Skolkovo Innovation Center

Coordinates: 55°41′51″N 37°21′28″E / 55.69750°N 37.35778°E / 55.69750; 37.35778
坐标:55°41′51″N 37°21′28″E
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The logo of Skolkovo 斯科尔科沃的标志
Skolkovo innovation center, July 2018
斯科尔科沃创新中心,2018 年 7 月

The Skolkovo Innovation Center is a high technology business area at Mozhaysky District in Moscow, Russia.[1][2][3] Russia's lack of entrepreneurial spirit led to government intervention in patents and the limitation of Russian tech companies within regional operations.
斯科尔科沃创新中心是俄罗斯莫斯科莫扎伊斯基区的一个高科技商业区。 [1] [2] [3] 俄罗斯缺乏创业精神,导致政府对专利的干预以及俄罗斯科技公司在区域运营中的限制。

As corporations and individuals register their residency in the city, they can receive financial assistance to realize their proposed projects and ideas.[4] Skolkovo was first announced on 12 November 2009 by then Russian President Dmitry Medvedev.[5] The complex is headed by Viktor Vekselberg.
当公司和个人在该市登记居住时,他们可以获得财政援助来实现他们提出的项目和想法。 [4] 斯科尔科沃于 2009 年 11 月 12 日由时任俄罗斯总统德米特里·梅德韦杰夫首次宣布。 [5] 该综合体由 Viktor Vekselberg 领导。

History and work 历史和工作[edit]

Viktor Vekselberg, head of the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology
Viktor Vekselberg,斯科尔科沃科学技术研究所所长
Dmitry Medvedev inspecting a miniature model for the project in 2012
2012 年,德米特里·梅德韦杰夫 (Dmitry Medvedev) 检查该项目的微型模型

In March 2010, Vekselberg announced the necessity of developing a special legal code for Skolkovo and emphasized the need to offer a tax holiday lasting 5–7 years.[6] In April 2010, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev charged the government with working out legal, administrative, tax, and customs regulations for Skolkovo.[7] In May 2010, Medvedev introduced two bills regulating working conditions in Skolkovo. The bills were adopted by the State Duma in September of that year[8] and on 28 September 2010, the President of the Russian Federation signed the bills into federal law.[9][10] In August 2010, Medvedev introduced a bill easing migratory policies in regards to Skolkovo.[11]
2010年3月,维克塞尔伯格宣布有必要为斯科尔科沃制定专门的法律法规,并强调需要提供持续5至7年的免税期。 [6] 2010 年 4 月,俄罗斯总统德米特里·梅德韦杰夫责成政府制定斯科尔科沃的法律、行政、税务和海关法规。 [7] 2010 年 5 月,梅德韦杰夫提出了两项​​规范斯科尔科沃工作条件的法案。该法案于当年 9 月被国家杜马通过 [8] ,并于 2010 年 9 月 28 日,俄罗斯联邦总统将这些法案签署为联邦法律。 [9] [10] 2010年8月,梅德韦杰夫提出了一项放宽斯科尔科沃移民政策的法案。 [11]

Visa policies for foreign nationals

On 20 August 2010, a new government decree regulating visas for participants of the Skolkovo project was published. According to this decree, specialized and highly skilled foreign nationals who arrive in Russia with the purpose of securing employment at Skolkovo will be granted a visa for a term of up to 30 days. In the event of successful job placement they can then obtain a work visa for a term of 3 years.[12]
2010 年 8 月 20 日,颁布了一项新的政府法令,规范斯科尔科沃项目参与者的签证。根据该法令,以在斯科尔科沃就业为目的抵达俄罗斯的专业和高技能外国人将获得最长 30 天的签证。如果成功安置工作,他们可以获得为期3年的工作签证。 [12]

Transportation 运输[edit]

A new highway was opened connecting Skolkovo to the MKAD in June 2010.[13]
2010 年 6 月,一条连接斯科尔科沃和 MKAD 的新高速公路开通。 [13]

Financing 融资[edit]

The innovation center was initially financed primarily from the Russian federal budget. However, over the years the amount of federal funding has decreased in relation to private sector funding. The center's 2010 budget was 3.9 Billion RUB. An additional 22 Billion RUB was planned for 2012 and 17.3 Billion RUB in 2013.[14][15]
该创新中心最初的资金主要来自俄罗斯联邦预算。然而,多年来,联邦资助金额相对于私营部门资助有所减少。该中心 2010 年的预算为 39 亿卢布。计划在 2012 年追加 220 亿卢布,在 2013 年追加 173 亿卢布。 [14] [15]

Clusters 集群[edit]

Moscow International Medical Cluster

Skolkovo includes five "clusters" specializing in different areas. These include IT, Energy, Nuclear Technologies, Biomedicine and Space Technologies.[16]
斯科尔科沃包括五个专门从事不同领域的“集群”。其中包括信息技术、能源、核技术、生物医学和空间技术。 [16]

Information technologies 信息技术[edit]

The IT cluster is tasked with creating an effective model for successful commercialization of IT technologies in Russia. Over 450 companies have signed up for the IT cluster.[17]
IT集群的任务是为俄罗斯IT技术的成功商业化创建有效的模型。超过 450 家公司已签约加入 IT 集群。 [17]

Energy-efficient technologies

The Energy Efficient Technologies cluster aims to introduce breakthrough technologies focused on the reduction of energy consumption by industrial, housing and municipal infrastructure facilities. Today over 80 companies are on board for the energy efficiency cluster.[18]
节能技术集群旨在引入突破性技术,重点关注减少工业、住房和市政基础设施的能源消耗。如今,已有 80 多家公司加入了能源效率集群。 [18]

Nuclear technologies 核技术[edit]

The Nuclear Technologies cluster aims to encourage the competitiveness of nuclear power markets and develop breakthrough technologies and products.[19]
核技术集群旨在鼓励核电市场的竞争力并开发突破性技术和产品。 [19]

Biomedical technologies 生物医学技术[edit]

The strategic goal of this cluster is to create an ecosystem for biomedical innovation. In order to achieve this goal, the best practices of leading biotechnology and biomedical research centers were studied. More than 215 companies signed on for the Biomedical Technologies cluster.[20]
该集群的战略目标是打造生物医药创新生态系统。为了实现这一目标,研究了领先的生物技术和生物医学研究中心的最佳实践。超过 215 家公司签约加入生物医学技术集群。 [20]

Space technologies and telecommunications

The Space Technology and Telecommunications cluster is intended to strengthen Russia's position in the respective industries. The scope of activity is wide: from space tourism to satellite navigation systems. Russian companies aim to increase their market share in this global market, the total volume of which is estimated at $300 billion.[21]
空间技术和电信集群旨在加强俄罗斯在各自行业的地位。活动范围广泛:从太空旅游到卫星导航系统。俄罗斯公司的目标是增加在这个总规模估计为 3000 亿美元的全球市场中的市场份额。 [21]

Cooperation between clusters

There are examples of cooperation between the clusters. For example, in 2012 clusters of Information Technologies and Biomedical Technologies organized joint contest on Mobile Diagnostic Device "Skolkovo M.D."[22] and FRUCT was named the contest winner.
集群之间有合作的例子。例如,2012年,信息技术和生物医学技术集群组织了移动诊断设备“Skolkovo M.D.”联合竞赛。 [22] 并且 FRUCT 被评为竞赛获胜者。

Skolkovo Softlanding Program

Skolkovo Softlanding Program is a special program for high-tech foreign companies willing to expand to the Russian market. It bridges the gap between startups from all around the world and the opportunities available to them in Russia. It helps innovators, small and medium-sized companies to find their success on the Russian market by connecting them to the Russian companies, investors, business angels, mentors, partners and professionals. The duration of the program is one week, it takes place three times a year (March, June, October). Starting from 2019 ten cohorts have been conducted, 234 companies from 55 countries have participated in the program. When the program is over foreign startups may apply for Skolkovo resident status on order to start receiving tax benefits. and get opportunity to apply for grants.
斯科尔科沃软着陆计划是针对愿意拓展俄罗斯市场的高科技外国公司的特殊计划。它弥合了来自世界各地的初创企业与它们在俄罗斯获得的机会之间的差距。它通过将创新者、中小型公司与俄罗斯公司、投资者、商业天使、导师、合作伙伴和专业人士联系起来,帮助他们在俄罗斯市场取得成功。该项目为期一周,每年举办三次(三月、六月、十月)。从 2019 年开始,该项目已举办了 10 期,来自 55 个国家的 234 家公司参与了该项目。该计划结束后,外国初创企业可以申请斯科尔科沃居民身份,以便开始享受税收优惠。并有机会申请补助金。

Daria Shunina, Head of the Skolkovo Softlanding Program says: "Our main mission is to help foreign companies to expand to the Russian market or at least to learn more about it".
斯科尔科沃软着陆项目负责人达里亚·舒尼娜 (Daria Shunina) 表示:“我们的主要任务是帮助外国公司拓展俄罗斯市场,或者至少更多地了解俄罗斯市场”。

Innovation City 创新城[edit]

Technopark of Skolkovo. 斯科尔科沃科技园。

The main elements of The city are the University and a Technopark. The city will also feature a Congress Center, office buildings, laboratories, fitness centers and stores. The city will measure roughly 400 hectares and have a permanent population of 21,000. Employees, including commuters from Moscow and surrounding regions, will comprise about 31,000 people.[23]
该城市的主要组成部分是大学和科技园。该市还将设有会议中心、办公楼、实验室、健身中心和商店。该市占地约 400 公顷,常住人口为 21,000 人。员工总数约为 31,000 人,其中包括来自莫斯科及周边地区的通勤者。 [23]

Sustainable development 可持续发展[edit]

Mendeleev Quarter in the Skolkovo Innovation Center, August 2016
斯科尔科沃创新中心门捷列夫区,2016 年 8 月

At least 50% of the energy consumed by the city come from renewable sources, according to the initial plans. The well-developed water system uses significantly less water by Russian standards without compromising comfort or hygiene. The transport system prioritizes walking and cycling. The use of vehicles with internal combustion engines is prohibited in the city. Energy passive and active buildings that do not require energy from the outside and even produce more energy than they consume will be built at Skolkovo. Household and municipal waste will be disposed of in the most environmentally friendly way possible – leveraging the use of plasma incinerator technology.[24]
根据初步计划,该市至少 50% 的能源消耗来自可再生能源。按照俄罗斯标准,完善的供水系统使用量显着减少,同时又不影响舒适度或卫生。交通系统以步行和自行车为主。市内禁止使用内燃机车辆。斯科尔科沃将建造不需要外部能源、甚至产生比消耗更多能源的被动式和主动式能源建筑。家庭和城市废物将以最环保的方式进行处理——利用等离子焚烧炉技术。 [24]

Electronics Technology Center (ETC)

In July 2012, IBM and five Russian innovation companies: the Skolkovo Foundation, Rusnano, Rostelecom, Russian Venture Company[25] and ITFY, signed a collaboration agreement to foster a culture of applied research and commercialization and attract key talent and investment from around the world in the area of microelectronics.[26]
2012 年 7 月,IBM 与五家俄罗斯创新公司:斯科尔科沃基金会、Rusnano、Rostelecom、俄罗斯风险投资公司 [25] 和 ITFY 签署了一项合作协议,以培育应用研究和商业化文化并吸引关键人才和技术人员。世界各地对微电子领域的投资。 [26]

The agreement will give the Electronics Technology Center access to IBM's intellectual property for chip design.
该协议将使电子技术中心能够使用 IBM 的芯片设计知识产权。

The cloud will help unite Russia's dispersed microelectronics development teams and provide access to advanced technologies and best practice and foster global collaboration.

The agreement was signed by Victor Vekselberg, President of the Skolkovo Foundation; Anatoly Chubais, CEO and Chairman of the Executive Board of Rosnano; Alexander Provotorov, President and Chairman of the Management Board of Rostelecom; Igor Agamirzian, CEO of Russian Venture Company; Evgeny Babayan, Chairman of the Board, ITFY; Leonid Svatkov, CEO ITFY; Bruno Di Leo, Senior Vice President IBM; and Kirill Korniliev, Country General Manager, IBM Russia & CIS.
该协议由斯科尔科沃基金会主席 Victor Vekselberg 签署;阿纳托利·丘拜斯 (Anatoly Chubais),Rosnano 首席执行官兼执行委员会主席;亚历山大·普罗沃托罗夫 (Alexander Provotorov),Rostelecom 总裁兼管理委员会主席; Igor Agamirzian,俄罗斯风险投资公司首席执行官; Evgeny Babayan,ITFY 董事会主席; Leonid Svatkov,ITFY 首席执行官; Bruno Di Leo,IBM 高级副总裁;以及 IBM 俄罗斯和独联体国家总经理 Kirill Korniliev。

The ETC will initially focus on microelectronics design; however in the future it may be extended to other fields where cloud computing can support collaborative development projects.[27]
ETC最初将专注于微电子设计;然而,未来它可能会扩展到云计算可以支持协作开发项目的其他领域。 [27]

Open University Skolkovo (OpUS)
斯科尔科沃开放大学 (OpUS)

Skolkovo's Open University (OpUS) isn't an educational institution in the typical sense of the word, because graduating students don't receive a diploma. Instead, OpUS is a source of prospective Masters and PhD candidates, for the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (SkolTech), and interns for Skolkovo partner companies. The educational plan of OpUS includes lecture series, master classes and courses by leading scientists, thinkers and practitioners. Students acquire knowledge in the priority research and development areas of Skolkovo (information technology, biomedicine, energetics, space and nuclear technology). In addition, they have an opportunity to gain knowledge in academic and innovative competencies (foresight, forecasting, thinking, projecting), entrepreneur competence, experience in teamwork on projecting and solving inter-disciplinary problems.[28]
斯科尔科沃开放大学(OpUS)并不是典型意义上的教育机构,因为毕业生不会获得文凭。相反,OpUS 是斯科尔科沃科学技术研究所 (SkolTech) 潜在硕士和博士生以及斯科尔科沃合作伙伴公司实习生的来源。 OpUS 的教育计划包括系列讲座、大师班以及由顶尖科学家、思想家和实践者开设的课程。学生获得斯科尔科沃优先研究和开发领域的知识(信息技术、生物医学、能源学、空间和核技术)。此外,他们还有机会获得学术和创新能力(远见、预测、思考、规划)方面的知识、企业家能力、规划和解决跨学科问题的团队合作经验。 [28]

OpUS was opened on 21 April 2011 in Moscow. There are currently more than 250 students enrolled in OpUS.
OpUS 于 2011 年 4 月 21 日在莫斯科开业。目前 OpUS 注册学生超过 250 名。

Architecture 建筑学[edit]

The Skolkovo Innovation Center features several innovative buildings, particularly the Hypercube and Matrex by Bernaskoni,[29][30] and the East Ring by Herzog & de Meuron.[31]

International collaboration[edit]

International partners include:

Published data and performance[edit]

The Skolkovo Center publishes annual reports about the project, showing some data from their own sources.[38]

Skolkovo Human capital

  •   Professors
  •   Postdocs and researchers
  •   Technical personnel

Revenues earned by Skolkovo participants (billion ₽)

  •   Revenues earned by participants with resident status
  •   Revenues earned by participants without resident status

Raised investments (billion ₽)

  •   Investment in physical infrastructure
  •   Investment in technology startups

International Patents (pcs)


Sources by Skolkovo

See also[edit]

Silicon Valley type locations in the former Soviet Union
  • Silicon Taiga - Akademgorodok - Soviet/Russian research and development project of similar scale
  • Titanium Valley (Sverdlovsk Oblast)
  • Zelenograd - Soviet/Russian electronics and microelectronics center
Silicon Valley type locations around the world.


  1. ^ Russian 'Silicon Valley' for Moscow Region, The Moscow Times, 15 February 2010.
  2. ^ Kremlin picks site for Russian "Silicon Valley", Reuters, 18 March 2010.
  3. ^ Ben Morris, Russia creates its own Silicon Valley, BBC News, 26 April 2010.
  4. ^ "News". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  5. ^ "News - Skolkovo Community". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  6. ^ Viktor Vekselberg: we create an environment where you will have gained a critical level of intelligence. Vesti video
  7. ^ Verbatim record of the meeting of the Commission for Modernization and Technological Development of Russian Economy. The Kremlin
  8. ^ The September reading.
  9. ^ Dmitry Medvedev signed the law on innovation center "Skolkovo" The Kremlin
  10. ^ Changes to some legislative acts in connection with the adoption of the law on innovation center "Skolkovo". The Kremlin
  11. ^ Professionals do not need accounting and control.
  12. ^ Николаева, Дарья (23 August 2010). "Специалистам "Сколково" определили визовый режим". Retrieved 6 November 2016 – via Kommersant.
  13. ^ "Шувалов и Громов открыли дорогу в Сколково". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  14. ^ "Государство вложит в центр "Сколково" 54 млрд рублей". 8 May 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2016 – via Kommersant.
  15. ^ "Правила предоставления в 2010 году субсидии из федерального бюджета на мероприятия, связанные с созданием инновационного центра "Сколково"". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  16. ^ "News - Skolkovo Community". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  17. ^ "News - Skolkovo Community". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  18. ^ Energy Efficient Technologies Cluster. Official Skolkova Website
  19. ^ Nuclear Technologies Cluster Official Skolkovo website
  20. ^ "Results - Skolkovo Community". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  21. ^ "News - Skolkovo Community". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  22. ^ "Сколково M.D. - Skolkovo Community". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  23. ^ The City. - a Vault of animated video tours of the city.
  24. ^ Sustainable Development
  25. ^ "РВК и Da Vinci Capital создают фонд для стартапов на 6 млрд рублей". Ведомости (in Russian). Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  26. ^ "Груздев Владимир Сергеевич - компромат, биография, образование, национальность". Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  27. ^ rushpr Cloud computing technologies to form basis of new virtual design fab. 13 July 2012.
  28. ^ "News". Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  29. ^ "Matryoshka, Matrix and Rex. Boris Bernaskoni's Matrex at Venice".
  30. ^ Rice-Oxley, Mark (12 June 2015). "Inside Skolkovo, Moscow's self-styled Silicon Valley". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  31. ^ "herzog & de meuron-designed skolkovo institute opens in moscow". designboom | architecture & design magazine. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  32. ^ Your Way to Russian Silicon Valley Archived 7 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Israel-Skolkova Gateway.
  33. ^ "Israel Skolkovo Gateway". Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  34. ^ Taisiya, Yarmak (11 November 2016). "The Skolkovo Foundation and Yoqneam Illit City signed cooperation agreement during the official visit of the Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev to Israel". Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  35. ^ Anastasia (11 November 2016). "Moscow, Jerusalem to develop cooperation in construction and innovation". The Eurasian Press Agency. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  36. ^ Israeli Hadassah Center to take part in the creation of a medical cluster in Skolkovo 14 September 2017, 18:28
  37. ^ The medical cluster in Skolkovo will take the first patients in the summer 30 May, 9:41
  38. ^ "Annual Report 2019". Retrieved 23 December 2019.

External links[edit]

55°41′51″N 37°21′28″E / 55.69750°N 37.35778°E / 55.69750; 37.35778