这是用户在 2024-3-29 5:46 为 https://socialbusinessdesign.org/organizational-models-for-social-enterprises-embedded-integrated-se... 保存的双语快照页面,由 沉浸式翻译 提供双语支持。了解如何保存?
Skip to content

Organizational models for social enterprises

Embedded, separated and integrated models

The emergence of social enterprises and revenue-generating activities in the non-profit sector redefined the way changemakers are now tackling social problems. As a consequence, several organizations started to combine business principles and impact missions in new ways. In this article, we take a look at the 3 main organizational models for social enterprises and help you navigate through them.
社会企业的出现和非营利部门的创收活动重新定义了变革者现在解决社会问题的方式。因此,一些组织开始以新的方式将业务原则和影响任务结合起来。在本文中,我们将了解社会企业的 3 种主要组织模式,并帮助您浏览它们。

What is an organizational model?

Before digging into the topic, let’s make it clear what we consider as “organizational model“. Traditionally, an organizational model is seen as “a system outlining how certain activities are directed in order to achieve the goals of an organization(Investopedia). It basically describes how the work flows through an organization.

Now, for for-profit companies, organizational models (or “structures”) define roles, responsibilities, links among departments, as well as the general hierarchy within the firm. Obviously, the chosen structure must align each part of the organization and make sure they all contribute achieving strategic business goals.

However, when it comes to social entrepreneurship, it all gets a little bit more complicated. As a matter of fact, apart from creating economic value, social enterprises create social value too. At every stage of their lives, these enterprises need to find a balance between social programmes and business activities.

Said Malki (2009) was among the first scholars to provide a classification of social enterprises, based on their business/program integration. He identified three main organizational models: embedded, integrated and separated.
Said Malki(2009)是最早根据业务/项目整合对社会企业进行分类的学者之一。他确定了三种主要的组织模式:嵌入型、集成型和分离型。

Let’s dive and break down each one of them in the following sections.

Embedded model 嵌入式模型

In the embedded model, business activities have a direct, positive impact towards achieving the organization’s social impact mission. Because of that, entrepreneurial activities are core to the mission.

What happens is that social enterprises create and sell products/services to directly solve the social problem tackled. In other words, their social and business programs are one and the same. Specialisterne or Sanergy are just couple examples of companies using an embedded model, in which financial benefits and social impact are achieved simultaneously.
所发生的情况是,社会企业创造和销售产品/服务来直接解决所解决的社会问题。换句话说,他们的社交和商业计划是一回事。 Specialisterne 或 Sanergy 只是使用嵌入式模型的公司的几个例子,在这种模型中,经济效益和社会影响是同时实现的。

organizational structures for social enterprises, embedded, integrated, separated

Integrated model 综合模型

A slightly different approach could be the integrated model. Here, social and business programs are connected, but aren’t exactly the same thing.

On one hand, these programs share assets, costs, expertise, even personnel. So, there is a crossover among the two categories. Yet, even though the products/services sold relate (at least to a certain extent) to the organization’s mission, they do not directly solve the social problem addressed by the organization. This is because enterprise activities act as funding mechanism: they help the organization generate funds necessary to keep the mission programs up and running.

organizational structures for social enterprises, embedded, integrated, separated

This is usually the case of companies such as Aravind Eye Care Hospital. As a matter of fact, each enterprise serves two diverse targets and charges a premium to one segment in order to subsidize the other.

Separated model 分离型

Last, but not least: the separated (or external) model. In a separated model, social programs and business activities are distinct, with little or no connection with each other.

In fact, enterprise activities are unrelated to the mission, being usually organized as profit centers or separated entities (subsidiaries) of the organization. Like in integrated models, business activities are a funding mechanism, but do not share costs or assets with social programs. This is why we said they are not connected one another.

organizational structures for social enterprises, embedded, integrated, separated

Here is a fun fact for you. The luxury company Rolex donates all its profits to its parent company, Wilsdorf Foundation, that supports cultural and social initiatives of all kinds. Technically, this is an example of separated model, with a subsidiary generating funds to further another organization’s social mission. You would have never said that, right?

Conclusion 结论

In this article, we started to get a bit more familiar with organizational models for social enterprises. In particular, we focused on embedded, integrated and separated models. As seen, each model has a very diverse degree of connection between their business activities and their social programs.

Even though any of these models could potentially work just fine, it’s important for a social entrepreneur to delve into the implications of each. Feel free to compare organizational models with the business models we discussed in this article. Eventually, this will help you choose the most suitable one for your social enterprise!

Did you like this article?

If so, then don’t forget to check out for more at Social Business Design.