TSMC to go 3D with wafer-sized processors — CoW-SoW technology allows 3D stacking for the world's largest chips
台積電將採用晶圓級處理器進行 3D 技術 — CoW-SoW 技術可實現全球最大晶片的 3D 堆疊

(Image credit: Intel) (圖片來源:英特爾)

TSMC is taking the wafer-scale fabrication battle into the third dimension with a new technology. At its North American Technology Symposium, the company introduced its next-generation system-on-wafer platform—CoW-SoW—that will enable 3D integration with wafer-scale designs. This builds on the InFO_SoW system-on-wafer integration technology technology that TSMC introduced in 2020, which lets it build wafer-scale logic processors. So far, only Tesla has adopted this tech for its Dojo supercomputer, which TSMC says is now in production.
台積電正在利用新技術將晶圓級製造之戰帶入三維。在北美技術研討會上,該公司推出了下一代晶圓系統平台 CoW-SoW,該平台將實現與晶圓級設計的 3D 整合。該技術建立在台積電 2020 年推出的 InFO_SoW 晶圓級系統整合技術的基礎上,使其能夠建構晶圓級邏輯處理器。到目前為止,只有特斯拉在其 Dojo 超級電腦中採用了這項技術,台積電錶示該電腦現已投入生產。

(Image credit: TSMC) (圖片來源:台積電)

In its forthcoming CoW-SoW platform, TSMC will merge two of its packaging methods — InFO_SoW and System on Integrated Chips (SoIC) — into its system-on-wafer platform. Using the Chip-on-Wafer (CoW) tech will enable the stacking of memory or logic directly atop a system-on-wafer. The new CoW_SoW technology is expected to be ready for large-scale production by 2027, though it remains to be seen when actual products arrive on the market. 
在即將推出的 CoW-SoW 平台中,台積電將把兩種封裝方法——InFO_SoW 和整合式晶片系統 (SoIC)——合併到其晶圓系統平台中。使用晶圓晶片 (CoW) 技術將能夠將記憶體或邏輯直接堆疊在晶圓系統之上。新的CoW_SoW技術預計將在2027年實現大規模生產,但實際產品何時上市仍有待觀察。

"In the future, using wafer-level integrations [will allow] our customers to integrate even more logic and memory together," said Kevin Zhang, Vice President of Business Development at TSMC. "SoW is no longer a fiction; this is something we already work with our customers [on] to produce some of the products already in place. We think by leveraging our advanced wafer-level integration technology, we can provide our customer a very important path that allows them to continue to grow their capability to bring in more computation, more energy efficient computation, to their AI cluster or [supercomputer]."
「未來,使用晶圓級整合[將允許]我們的客戶將更多的邏輯和記憶體整合在一起,」台積電業務開發副總裁 Kevin 張表示。 「SoW 不再是虛構的;我們已經與客戶合作生產一些已經到位的產品。我們認為,透過利用我們先進的晶圓級整合技術,我們可以為客戶提供非常重要的產品使他們能夠繼續增強能力,為他們的人工智慧叢集或[超級電腦]引入更多計算、更節能的計算。

Currently, TSMC's CoW-SoW focuses on integrating wafer-scale processors with HBM4 memory. These next-generation memory stacks will feature a 2048-bit interface, which will make it feasible to integrate HBM4 directly on top of logic chips. Meanwhile, it may also make sense to stack additional logic on wafer-scale processors to optimize costs.
目前,台積電的CoW-SoW專注於將晶圓級處理器與HBM4記憶體整合。這些下一代記憶體堆疊將採用 2048 位元接口,這使得將 HBM4 直接整合在邏輯晶片頂部成為可能。同時,在晶圓級處理器上堆疊額外的邏輯以優化成本也可能是有意義的。

(Image credit: TSMC) (圖片來源:台積電)

Wafer-scale processors in general (i.e., Cerebras's WSE), and InFO_SoW-based processors in particular, offer significant performance and efficiency benefits, including high-bandwidth and low-latency core-to-core communications, low power delivery network impedance, and high energy efficiency. As an added bonus, such processors also have additional redundancy in the form of 'extra' cores.
一般而言,晶圓級處理器(即Cerebras 的WSE),特別是基於InFO_SoW 的處理器,可提供顯著的性能和效率優勢,包括高頻寬和低延遲的核心到核心通訊、低功率傳輸網絡阻抗以及高能源效率。作為額外的好處,此類處理器還具有「額外」核心形式的額外冗餘。

However, the InFO_SoW technology has certain limitations. For instance, wafer-scale processors made using this method rely entirely on on-chip memory, which may fall short for future AI needs (but is good for now). CoW-SoW will solve this, as it will allow putting HBM4 on such wafers. In addition, InFO_SoW wafers are processed using a single node, and this node does not support 3D stacking, which will be supported by CoW-SoW products.
然而,InFO_SoW技術有一定的限制。例如,使用這種方法製造的晶圓級處理器完全依賴片上記憶體,這可能無法滿足未來人工智慧的需求(但目前來說很好)。 CoW-SoW 將解決這個問題,因為它將允許將 HBM4 放置在此類晶圓上。此外,InFO_SoW晶圓採用單節點加工,該節點不支援3D堆疊,而CoW-SoW產品將支援3D堆疊。

Anton Shilov
Freelance News Writer 自由新聞撰稿人

Anton Shilov is a Freelance News Writer at Tom’s Hardware US. Over the past couple of decades, he has covered everything from CPUs and GPUs to supercomputers and from modern process technologies and latest fab tools to high-tech industry trends.
Anton Shilov 是 Tom’s Hardware US 的自由新聞撰稿人。在過去的幾十年裡,他涵蓋了從 CPU 和 GPU 到超級計算機,從現代工藝技術和最新的晶圓廠工具到高科技行業趨勢的一切。