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Edited by Werner Platzer 编辑:维尔纳-普雷策尔Translated by Harry Monsen

Volume I  第一卷

Head and Neck 头颈部
Urban & Schwarzenherg Urban & Schwarzenherg

Volumel:Headand Neek Edited by Wemer Platzer Tanslated by Hlamy Monsert UTban&Selwavenberg
卷首语:Headand Neek 编辑:Wemer Platzer 翻译:Hlamy Monsert UTban&Selwavenberg

Pernkopf Anatomy  Pernkopf 解剖学

Atlas of Topographic and Applied Human Anatomy

Edited by 编辑Werner PlatZer, M.D. 维尔纳-普拉特泽医学博士University of Innsbruck 因斯布鲁克大学Translated by 翻译Harry Monsen, Ph. D. 哈里-蒙森博士University of Illinois 伊利诺伊大学Chicago 芝加哥Volume I 第一卷Head and Neck 头颈部

Third Edition 第三版
298 full color and 118 black and white illustrations
298 幅全彩插图和 118 幅黑白插图
Pernkopf Anatomy Pernkopf 解剖学
Volume I: Head and Neck
Urban & Schwarzenberg, Inc.
Urban & Schwarzenberg, Inc.
7 East Redwood Street Baltimore, Maryland 21202 USA
美国马里兰州巴尔的摩市东红木街 7 号 21202

Urban & Schwarzenberg Urban & Schwarzenberg
Landwehrstraße 61
D-8000 München 2 D-8000 慕尼黑 2 号
Germany 德国
(c) Urban & Schwarzenberg 1964, 1980, 1989
(c) Urban & Schwarzenberg 1964, 1980, 1989
All rights to reproduction in any form including that of translations are rescrved by the author and publisher. Photomechanical reproduction (photocopy, microcopy) of this book or parts thereof or the use of electronic or mechanical systems for the purpose of storage, retrieval or transmission is prohibited without written permission from the publisher (with the exception of special cases identified under Paragraphs 53, 54 URG).
作者和出版商保留以任何形式复制(包括翻译)的所有权利。未经出版商书面许可,禁止对本书或其部分内容进行照相机械复制(影印、缩微复制),或使用电子或机械系统进行存储、检索或传输(《出版法》第 53 和 54 款规定的特殊情况除外)。
This Atlas consists of 2 separate volumes:
该地图集由 2 册独立的地图组成:
Volume I: Head and Neck
Volume II: Thorax, Abdomen and Extremitics
Original edition: Pernkopf, Anatomic: Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen. Herausgegeben von Prof. Werner Platzer. 3. Auflage, 1. Band: Kopf und Hals. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München-Wien-Baltimore 1987
原版:Pernkopf, Anatomic: Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen.由 Werner Platzer 教授编辑。第 3 版第 1 卷:头颈部。Urban & Schwarzenberg,慕尼黑-维也纳-巴尔的摩,1987 年

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Pernkopf, Eduard, 1888 - 1955
爱德华-佩恩科普夫,1888 - 1955
IAtlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen. English
Pernkopf anatomy : atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy / edited by Werner Platzer : translated from German by Harry Monsen. -3 rd ed.
Pernkopf anatomy : atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy / Werner Platzer 编著 : Harry Monsen 译自德文。-3 rd ed.
p. cm.
Translation of: Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen. 1987.
Includes index 包括索引
Contents: v. 1. Head and neck
目录: v. 1.头颈部
ISBN 0-8067-1553-7 (v. 1) : $175.00
ISBN 0-8067-1553-7(第 1 版):175.00 美元
  1. Anatomy, Surgical and topographical--Atlases. 2. Anatomy. Human--Atlases. I. Platzer, Werner. II. Title.
    解剖学、外科和地形学--图集。2.解剖学。人类--图集。I. Platzer, Werner.I. Platzer, Werner.标题.
[DNLM: 1. Anatomy--atlases. QS 17 P452a
[DNLM:1.解剖--酶。QS 17 P452a
QM531.P4813 1989
for Library of Congress 89-5805
美国国会图书馆 89-5805

Preface 序言

The goal of Anatomy is to make available for the future physician the clearest and most accurate illustrations of the different regions of the body since thorough knowledge of morphology provides for an earlier understanding of functional relationships. The practicing physician may also avail himself of an atlas for the recall of anatomical details.
The work of Eduard Pernkopf is classical among atlases of anatomy. The detailed information on topographic-anatomical relationships and the high quality of the illustrations determine the worth of this volume since the publication of the first edition over 40 years ago. I was honored and exceedingly pleased to be afforded the opportunity of preparing the third edition of this great work; pleased, because I prepared most of the specimens of the head and neck regions which served as bases for the original illustrations. I collaborated with Pernkopf in the years between 1949 and 1955 and, after his sudden death in 1955, supervised the creation of the illustrations of both volumes on the head until 1959.
Eduard Pernkopf 的作品是解剖学图谱中的经典之作。自 40 多年前第一版出版以来,有关地形解剖关系的详细信息和高质量的插图决定了这本书的价值。能有机会编写这部巨著的第三版,我感到非常荣幸和欣慰;欣慰是因为我制作了大部分头颈部标本,这些标本是原始插图的基础。从 1949 年到 1955 年,我一直与 Pernkopf 合作,1955 年他突然去世后,我一直负责监督两卷头部插图的创作,直到 1959 年。
I felt that the illustrations from the masters hands, those of Batke, Dietz, Endtresser, Lepier, Schrott, and von Siber should all appear in the new edition, if at all possible. Of course, it was also necessary to include new plates, some of which were drawn by the unforgettable academic painter Franz Batke, as well as a series of illustrations prepared with the perceptive insights and efforts of Mrs. Ulrike Brugger of Munich and Mrs. Kirsten Siedel of Bernried. My heartfelt thanks to both ladies for their willing cooperation and understanding in this time-consuming task. Most illustrations are drawn from dissections, of which I prepared some. For the bulk of the material, however, I am forever grateful to my assistant professor, Dr. Herbert Maurer and the demonstrators of the Institute of Anatomy. I also wish to thank Dr. Otto Dapunt Jr. for some outstanding preparations. Finally, I thank my earlier assistant, Dr. Cornelia Fischer, for some very difficult and carefully developed specimens.
All rays have been excluded from this edition. This was not done because of the availability today of a large number of outstanding radiological anatomy textbooks, but their retention would by necessity mean the inclusion of new imaging methods and a consequent expansion of this volume to unmanageable proportions.
本版不包括所有 射线。这样做并不是因为现在有大量优秀的放射学解剖学教科书,而是保留这些教科书必然意味着要纳入新的成像方法,从而使这本书的篇幅扩大到难以驾驭的程度。
The nomenclature has, as much as possible, been adjusted to contemporary usage. Details which are not listed in the Nomina Anatomica are named in a meaningful manner. All leaders have been redrawn and reduced in number in order to improve the overall appearance of the illustrations.
The tiresome task of proof-reading was undertaken by my assistant Professor Sepp Poisel, Mrs. Cornelia Fischer, and my wife, Dr. Liselotte Platzer. The completely new legends were authored by Mrs. Anna Mayerhofer. My heartfelt thanks to all of them.
我的助手 Sepp Poisel 教授、Cornelia Fischer 女士和我的妻子 Liselotte Platzer 博士承担了繁重的校对工作。全新的传说则由安娜-迈尔霍夫女士撰写。我衷心感谢他们所有人。
I am also grateful to Mr. Michael Urban who, on behalf of the publisher, provided the necessary facilities. His coworkers, Dr. Silke Dabelstein, Mr. Peter Mazzetti, and Mrs. Renate Hausdorf supported me actively in such a pleasant manner that the work was guaranteed a smooth completion. My thanks to them also.
我还要感谢迈克尔-乌尔班先生,他代表出版社为我提供了必要的便利。他的同事 Silke Dabelstein 博士、Peter Mazzetti 先生和 Renate Hausdorf 夫人以令人愉快的方式积极支持我,保证了工作的顺利完成。我也要向他们表示感谢。
This edition is dedicated to the memory of Professor Eduard Pernkopf and his collaborating artists, Franz Batke, Wilhelm Dietz, Karl Endtresser, Erich Lepier, Ludwig Schrott, and E. von Siber.
Innsbruck, June 1989 因斯布鲁克,1989 年 6 月
Werner Platzer 维尔纳-普雷策尔

Table of Contents 目录

The Head 头部

External Form of the Head

Cleavage lincs, regions, points and

lincs for orientation .....
LINKS for orientation .....

The Superficial Layers of the Head and the

Musculo-skeletal Walls of its Visceral

Compartments 隔间
Muscles of facial expression. .....

Parotideo-masseteric region and

retromandibular fossa .....
颌后窝 .....

Front view of orbital region .....
轨道区正视图 .....

The intratemporal fossa .....
颞内窝 .....

Superficial structures in

occipital region ..... 22
枕叶区 .....22

The skull .....
头骨 .....

Muscles and fasciae of face region .....
脸部肌肉和筋膜 .....

Vessels and nerves of the head .....
头部血管和神经 .....

Sections of the head .....
头部 .....

Visceral Compartments 内脏隔室
Structures of the oral cavity .....
口腔结构 .....

Structures of the nasal cavity .....
鼻腔结构 .....

Structures of the orbit .....
轨道结构 .....

The Base of the Skull and the Ear

Figs 无花果
The interior of the skull base. .....

The vestibulo-cochlear organ

superior view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148-149

posterior view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-152

lateral view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153-157

medial view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158-161

detailed anatomy .....
详细解剖 .....

The Brain 大脑
The Brain in situ

superior view .....
优景 .....

anterior view .....
前视图 .....

lateral view .....
侧视图 .....

posterior view .....
后视图 .....

inferior view .....
下视图 .....

Overviews of parts of the brain .....
大脑各部分概述 .....

The ventricular system and the

subarachnoid space .....
蛛网膜下腔 .....

Craniocerebral topography .....
颅脑地形图 .....

Vessels of the brain .....
脑血管 .....

Fiber preparations of the brain .....
脑纤维制剂 .....

Sections of the brain .....
大脑切片 .....

Nuclei of telencephalon and

mesencephalon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272-279
间脑. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272-279

The Neck 颈部

External Form of the Neck

Regions, dermatomes, points

for orientation .....
用于定向 .....

The Visceral Neck Compartment

The Pharynx 咽部
dorsal view .....
背视图 .....

lateral view .....
侧视图 .....

The Superficial Layers of the

medial vicw .....
内侧 vicw .....

Neck and the Musculo-skeletal

Cross sections of the

visceral compartment .....
内脏腔 .....

Walls of the Visceral and

Visceral vessels and nerves

of the neck. .....

Neural Compartments 神经区
Superficial layers 表层
Ventro-lateral superficial layers .....
通风道外侧表层 .....

Retromandibular fossa ..... 287-288
颌后窝 .....287-288

Submandibular triangle .....
颌下三角区 .....

Carotid triangle .....
颈动脉三角 .....

Median cervical region ..... 295-298
颈中线区域 ..... 295-298

Lateral cervical region . ..... 299-301
颈侧区域 . .....299-301

Sternocleidomastoid region .....
胸锁乳突区 .....

Suboccipital region .....
枕下区 .....

Structures of the neck

Anterior and lateral views of

neck skelcton .....
颈部 Skelcton .....

Neck musculature .....
颈部肌肉 .....

Sections of the neck .....
颈部切面 .....

Fasciae of the neck .....
颈部筋膜 .....

The superficial vessels and

nerves of the neck .....
颈部神经 .....

Dorsal view of neck skeleton ..... 332
颈部骨骼背视图 .....332

Intrinsic back muscles ..... 333
背部内在肌肉 .....333

Vessels and nerves of the

suboccipital region ..... 334
枕下区 .....334

Pharyngeal structures .....
咽部结构 .....

The larynx - thyroid gland -

cupola of plcura 穹顶
Larynx .....  喉 .....
Laryngeal structures .....
喉部结构 .....

Thyroid gland .....
甲状腺 .....

Cupola of pleura .....
胸膜冲天炉 .....

The Cervical Neural Compartment

Structures .....
结构 .....

The Axial Skeleton of the Neck

The cervical vertebral column .....
颈椎 .....

The atlanto-occipital and

atlantoaxial joints .....
寰枢关节 .....

Anthropometric Points ..... 403
人体测量点 .....403

The Head 头部

External Form of the Head

Figs. 1a and  图 1a 和
Skin cleavage lines (of LaNGER), a) from front, b) from behind. The best cosmetic results are achieved when surgical incisions are made along the
Regions 地区
R.b. = Buccal region
R.b. = 颊区
R.fr. Frontal region
R.fr. 额叶
R.i.o. Infraorbital region
R.i.o. 眶下区
R.m. = Mental region
R.m. = 心理区域
R.n. = Nasal region
R.n. = 鼻区
R.o. = Oral region
R.o. = 口腔区
R.orb. = Orbital region
R.orb. = 轨道区域
R.p. = Parietal region
R.p. = 顶叶区
R.p.m. = Parotideomasseteric region
R.p.m. = Parotideomasseteric 区域

Skin measuring points 皮肤测量点
Alare  阿拉蕾 st Stomion st Stomion
Cheilion Tragion  特拉吉翁
Endocanthion Trichion
Exocanthion Vertex  顶点
Labiale inferius
Labiale superius
Superaurale  超级
Fig. 2 Male head from front. Regions and skin measuring points.
图 2 男性头部正面图。区域和皮肤测量点。
Apex of nose, cutaneous part of sup. lip
Boundary line between Pressure points for 1 st, cutaneous innervation by trigeminal nerve and 2nd, and 3rd branches of trigeminal nerve cervical nerves ("vertex-
三叉神经和三叉神经颈神经第 2 和第 3 支的第 1、第 2 和第 3 皮神经支配的压痛点之间的分界线("椎-椎 "分界线)。
Area of ophthalmic nerve ear-chin line").
Area of maxillary nerve
Area of mandibular nerve
Fig. 3 图 3
Female head from front. Fields of innervation and pressure points are indicated on the left half of the face.
Undefined control sequence \(

Condylion mediale
Coronion  科罗尼翁 Metopion Nasion Nasospinale Orbitale  轨道on Ophryon 关于 Ophryon Prosthion Zygion Zygomaxillare

Fig. 4 图 4
Front view of the male head with superimposed skeleton and craniometric points. Craniometric points are useful in anthropology, and in medicine for establishing planes when applying certain radiologic techniques and computed tomography.
Solid lines Limits between sensory fields of the three trigeminal nerve divisions
实线 三叉神经三个分支感觉区域之间的界限
Dashed lines Limits between sensory fields of cervical plexus branches
虚线 颈丛分支感觉区域之间的界限
Dashed & dotted line Boundary between sensory ficlds of ventral and dorsal branches of the cervical nerves Dark dotted lines Boundary between 2nd and 3rd cervical dermatomes
虚线和点划线 颈神经腹侧支和背侧支感觉器官之间的分界线 暗点划线 第 2 和第 3 颈神经节之间的分界线
Light dotted lines Boundaries between the anterior, middle, and posterior segments innervated by the trigeminal nerve
浅色虚线 三叉神经支配的前段、中段和后段之间的界限
nd and cervical dermatomes
第 nd 和 颈椎皮节
G.I. = Boundary between trigeminal n. distribution and 2nd cervical dermatome ("vertex-ear-chin line")
G.I. = 三叉神经节分布与第 2 颈椎皮节之间的分界线("顶点-耳颏线")。
S.v. Anterior segment of trigeminal n.
S.v. 三叉神经节的前段。
related to the cranial part of the spinal nucleus of

S.m. = Middle segment of trigeminal n., related to the middle part of the spinal nucleus of
S.m. = 三叉神经中段,与三叉神经脊髓核的中段有关。
S.h. = Postcrior segment of trigeminal n., related to the caudal part of the spinal nucleus of Areas of innervation of the three branches of the trigeminal . Pressure point for medial br. of supraorbital .
S.h. = 三叉神经节后段,与 的脊髓核尾部有关 三叉神经三个分支的支配区域 眶上缘内侧的压痛点
Pressure point for infraorbital .
眶下压痛点 。
Pressure point for mental .
精神压痛点 。
Pressure point for greater occipital n.
大枕骨 n 的压痛点。
Au.m. = Grcat auricular n. field O.mi. Lesser occipital n. field O.mj. = Greater occipital n. field O.t. rd occipital . ficld T.c. = Transverse cervical n. field.
Au.m. = Grcat auricular n. field O.mi. O.mj. = Greater occipital n. field O.t. rd occipital . ficld T.c. = Transverse cervical n. field.
Fig. 5 图 5
Male head from the side with fields of inncrvation and nerve pressure points.
Undefined control sequence \(
Fig. 6 图 6
Male head seen from the side with the most important craniometric points on the superimposed skeleton. The boundary between neurocranium and visceral cranium is marked by a broken line.
Fig. 7 图 7
Male head seen from behind . Left: Regions.
从后面看男性头部 .左:区域
Right: Boundary lines between dermatomes.
The dotted line indicates the boundary between ventral and dorsal rami of the cervical nerves.
Graniometric points 花岗岩测量点
ast Asterion ast Asterion
eu Euryon eu Euryon
Fig. 8 图 8
Posterior view of male head with superimposed skeleton and craniometric points.
The superficial layers of the head and the musculoskeletal walls of its visceral compartments
Fig. 9 The mimic musculature and subcutaneous vessels and nerves of the head from front.
图 9 从正面观察头部的模拟肌肉组织和皮下血管及神经。
Epicranius ., frontal belly of occipitofrontal .
Epicranius .,枕额腹部 .
Epicranius ., temporoparietal m.
Epicranius ., temporoparietal m.
Epicranius m., occipital belly of occipitofrontal .