。因为每一个实体都有长度、宽度和深度;但长度是以点为单位的;没有宽度的线被称为长度,是长度;线在宽度上的移动产生了一个平面,是三度;加上深度,我们就得到了一个有四个因素的实体。任何人都可以看到,数字 "四 "把自然带到了这一步,也就是形成了一个完整的躯体,可以触摸、称量或敲击。因为没有灵魂的东西,说白了就是孤儿,是不完整的,是不适合做任何事情的,除非它被灵魂所利用。但是,将灵魂置于其中的运动或处置--引入第五个因素的变化--恢复了自然的完整性,它的理性基础比四分体的理性基础更有号召力,就像动物比无生命的动物更有号召力一样。此外,整个五要素的对称性和效力占了上风,这样就不会让有生命的东西无限制地形成类别,而是为所有生物提供了五种类型。我们知道,有神,有魔,有英雄,在这些之后,第四种是人:第五种,也是最后一种,是无理性的动物。同样,如果对灵魂本身进行自然划分,第一个也是最不明显的原则是生长原则;第二个是感官原则,然后是食欲,接着是精神部分;当它达到了推理能力并完善了自己的本性时,它就会停留在第五阶段,作为它的上限。
XIV. 'Now as this number five has powers so many and so great, its origin is also noble: not the process already described, out of the numbers two and three, but that given by the combination of the first principle of number with the first square. The first principle is unity, the first square is four; from these as from idea and limited substance, comes five. Or, if it be really correct, as some hold, to reckon unity as a square, being a power of itself and working out to itself, then the Pempad is formed out of the first two squares, and so has not missed noble birth and that the highest.
十四.既然 "五 "这个数字具有如此之多、如此之大的力量,那么它的起源也是崇高的:不是前面所说的从 "二 "和 "三 "中产生的过程,而是 "数的第一原理 "与 "第一方格 "相结合的过程。第一原理是合一,第一平方是四;从这两个原理中,如同从理念和有限的物质中,产生了五。或者,如果真的像某些人所认为的那样,把合一视为一个正方形,它是自身的力量,并对自身起作用,那么潘帕德就是从前两个正方形中形成的,所以它没有错过高贵的诞生,而且是最高的诞生。
XV. 'My most important point', I went on, 'may, I fear, bear hardly on Plato, just as he said that Anaxagoras "was hardly used by the name of Selene", when he had wished to appropriate the theory of her illumination, really a very old one. Are not these Plato's words, in the Cratylus?'30 'They certainly are', said Eustrophus, 'but I fail to see the resemblance.' 'Very well then; you know, I suppose, that in the Sophist he proves that the supreme principles are five: being, identity, difference, and after these, as fourth and fifth, movement and position. But in the Philebus he divides on a different plan. He distinguishes the unlimited and the limited, from whose combination comes the origin of all being. The cause of combination he takes to be a fourth. The fifth, whereby things so mingled are again parted and distinguished, he has left us to guess. I conjecture that those on the one list are figures of those on the other; to being corresponds that which becomes, to motion the unlimited; to position the limited, to identity the combining principle, to difference that which distinguishes. But if the two sets are different, yet, on one view as on the other, there would be five classes, and five modes of difference. Some early inquirer, it will surely be said, saw into this before Plato, and consecrated two "E's" to the God, as a manifestation and symbol of the number of all things. But further, having perceived that the good also takes shape under five heads, firstly moderation, secondly symmetry, thirdly mind, fourthly the sciences and arts and true opinions which relate to soul, fifthly every pleasure which is pure and unmingled with what causes pain, he there leaves off, merely suggesting the Orphic verse,
十五.我接着说,'我最重要的一点','恐怕很难与柏拉图相提并论,就像他说阿那克萨哥拉 "几乎没有用过塞勒涅的名字",而他却想借用塞勒涅的光照理论,这确实是一个非常古老的理论。这难道不是柏拉图在《克拉提洛斯》中说的话吗?"30 "当然是",尤斯特洛甫斯说,"但我看不出有什么相似之处。''那很好;我想,你知道,在《诡辩家》中,他证明了最高原则是五个: 存在、同一、差异,在这之后,作为第四和第五,是运动和位置。但在《腓力比书》中,他的划分方法却不同。 他区分了无限和有限,它们的结合是一切存在的起源。他认为结合的原因是第四种。至于第五个原因,即如何将如此混合的事物再次分开和区分,他让我们去猜测。我猜想,一个列表中的事物是另一个列表中的事物的形象;"存在 "对应于 "成为","运动 "对应于 "无限","位置 "对应于 "有限","同一性 "对应于 "组合原则","差异性 "对应于 "区分"。但是,如果这两个集合是不同的,那么,在一种观点和另一种观点中,就会有五个类别和五种差异模式。可以肯定地说,在柏拉图之前,一些早期的探究者已经看到了这一点,并将两个 "E "献给了神,作为万物之数的表现和象征。但是,柏拉图进一步认识到,善也是在五个方面形成的,第一是节制,第二是对称,第三是心智,第四是与灵魂有关的科学、艺术和真正的观点,第五是每一种纯粹的、不掺杂痛苦的快乐、
XVI. 'Having said so much', I went on, to you all, I will sing one short stave to Nicander and "his cunning men".
XVI.说了这么多",我接着说,"我将为尼坎德和 "他的狡猾的手下 "唱一首短诗。
'On the sixth day of the new moon, when the Pythia is introduced into Prytaneum by one person, the first of your three castings of lot is a single one, namely the five: the three against the two.''33 'It is so,' said Nicander, 'but the reason may not be disclosed to others.' 'Then', I answered with a smile, 'until such time as we become priests, and the God allows us to know the truth, this much and no more shall be added to what we have to say about the Pempad.'34 Such, so far as I remember, was the end of the arithmetical or mathematical reasons for extolling the letter ' '.
''在新月的第六天,当派提亚被一个人引入普瑞塔努姆时,你们三次抽签中的第一次就是一次,也就是五次:三对二。''33'是这样的,'尼坎德说,'但原因不能向其他人透露。'"那么",我笑着回答,"直到我们成为祭司,上帝允许我们知道真相时,我们所说的关于潘帕德的事情就到此为止,不再补充。"34 在我的记忆中,这就是颂扬字母 " "的算术或数学理由的终结。
XVII. Ammonius, as one who himself gave Mathematics no mean place in Philosophy, was pleased at the course the conversation was taking, and said: 'It is not worth our while to answer our young friends with too absolute accuracy on these points; I will only observe that any one of the numbers will provide not a few points for those who choose to sing its praises. Why speak about the others? Apollo's holy "Seven" will take up all one day before we have exhausted its powers. Are we then to show the Seven Wise Men at odds with common usage, and "the time which runs", 35 and to suppose that they ousted the "Seven" from its pre-eminence before the God, and consecrated the "Five" as perhaps more appropriate?
XVII.阿摩尼乌斯本人在哲学中也给予数学不小的地位,他对谈话的进程感到高兴,说道:"我们不值得在这些问题上回答我们年轻的朋友们太绝对的准确性;我只想说,任何一个数字都会为那些选择赞美它的人提供不少要点。为什么要谈论其他数字呢?阿波罗神圣的 "七 "将占去我们一天的时间,然后我们才会用尽它的力量。难道我们要让七贤者看到他们与通常的用法和 "流逝的时间 "35 不一致,并假定他们把 "七 "从神面前的显赫地位上赶走,而把 "五 "作为更合适的数字供奉起来?
'My own view is that the letter signifies neither number, nor order, nor conjunction, nor any other omitted part of speech; it is a complete and selfoperating mode of addressing the God; the word once spoken brings the speaker into apprehension of his power. The God, as it were, addresses each of us, as he enters, with his "KNOw THYSELF", which is at least as good as "Hail". We answer the God back with "EI" (Thou Art), rendering to him the designation which is true and has no lie in it, and alone belongs to him, and to no other, that of BEING.
我自己的观点是,字母既不表示数字,也不表示顺序,也不表示连词,也不表示任何其他被省略的语音部分;它是一种完整的、自我运作的称呼上帝的方式;一旦说出这个词,说话者就会领悟到他的力量。上帝在进入时,会对我们每个人说 "KNOW THYSELF",这至少与 "万福 "相同。我们用 "EI"(你是)来回答上帝, ,向他表达真实的、没有谎言的、只属于他而不属于其他人的称谓,那就是 "存在"。
XVIII. 'For we have, really, no part in real being; all mortal nature is in a middle state between becoming and perishing, and presents but an appearance, a faint unstable image, of itself. If you strain the intellect, and wish to grasp this, it is as with water; compress it too much and force it violently into one space as it tries to flow through, and you destroy the enveloping substance; even so when the reason tries to follow out too closely the clear truth about each particular thing in a world of phase and change, it is foiled, and rests either on the becoming of that thing or on its perishing; it cannot apprehend anything which abides or really is. "It is impossible to go into the same river twice", said Heraclitus; no more can you grasp mortal being twice, so as to hold it. So sharp and so swift its change; it scatters and brings together again, nay not again, no nor afterwards; even while it is being formed it fails, it approaches, and it its gone. Hence becoming never ends in being, for the process never leaves off, or is stayed. From seed it produces, in its constant changes, an embryo, then an infant, then a child; in due order a boy, a young man; then a man, an elderly man, an old man; it undoes the former becomings and the age which has been, to make those which come after. yet we fear (how absurdly!) a single death, we who have died so many deaths, and yet are dying. For it is not only that, as Heraclitus would say, "death of fire is birth of air", and "death of air is birth of water"; the thing is much clearer in our own selves. The man in
XVIII.'事实上,我们与真正的存在没有任何关系;所有凡人的本质都处于成为与毁灭之间的中间状态,呈现的只是一种表象,一种自身模糊而不稳定的形象。如果你使智力过度紧张,想要抓住这一点,那就会像水一样;当它试图流过时,你就会把它压得太紧,把它猛地挤到一个空间里,你就会破坏包裹它的物质;即使是这样,当理智试图在一个充满阶段和变化的世界里太仔细地追寻每个特定事物的清晰真相时,它也会被挫败,要么停留在该事物的成为上,要么停留在它的消亡上;它无法理解任何永存或真正存在的事物。赫拉克利特说:"不可能两次进入同一条河流"; ,你也不可能两次抓住凡人的存在,从而把握住它。它的变化如此敏锐,如此迅速;它散开,又重新聚拢,不,不是再次,也不是之后;甚至在它形成的时候,它就已经失败,它接近,它消失。因此,"成为 "永远不会以 "存在 "为终结,因为这个过程永远不会停止,也不会停留。从种子开始,在不断的变化中,它产生了胚胎,然后是婴儿,接着是儿童;依次是男孩、年轻人;然后是男人、老人、老年人;它取消了以前的成为和已经过去的年龄,以创造以后的成为。然而,我们害怕一次死亡(多么荒谬!),我们已经死了那么多次,却还在死亡。正如赫拉克利特(Heraclitus )所说,"火之死,气之生","气之死,水之生"。人在

his strength is destroyed when the old man comes into being, the young man was destroyed for the man in his strength to be, so the boy for the young man, the babe for the boy. He of yesterday has died unto him of to-day; he of to-day is dying unto him of to-morrow. No one abides, no one is; we that come into being are many, while matter is driven around, and then glides away, about some one appearance and a common mould. Else how is it, if we remain the same, that the things in which we find pleasure now are different from those of a former time; that we love, hate, admire, and censure different things; that our words are different and our feelings; that our look, our bodily form, our intellect are not the same now as then? If a man does not change, these various conditions are unnatural; if he does change, he is not the same man. But if he is not the same man, he is not at all; his so-called being is simply change and new birth of man out of man. In our ignorance of what being is, sense falsely tells us that what appears is.
当老人出现的时候,他的力量被摧毁了;当年轻人出现的时候,他的力量被摧毁了;当男孩出现的时候,他的力量被摧毁了;当婴儿出现的时候,他的力量被摧毁了。昨天的人死于今天的人,今天的人死于明天的人。没有人是永恒的,没有人是存在的;我们的存在是多种多样的,而物质却被驱使着,然后围绕着一个外表和一个共同的模子滑向远方。否则,如果我们一成不变,我们现在感到快乐的事物怎么会与过去不同;我们对事物的爱、恨、钦佩和指责怎么会与过去不同;我们的言语和感情怎么会与过去不同;我们的容貌、体态和智力怎么会与过去不同?如果一个人没有变化,这些不同的状况就是不自然的;如果他有变化,他就不是同一个人了。但是,如果他不是同一个人,他就根本不是人;他所谓的存在只是变化,只是人从人中的新生。由于我们不知道存在是什么,理智错误地告诉我们,表象的东西就是存在。
XIX. 'What then really is? That which is eternal, was never brought into being, is never destroyed, to which no time ever brings change. Time is a thing which moves and takes the fashion of moving matter, which ever flows or is a sort of leaky vessel which holds destruction and becoming. Of time we use the words "afterwards", "before", "shall be", and "has been", each on its face an avowal of not being. For, in this question of being, to say of a thing which has not yet come into being, or which has already ceased from being, that "it is", is silly and absurd. When we strain to the uttermost our apprehension of time, and say "it is at hand", "it is here", or "now", a rational development of the argument brings it all to nothing. "Now" is squeezed out into the future or into the past, as though we should try to see a point, which of necessity passes away to right or left. But if the case be the same with Nature, which is measured, as with time which measures, nothing in it abides or really is. All things are coming into being, or being destroyed, even while we measure them by time. Hence it is not permissible, even in speaking of that which is, to say that "it was", or "it shall be"; these all are inclinations, transitions, passages, for of permanent being there is none in Nature.
XIX.'那么什么才是真正的东西呢?那就是永恒,它从未产生,也从未毁灭,任何时间都不会给它带来变化。时间是一种运动着的东西,是运动着的物质的时尚,它永远流动着,或者说是一种容纳毁灭和成为的漏斗。关于时间,我们使用 "之后"、"之前"、"将要 "和 "已经 "等词,每个词从表面上看都是对 "不存在 "的宣誓。因为,在 "存在 "这个问题上,对一个尚未产生或已经停止存在的事物说 "它是",是愚蠢而荒谬的。当我们把对时间的理解发挥到极致,说 "它就在眼前"、"它就在这里 "或 "现在 "时,理性的论证就会使这一切化为乌有。"现在 "被挤压到未来或过去,就好像我们试图看到一个点,而这个点必然会向右或向左移动。但是,如果自然界的情况也是如此,它是被测量的,就像时间是被测量的一样,那么它就没有什么是永恒的,也没有什么是真正存在的。所有事物都在产生或毁灭,即使我们用时间来衡量它们的时候也是如此。因此,即使在谈论存在的事物时,也不能说 "它曾经是 "或 "它将是";这些都是倾向、过渡、经过,因为自然界中没有永恒的存在。
XX. 'But the God IS, we are bound to assert, he is, with reference to no time but to that age wherein is no movement, or time, or duration; to which nothing is prior or subsequent; no future, no past, no elder, no younger, which by one long "now" has made the "always" perfect. Only with reference tot his that which really is, is; it has not come into being, it is not yet to be, it did not begin, it will not cease. Thus then we ought to hail him in worship, and thus to address him as "Thou Art", aye, or in the very words of some of the old people, "Ei Hen", "Thou art one thing". For the Divine is not many things, in the sense in which each one of us is made up of ten thousand different and successive states, a scrap-heap of units, a mob of individuals. No, that which is must be one, as that is which is one is. Variety, any difference in being, passes to one side to produce that which is not. Therefore the first of the names of the God, and the second, and the third. "Apollo" (Not-many) denies plurality and excludes multitude. "Intos means one and one only; Phoebus, we know, is a word by which the ancients expressed that which is clean and pure, even as to this day the Thessalians, when their priests pass their solemn days in strict seclusion outside the temple, apply to them a verb formed from Phoebus. Now The One is transparent and pure, pollution comes by commixture of this with that, just as Homer, you remember, says of ivory dyed red that it is stained, and dyers say of mingled pigments that they are destroyed, and call the process
二十.'但是,我们必须断言,'上帝是',他不是指时间,而是指那个没有运动、没有时间、没有持续时间的时代;在那个时代里,没有什么是先于或后于;没有未来,没有过去,没有长辈,也没有晚辈,一个漫长的 "现在 "使 "永远 "变得完美。只有他那真正存在的东西才是,才是;它还没有出现,它还没有成为,它没有开始,它也不会停止。因此,我们在崇拜他时应该向他致敬,称呼他为 "你是",是的,或者用一些老人的话说,"Ei Hen","你是一个东西"。 因为神并不是许多东西,就像我们每个人都是由一万个不同的、连续的状态组成的,是由一堆单元组成的,是由一群个体组成的。不,"是者 "必须是 "一",因为 "是者 "是 "一"。存在的多样性,存在的任何差异,都会被转移到一边,产生非存在的东西。因此,神的第一个名字、第二个名字和第三个名字都是如此。阿波罗"("非多")否认复数,排除众多。"Intos "的意思是 "独一无二"; "Phoebus",我们知道,古人用这个词来表达干净和纯洁的事物,就像今天的帖撒罗尼迦人,当他们的祭司在神庙外严格地隐居度过他们庄严的日子时,也会用一个由 "Phoebus "组成的动词来称呼他们。就像荷马( )说象牙染红了就是染色了,染匠说颜料混在一起就被破坏了,并把这一过程称作

"destruction". Therefore it is the property of that which is indestructible and pure to be one and without admixture.
"毁灭"。因此,"不灭 "和 "纯净 "的属性就是 "一体 "和 "无杂质"。
XXI. 'There are those who think that Apollo and the sun are the same; we hail them and love them for the fair name they give, and it is fitting to do so; for they associate their idea of the God with that which they honour and desire more than all other things which they know. But now that we see them dreaming of the God in the fairest of nightly visions, let us rise and encourage them to mount yet higher, to contemplate him in a dream of the day, and to see his own being. Let them pay honour also to the image of him and worship the principle of increase which is about it; so far as what is of sense can lead to what is of mind, a moving body to that which abides, it allows presentments and appearances of his kind and blessed self to shine through after a fashion. But as to transitions and changes in himself, that he now discharges fire, and so is drawn up, as they put it, or again presses down and strains himself into earth and sea, winds and animals, and all the strange passages into animals and also plants, piety forbids us so much as to hear them. Otherwise the God will be a greater trifler than the boy in Homer, for ever playing with the universe the game which the boy plays with a pile of sand, which is heaped together and sucked away under his hand; moulding the universe when there is none, and again destroying it when it has come into being. The opposite principle which we find in the universe, whatever its origin, is that which binds beings together and prevails over the corporeal weakness tending to destruction. To my thinking the word "EI" is confronted with this false view, and testifies to the God that THOU ART, meaning that no shift or change has place in him, but that such things belong to some other God, or rather to some Spirit set over Nature in its perishing and becoming, whether to effect either process or to undergo it. This appears from the names, in themselves opposite and contradictory. He is called Apollo, another is called Pluto; he is Delius (apparent), the other Aidoneus (invisible); he is Phoebus (bright), the other Skotios (full of darkness); by his side are the Muses, and Memory, with the other are Oblivion and Silence; he is Theorius and Phanæus, the other is "King of dim Night and ineffectual Sleep." 43 The other is
二十一.有些人认为阿波罗和太阳是一样的;我们欢呼他们,爱戴他们,因为他们给了这个美丽的名字,这样做是恰当的;因为他们把神的概念与他们所尊敬和渴望的事物联系在一起,胜过他们所知道的其他一切事物。现在,我们看到他们在最美丽的夜景中梦见上帝,让我们站起来,鼓励他们爬得更高,在白天的梦中思考上帝,看到他自己的存在。让他们也对他的形象表示敬意,并崇拜围绕着它的增长原理;只要感官的东西能够通向心灵的东西,移动的身体能够通向永恒的东西,它就能让他善良而有福的自我的呈现和表象在某种程度上闪耀出来。但至于他自身的过渡和变化,即他现在放出火来,于是就像人们所说的那样被拉起,或者又被压下和拉紧,变成大地和海洋、风和动物,以及变成动物和植物的所有奇异现象,虔诚的我们是不允许听到的。否则,上帝就会比荷马史诗中的小男孩更加三心二意, ,永远玩弄宇宙,就像小男孩玩弄一堆沙子一样,沙子在他的手掌下堆积起来又被吸走;没有宇宙的时候塑造宇宙,有了宇宙之后又毁灭宇宙。我们在宇宙中发现的相反的原则,无论其起源如何,都是将人们结合在一起并战胜趋向毁灭的肉体弱点的原则。在我看来,"EI "这个词与这种错误观点相抵触,它证明了 "你是 "上帝的存在,这意味着在他身上没有任何转移或变化,而是属于另一个上帝,或者说,属于某种在自然的消亡和形成过程中掌管自然的精神,无论是实现这一过程还是经历这一过程。这一点可以从名字中看出来,这些名字本身就是相反和矛盾的。他被称作阿波罗,另一个被称作冥王星;他是德利乌斯(明显的),另一个是艾多尼奥斯(不可见的);他是菲比斯(明亮的),另一个是斯科蒂奥斯(充满黑暗的);在他身边的是缪斯女神和记忆,另一个是遗忘和沉默;他是狄奥尼乌斯和法那乌斯,另一个是 "暗夜之王和无效的睡眠"。43 另一个是
Of all the Gods to men the direst foe.
在所有神灵中,他是人类最可怕的敌人。
Whereas of him Pindar has pleasantly said:
Pindar