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那电动自行车这种产品词,在美国地区,google上的搜索力和流量情况如何

那电动自行车这种产品词,在美国地区,google上的搜索力和流量情况如何

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我们可以分析电动自行车(EPTW)在美国地区的Google搜索力和流量情况。首先,需要明确的是,电动自行车市场在过去十年中已经爆炸性增长,尤其是在中国,但北美市场相对较小6。然而,有证据表明这种情况正在改变。

此外,Google的趋势分析工具(Google Trends)可以用来衡量特定词汇或主题在不同地区和时间段内的关注度8。这为我们提供了一个工具,以评估电动自行车在美国地区的搜索兴趣。

此外,考虑到Google搜索结果的动态性和排名变化11,电动自行车相关的搜索内容可能会随着时间的推移而不断更新和优化,从而吸引更多的搜索流量。同时,随着电动自行车市场的扩大和技术的进步,相关的搜索需求和兴趣也可能会随之增加。

虽然目前没有直接的数据显示电动自行车在美国地区的Google搜索力和流量情况,但根据上述分析,我们可以合理推测,在美国地区,电动自行车相关的搜索活动是活跃且增长中的。随着电动自行车市场的进一步发展和公众意识的提高,未来这一趋势有望继续加强。

电动自行车在美国市场的当前规模和增长趋势是什么?

美国电动自行车市场的当前规模和增长趋势可以从几个方面进行分析。

从历史数据来看,电动自行车在美国市场呈现出快速增长的态势。2005年的报道指出,美国电动小摩托车(Scooter)显示旺销的势头,轻型电动车辆包括电动自行车等多种类型14。这表明在早期阶段,电动自行车及其相关产品在美国市场上已经开始受到欢迎。

然而,到了2016年,情况出现了一些变化。同年的一篇报道提到,去年美国电动自行车销售量下降,而2014年的市场情况比较乐观,当时对2015年成交量预估为19.3万辆15。这表明在某个时期内,美国电动自行车市场经历了一段下滑期。

进入2020年代,电动自行车市场的发展趋势有所转变。2020年的报道指出,由于全球变暖的担忧和相关的监管要求,电动车辆的销售在美国可能会增加18。尽管整体轻型车辆销售将下滑2.3%,但电动车辆(包括燃料电池和混合动力单元)的销售比例预计将从2018年的约4%增加到2020年的9%18。这表明电动自行车作为电动车辆的一个分支,在美国市场上的接受度和需求正在逐渐增长。

此外,电动自行车在美国市场从小众走向主流的趋势也得到了证实。2014年的报道中提到,电动自行车能够给像“婴儿潮”一代这样正在老去的人群带来无限的乐趣,他们既需要新鲜的空气和锻炼,又不想出太多的汗19。这说明电动自行车不仅是一种交通工具,也是一种生活方式的选择,其受众群体正在扩大。

尽管美国电动自行车市场在某些时期经历了销量下降的情况15,但从长远来看,随着全球对环保和可持续交通方式的关注增加18,以及电动自行车作为休闲健身工具的普及19,美国电动自行车市场的规模和增长趋势显示出积极的发展前景。

Google Trends中关于电动自行车的搜索热度在过去几年中的变化情况如何?

我们可以分析出过去几年中关于电动自行车(e-bikes)的搜索热度在Google Trends中的变化情况。

从全球研究趋势的角度来看,电动自行车的研究自2008年以来增长迅速,尤其是在中国和美国这两个环境意识高、人口众多的国家24。这表明了对电动自行车的兴趣和需求在全球范围内正在增加。此外,电动自行车被视为一种可持续的城市交通方式,有助于能源节约和可持续能源的发展24

进一步地,电动车辆(包括电动自行车)作为化石燃料节约和污染减少的解决方案,其设计和优化需要考虑多种因素,如电池管理、燃料消耗、驾驶性能需求排放和管理策略等25。这些研究表明,随着技术的进步和对环境保护意识的提高,电动自行车的性能和接受度都有所提升。

然而,尽管电动自行车的使用和购买在许多国家呈上升趋势27,但早期的研究指出,电动车辆(包括电动自行车)在与汽油驱动车辆相比时,在城市旅行的短距离能力上存在不足,且价格较高28。这表明了电动自行车的发展和普及面临着一些挑战。

最近的研究显示,新出行服务用户的调查显示,使用新型出行服务(如共享汽车和叫车服务)并不增加他们未来购买电动自行车的倾向31。这可能表明,尽管电动自行车的技术和性能有所改进,但在某些用户群体中,对其接受度仍然有限。

根据最新的文献计量分析,电动车辆采纳研究的趋势、影响和未来方向正在被广泛探讨33。这表明,随着技术的不断进步和公众对可持续交通方式的认识加深,电动自行车的搜索热度在未来几年可能会继续增长。

过去几年中关于电动自行车的搜索热度在Google Trends中的变化情况显示出了一种上升趋势,尽管存在一些挑战和限制因素。随着技术的进步和对环境保护意识的提高,预计电动自行车的接受度和使用率将继续增长。

哪些因素在推动电动自行车在美国市场的发展?

推动电动自行车在美国市场发展的因素可以从多个维度进行分析,包括技术进步、政策支持、消费者行为、社会影响以及环境意识等方面。

  1. 技术进步:技术是推动电动自行车发展的关键因素之一。随着电池技术的进步和电机控制技术的发展,电动自行车的性能得到了显著提升。例如,矢量控制技术使得电动机的扭矩和速度调节更加精确,复合材料和铝合金部件的应用减轻了车辆重量,从而减少了对电机和电池的负荷36。此外,飞轮能量存储系统、超级电容器、再生制动系统以及混合/电动驱动系统等新技术的应用,增加了电动自行车的续航能力和加速性能36

  2. 政策支持:政府的政策措施对于电动自行车市场的发展起到了重要的推动作用。美国联邦政府和加州政府在电动汽车的研发支持、个税抵免优惠、零排放汽车积分、购置补贴、交通政策和充电政策等方面出台了一系列政策措施41。这些政策不仅降低了消费者的购车成本,还提高了电动自行车的使用便利性,从而促进了市场的快速发展。

  3. 消费者行为:消费者对电动自行车的接受度和购买意愿是推动市场发展的另一个重要因素。研究表明,消费者对电动自行车的控制能力、周围人的咨询意见、环境意识和技术产品的接受度等因素对其购买行为有显著影响34。当消费者认为电动自行车在个人、环境或国家层面上更有益,或者使用电动自行车更简单方便时,他们对购买电动自行车的态度会更加积极34

  4. 社会影响:社会影响也是推动电动自行车市场发展的一个不可忽视的因素。家庭成员、朋友、同事或上司的意见虽然对消费者购买电动自行车的态度或行为没有显著影响34,但社会整体对环保和新能源汽车的支持态度,以及通过社交媒体等渠道的信息传播,都在一定程度上影响了消费者的购买决策39

  5. 环境意识:尽管环境因素对消费者的影响可能不如预期那么大38,但随着全球气候变化和环境污染问题的日益严重,越来越多的人开始关注可持续发展和低碳出行方式。电动自行车作为一种环保、便捷、健康的绿色交通工具,正逐渐成为人们日常出行的选择之一40

技术进步、政策支持、消费者行为、社会影响以及环境意识等因素共同推动了电动自行车在美国市场的发展。

美国消费者对电动自行车的态度和接受程度有哪些变化?

美国消费者对电动自行车的态度和接受程度在近年来有所变化,这些变化可以从几个方面进行分析。

从消费者购买动机的角度来看,研究表明消费者对电动车辆(包括电动自行车)的购买意向受到享乐性、收益性和规范性动机的正面影响43。这表明随着环保意识的提高和个人道德标准的加强,越来越多的消费者开始考虑购买电动自行车作为一种减少温室气体排放的方式。此外,个人与电动自行车直接体验的时间越短,其对购买电动自行车的考虑程度越高44。这意味着通过提供短暂的试驾体验,可以有效提高消费者对电动自行车的兴趣和接受度。

从立法支持的角度来看,美国各州政府对电动自行车相关立法的支持也在增加46。这种统一的法规框架有助于提高消费者对电动自行车安全性和可靠性的信心,从而促进其接受度。

从消费者偏好的角度来看,研究发现年轻成年人、受教育程度高和技术熟练的消费者更倾向于选择自动化和电动自动化的车辆选项47。这表明技术熟练和对新技术持开放态度的消费者群体可能更容易接受电动自行车。

然而,尽管存在上述积极因素,但消费者对电动自行车的知识仍然较低44。这表明在推广电动自行车的过程中,还需要加强对消费者的教育和宣传,以提高他们对电动自行车性能、充电方式以及政府补贴等方面的了解。

美国消费者对电动自行车的态度和接受程度正在逐渐改善,主要得益于环保意识的提升、短暂试驾体验的有效性、立法支持的加强以及特定人群对新技术的偏好。然而,提高消费者对电动自行车的认知仍然是推广过程中需要重点关注的问题。

在美国,哪些品牌或型号的电动自行车最受欢迎?

在美国,最受欢迎的电动自行车品牌或型号包括Karmic公司的Oslo电动自行车和迪安·卡门发明的“塞格威”电动两轮车。Oslo电动自行车以其未来科技感的设计和封闭式的链条、刹车线和电池设计受到关注,尽管其1499美元的售价较高48。而“塞格威”电动两轮车则因其独特的设计和在美国媒体上引起的强烈轰动而知名50。这些信息表明,在美国市场上,具有创新设计和技术的电动自行车品牌和型号更受欢迎。

延伸阅读
探讨了零售商在Google和Bing上获得有机流量的重要因素——名称的显著性及其对搜索结果排名的影响。

提供了全球电动两轮车市场的爆炸性增长,特别是北美市场的潜力和未来趋势。

相关组织
组织名称概述
SEC (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission)3
政府机构美国证券交易委员会,负责监管证券市场,包括通过规则11Ac1-5报告零售订单执行情况。

相关人物
人物名称概述
Daniel, Hirshleifer and Subrahmanyam3
学者/研究人员提出了价格动量策略的解释,其研究被用来分析SVI与IPO股票回报之间的关系。

大纲

搜索引擎的重要性

Google的排名动态

11

电动自行车市场概况

过去十年市场爆炸性增长

6

预计到2025年,EPTW年销量将达到1.3亿辆

6

美国地区的搜索趋势

不同类型的搜索引擎在美国的使用情况

13

影响因素分析

品牌知名度对有机流量的影响

4

用户关注度与话语权分析

8

结论与展望

随着技术发展和消费者意识提高,预计美国市场将有显著变化

6

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Worldwide Electric Powered Two Wheel Market

F. Jamerson; E. Benjamin


AbstractElectric Powered Two Wheeler (EPTW) market has exploded the past decade. The EPTW is mainly an electric bike today but new electric scooters are entering the market as well and will add to the EPTW product mix. China is the dominant user and producer of electric bikes, with 150 million in use, and powerful electric scooters are beginning to appear there. Europe is the second biggest user of electric bikes with over a million sold each year. North American market is tiny in comparison but there is evidence that is to change. The breaking news is that nations in other continents are beginning to explore and are starting to put EBs and ESs into the market. This bodes well that the EPTW will have a respected place in the mix of local transportation that will be affordable and sustainable. EPTW sales will eventually exceed four wheel vehicle sales worldwide. That will be a permanent shift. New versions of the EPTW, like the General Motors/Segway Electric-Network Vehicle, will appear that will enlarge product choice and increase usage. Annual EPTW sales are projected to be 130 million by 2025 and 800 million by 2100. Four Wheel EVs annual sales are projected to grow to 2.5 million by 2025 and 100 million by 2100.


10
2012
World Electric Vehicle Journal

基于谷歌趋势的中国网络热词国际关注度与话语权分析——以在美国区域范围的关注热度为例

陆钰灵; 李佳颖; 龙若华; 王浩哲


摘要随着互联网技术与社交媒体的飞速发展,网络热词已经成为我国互联网语境中一个难以忽视的热点现象,"duang""土豪"等词甚至被国外媒体所报道。本文通过全球最大的搜索引擎——谷歌所提供的谷歌趋势(Google Trends)功能作为研究工具,筛选出在美国网络空间拥有足够关注度的中国网络热词,以相应热词在美国地区的用户关注度数据作为数据来源,并结合具体案例对其进行关注度峰值、地域热度等方面的分析,挖掘数据背后的多方面价值。由此,本文进一步探寻了美国网民对中国热词关注度所带来的有关话语权的思考。


4
2016-06-25
新闻研究导刊
期刊

Dynamics of Search Engine Rankings - A Case Study

J. Bar-Ilan; M. Levene; Mazlita Mat-Hassan


AbstractThe objective of this study was to characterize the changes in the rankings of the top-n results of major search engines over time and to compare the rankings between these engines. We considered only the top-ten results, since users usually inspect only the first page returned by the search engine, which normally contains ten results. In particular, we compare rankings of the top ten results of the search engines Google and AlltheWeb on identical queries over a period of three weeks. The experiment was repeated twice, in October 2003 and in January 2004 in order to assess changes to the top ten results of some of the queries during a three months period. Results show that the rankings of AlltheWeb were highly stable over each period, while the rankings of Google underwent constant yet minor changes, with occasional major ones. Changes over time can be explained by the dynamic nature of the Web or by fluctuations in the search engines' indexes (especially when frequent switches in the rankings are observed). The top ten results of the two search engines have surprisingly low overlap. With such small overlap (occasionally only a single URL) the task of comparing the rankings of the two engines becomes extremely challenging, and additional measures are needed to assess rankings in such situations.


14
2004
WebDyn@WWW

美国电动自行车类市场前景

葆新


摘要 据美国 Cycle Electric 国际咨询公司报道,电动自行车市场在美国呈现了快速增长的态势,美国电动小摩托车(Scooter)也显示旺销的势头。轻型电动车辆包括:电动自行车、助动车、低座小摩托车、电动三轮车(16km/h)、电力助动轮椅(11km/h)、电动跑车(8~40km/h)、多用运货车(Utility/Carge 16~64km/h)、个人用快运车(Personal Transit-PRT 32~160km/h)以及常与高尔夫小车混淆的近距离用电动


2005-01-30
电动自行车
期刊

美国电动自行车市场升级


摘要去年在美国销售的大部分电动自行车是从中国大陆或中国台湾进口的。还有一些是在当地装配加工的,其中最大的一家装配加工企业是位于佛罗里达州的Prodeco Tech。其他的则是产量相对较低的企业。最新统计数据显示,去年美国电动自行车销售量下降。而2014年的市场情况比较乐观,当时对2015年成交量预估为19.3万辆。


2
2016-07-28
中国自行车
期刊

Switch to electric vehicles will gain momentum

M. Reisch


AbstractElectric vehicle sales will likely rise in the US this year, driven by global warming concerns and associated regulatory mandates, industry observers say. Overall, US light-vehicle sales will slip 2.3% to 16.5 million units in 2020 compared with 2019, according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC), a trade association. The ongoing economic slowdown accounts for this general decline. In contrast, the consulting firm IHS Markit predicts that the percentage of US electric vehicle sales—including fuel-cell and hybrid-electric units—will more than double, from roughly 4% of overall vehicle sales in 2018 to 9% in 2020. Europe and China will see electric car sales surge from 6% of overall 2018 sales in each region to 23 and 19%, respectively, in 2020. Behind the increases are fleet carbon dioxide reduction targets in California and similar greenhouse gas reduction requirements in Europe and China. Kevin Swift, the ACC's chief economist, can't say if the


1
2020
Chemical & Engineering News

Switch to electric vehicles will gain momentum

M. Reisch


AbstractElectric vehicle sales will likely rise in the US this year, driven by global warming concerns and associated regulatory mandates, industry observers say. Overall, US light-vehicle sales will slip 2.3% to 16.5 million units in 2020 compared with 2019, according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC), a trade association. The ongoing economic slowdown accounts for this general decline. In contrast, the consulting firm IHS Markit predicts that the percentage of US electric vehicle sales—including fuel-cell and hybrid-electric units—will more than double, from roughly 4% of overall vehicle sales in 2018 to 9% in 2020. Europe and China will see electric car sales surge from 6% of overall 2018 sales in each region to 23 and 19%, respectively, in 2020. Behind the increases are fleet carbon dioxide reduction targets in California and similar greenhouse gas reduction requirements in Europe and China. Kevin Swift, the ACC's chief economist, can't say if the


1
2020
Chemical & Engineering News

美国电动自行车受热捧:从小众走向主流

李蓉


摘要唐·迪康斯坦佐是美国加州一电动自行车店的老板,他只用了一个词就解释了电动自行车受欢迎的原因,那就是:丘陵。他说:"我出售的不是电动自行车,而是快乐。"6年前他创立了这个品牌,电动自行车能够给像他这样正在老去的"婴儿潮"一代带来无限的乐趣。他们既需要新鲜的空气和锻炼,又不想出太多的汗,"我们90%的顾客在买电动自行车前都是骑行爱好者。"曾经的美国,汽车文化雄霸天下,电动自行车骑行不过是个小众的消遣活动。2013年美国的电动自行车销售


2014-06-30
电动自行车
期刊

美国电动自行车市场升级


摘要去年在美国销售的大部分电动自行车是从中国大陆或中国台湾进口的。还有一些是在当地装配加工的,其中最大的一家装配加工企业是位于佛罗里达州的Prodeco Tech。其他的则是产量相对较低的企业。最新统计数据显示,去年美国电动自行车销售量下降。而2014年的市场情况比较乐观,当时对2015年成交量预估为19.3万辆。


2
2016-07-28
中国自行车
期刊

Switch to electric vehicles will gain momentum

M. Reisch


AbstractElectric vehicle sales will likely rise in the US this year, driven by global warming concerns and associated regulatory mandates, industry observers say. Overall, US light-vehicle sales will slip 2.3% to 16.5 million units in 2020 compared with 2019, according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC), a trade association. The ongoing economic slowdown accounts for this general decline. In contrast, the consulting firm IHS Markit predicts that the percentage of US electric vehicle sales—including fuel-cell and hybrid-electric units—will more than double, from roughly 4% of overall vehicle sales in 2018 to 9% in 2020. Europe and China will see electric car sales surge from 6% of overall 2018 sales in each region to 23 and 19%, respectively, in 2020. Behind the increases are fleet carbon dioxide reduction targets in California and similar greenhouse gas reduction requirements in Europe and China. Kevin Swift, the ACC's chief economist, can't say if the


1
2020
Chemical & Engineering News

美国电动自行车受热捧:从小众走向主流

李蓉


摘要唐·迪康斯坦佐是美国加州一电动自行车店的老板,他只用了一个词就解释了电动自行车受欢迎的原因,那就是:丘陵。他说:"我出售的不是电动自行车,而是快乐。"6年前他创立了这个品牌,电动自行车能够给像他这样正在老去的"婴儿潮"一代带来无限的乐趣。他们既需要新鲜的空气和锻炼,又不想出太多的汗,"我们90%的顾客在买电动自行车前都是骑行爱好者。"曾经的美国,汽车文化雄霸天下,电动自行车骑行不过是个小众的消遣活动。2013年美国的电动自行车销售


2014-06-30
电动自行车
期刊

The Electric Bicycle: Worldwide Research Trends

Esther Salmerón-Manzano; F. Manzano-Agugliaro


AbstractThe bicycle has gone from being an old-fashioned recreational product to a less polluting means of transport and a compact, ultra-light personal mobility tool. This is how electrical bicycles will be used as the pillar that could support individual public transport in large cities worldwide. The objective of this manuscript is to detect how worldwide research on the electric bicycle is being developed, and, especially, around which scientific domains is it clustered, to finally identify the main trends in the field. This study has been carried out based on the Scopus database, where all the publications related to the topic of the electric bicycle have been analyzed up to the year 2017. ¨Therefore, research on the global research trends of this topic was conducted. Its evolution over time shows that since 2008 the growth of publications is much higher than in the previous period. The main countries are China and the USA, and it can be inferred that there are two major trend countries with high environmental awareness, which also have a large population and that the electric bicycle is a suitable and sustainable form of transport. Among the main scientific fields, engineering leads in research. The keyword analysis shows that the central theme is electric, then battery and motor stand out. A community detection was applied to detect the six main clusters of this research, largely dedicated to the following topics: Transportation–Environment, Electrical Engineering, Safety, Batteries, Sporting Goods–Urban Planning, and Mechanical Engineering. This manuscript shows that global research trends about the electric bicycle are increasing, and that it should be considered a means of sustainable urban transport and will therefore contribute to energy saving and sustainable energy.


62
2018
Energies

The Electric Bicycle: Worldwide Research Trends

Esther Salmerón-Manzano; F. Manzano-Agugliaro


AbstractThe bicycle has gone from being an old-fashioned recreational product to a less polluting means of transport and a compact, ultra-light personal mobility tool. This is how electrical bicycles will be used as the pillar that could support individual public transport in large cities worldwide. The objective of this manuscript is to detect how worldwide research on the electric bicycle is being developed, and, especially, around which scientific domains is it clustered, to finally identify the main trends in the field. This study has been carried out based on the Scopus database, where all the publications related to the topic of the electric bicycle have been analyzed up to the year 2017. ¨Therefore, research on the global research trends of this topic was conducted. Its evolution over time shows that since 2008 the growth of publications is much higher than in the previous period. The main countries are China and the USA, and it can be inferred that there are two major trend countries with high environmental awareness, which also have a large population and that the electric bicycle is a suitable and sustainable form of transport. Among the main scientific fields, engineering leads in research. The keyword analysis shows that the central theme is electric, then battery and motor stand out. A community detection was applied to detect the six main clusters of this research, largely dedicated to the following topics: Transportation–Environment, Electrical Engineering, Safety, Batteries, Sporting Goods–Urban Planning, and Mechanical Engineering. This manuscript shows that global research trends about the electric bicycle are increasing, and that it should be considered a means of sustainable urban transport and will therefore contribute to energy saving and sustainable energy.


62
2018
Energies

State of the Art and Trends in Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

M. Ehsani; K. Singh; H. Bansal; Ramin Tafazzoli Mehrjardi


AbstractElectric and hybrid electric vehicles (EV/HEV) are promising solutions for fossil fuel conservation and pollution reduction for a safe environment and sustainable transportation. The design of these energy-efficient powertrains requires optimization of components, systems, and controls. Controls entail battery management, fuel consumption, driver performance demand emissions, and management strategy. The hardware optimization entails powertrain architecture, transmission type, power electronic converters, and energy storage systems. In this overview, all these factors are addressed and reviewed. Major challenges and future technologies for EV/HEV are also discussed. Published suggestions and recommendations are surveyed and evaluated in this review. The outcomes of detailed studies are presented in tabular form to compare the strengths and weaknesses of various methods. Furthermore, issues in the current research are discussed, and suggestions toward further advancement of the technology are offered. This article analyzes current research and suggests challenges and scope of future research in EV/HEV and can serve as a reference for those working in this field.


109
2021
Proceedings of the IEEE

Age and attitude: Changes in cycling patterns of different e-bike user segments

S. Haustein; M. Møller


AbstractABSTRACT The use and purchase of electric bicycles (e-bikes) is emerging in many countries. Existing knowledge about changes in cycling patterns and car replacement after gaining e-bike access is limited and partly contradictory. Based on an online survey among e-bike users in Denmark (n = 427), this study looked into these effects by differentiating between different segments of e-bike users. We distinguished four age groups as well as three segments based on cycling attitudes and motives for the use and purchase of e-bikes: (1) enthusiastic e-bikers showed the most positive attitudes toward e-bikes and mainly bought an e-bike to increase cycling frequency; (2) utilitarian e-bikers already cycled regularly before having access to an e-bike and used the e-bike particularly for practical purposes and to reduce travel time; (3) recreational e-bikers were very positive about e-bike use but used it less regularly and mainly for long-distance recreational trips. Enthusiastic e-bikers reported the highest increase in overall cycling. Half of the enthusiastic e-bikers agreed that they bought the e-bike to replace a car. Differences between the four age groups were less pronounced. Nevertheless, we found that e-bike access decreased age differences in self-reported cycling frequency, whereas it increased differences in self-reported distances. Measures to increase e-bike use should primarily focus on potential enthusiastic e-bikers. Possible interventions include promotional campaigns at workplaces, intended to address not only instrumental but also affective motives of e-bike use.


71
2016
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation

ELECTRIC VEHICLE EXPECTATIONS AND POPULARIZATION POLICIES

M. Iguchi


AbstractElectric vehicles have the on-road capability only for shorter distances of urban travel. For the general user, the electric vehicle fails in comparison to the gasoline driven vehicle whose performance exceeds the requirements for urban travel. In addition, the price of an electric vehicle is higher than a gasoline vehicle despite imminent mass-production. The popularization of electric vehicles needs to reform public awareness to accept the high price of non-emission exhaust gases. The present day capabilities of electric vehicles are such that electric vehicles cannot replace all vehicles. Low emission vehicles such as those that use natural gas or alcohol for fuel, and hybrid vehicles with regenerating brakes must occupy a position in the marketplace in accordance with their purpose. Because vehicles have evolved hand in hand with fossil fuels huge costs and development efforts are essential if they are to part company with fossil fuels. Hopefully, existing gasoline and diesel engines will exert their territorial presence by markedly improving exhaust gas purification and energy efficiency.


1
1993
Iatss Research

New mobility service users' perceptions on electric vehicle adoption

A. Jenn; K. Laberteaux; Regina R. Clewlow


AbstractABSTRACT The recent growth of new mobility services such as car-sharing (ZipCar, Car2Go) and ride-hailing (Uber, Lyft) has interesting implications for new vehicle technologies. We explore the users of the services and their relation to electric vehicles preferences by analyzing two large-scale mobility service surveys. A number of categories (car-share usage, ride-hail usage, commute mode, demographics, current vehicle attributes, environmental attitudes, technology attitudes, and life-stage information) are examined in order to determine the likelihood a respondent considers purchasing an electric vehicle in the future. Survey respondents explicitly expressed that exposure to ride-hailing did not increase their propensity for wanting to purchase an electric vehicle in the future. However, we run a full suite of cross-validation models and find that in addition to the typical factors used in modeling preferences, the use of new mobility services statistically increases the predictive power of our model to identify preferences for electric vehicles.


31
2018
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation

Bibliometric Analysis of Electric Vehicle Adoption Research: Trends, Implications, and Future Directions

Edi Purwanto; Agus Irawan


AbstractABSTRACT


2023
International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering

Electric vehicles move closer to market

L. O'Connor


AbstractThis article reports that though battery technology is currently limiting the growth of EVs, the search for improvements is spurring innovative engineering developments. As battery makers, automakers, national laboratories, and others continue their search for a practical source of electric power that will make electric vehicles (EVs) more viable, engineers worldwide are making progress in other areas of EV development. Vector control, for example, enables better regulation of motor torque and speed; composite and aluminum parts reduce the vehicle`s weight, which in turn reduces the load on the motor and battery; and flywheel energy storage systems, supercapacitors, regenerative brake systems, and hybrid/electric drive trains increase range and acceleration. Despite efforts to develop an electric vehicle from the ground up, most of the early EVs to be sold in the United States will likely be converted from gasoline-powered vehicles. Chrysler Corp., for example, is expected to sell electric versions of its minivans and build them on the same assembly line as its gasoline-powered vehicles to reduce costs. The pace of engineering development in this field is fast and furious. Indeed, it is virtually impossible to monitor all emerging EV technology. To meet their quotas, the major automakers may even consider buyingmore » credits from smaller, innovative EV manufacturers. But whatever stopgap measures vehicle makers take, technology development will be the driving force behind long-term EV growth.« less


4
1995
Mechanical Engineering

Electric vehicles move closer to market

L. O'Connor


AbstractThis article reports that though battery technology is currently limiting the growth of EVs, the search for improvements is spurring innovative engineering developments. As battery makers, automakers, national laboratories, and others continue their search for a practical source of electric power that will make electric vehicles (EVs) more viable, engineers worldwide are making progress in other areas of EV development. Vector control, for example, enables better regulation of motor torque and speed; composite and aluminum parts reduce the vehicle`s weight, which in turn reduces the load on the motor and battery; and flywheel energy storage systems, supercapacitors, regenerative brake systems, and hybrid/electric drive trains increase range and acceleration. Despite efforts to develop an electric vehicle from the ground up, most of the early EVs to be sold in the United States will likely be converted from gasoline-powered vehicles. Chrysler Corp., for example, is expected to sell electric versions of its minivans and build them on the same assembly line as its gasoline-powered vehicles to reduce costs. The pace of engineering development in this field is fast and furious. Indeed, it is virtually impossible to monitor all emerging EV technology. To meet their quotas, the major automakers may even consider buyingmore » credits from smaller, innovative EV manufacturers. But whatever stopgap measures vehicle makers take, technology development will be the driving force behind long-term EV growth.« less


4
1995
Mechanical Engineering

美国推动电动汽车发展的政策措施

石红; 简晓荣; 黄永和; 吴松泉; 时间


摘要本报告首先探究了美国推进汽车节能减排、发展电动汽车的历史沿革。然后梳理了美国联邦政府层面在宏观战略、研发支持、个税抵免优惠等方面,以及加州政府层面在零排放汽车积分、购置补贴、交通政策、充电政策等方面发展电动汽车的政策措施。最后总结了未来美国电动汽车政策的发展方向并总结了对我国新能源汽车政策的启示。建议我国进一步完善财税优惠政策,加强充换电基础设施支持力度,鼓励节能与新能源汽车并行发展并出台相应经济性措施,鼓励地方因地制宜营造良好市场环境,从而推动我国新能源汽车产业健康稳定发展。


14
2020-06-15
汽车纵横
期刊

Key Factors Influencing Consumers’ Purchase of Electric Vehicles

Jui-Che Tu; Chun Yang


AbstractAlthough the rapid progress of the global economy and technology has advanced human civilization, it has also caused tremendous damage to the global ecological environment. Therefore, humans are thinking seriously about the environment and its sustainable development. One of the solutions to environmental problems is new energy vehicles. Since the promulgation of the “Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2012–2020)” by the General Office of the State Council, the Chinese government has determined a strategy of pure electric driving technology. The electric vehicle market in China has expanded rapidly, making China the largest electric vehicle market in the world. Hence, research on the situation of electric vehicles in China is highly necessary and of reference value for other countries to develop electric vehicles. As a result, it is a critical issue to develop low-carbon, energy-saving, and intelligent electric vehicles to reduce the environmental impact. This paper establishes a theoretical framework based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), technology acceptance model (TAM) and innovation diffusion theory (IDT), and explores the key factors influencing consumers' purchase of electric vehicles. The results show that: The application of the key factor model constructed in this study to consumers' behavioral intention regarding electric vehicle purchase is acceptable. According to the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis results, (1) In terms of behavioral intention: Consumers' control over the resources required to purchase electric vehicles has the highest influence on their behavioral intention, while consultation opinions from consumers' surroundings also significantly affect their behavioral intention to purchase electric vehicles. In addition, consumers' environmental awareness and acceptance of technology products will also influence their behavioral intention. (2) In terms of attitude toward behavior: When consumers believe that electric vehicles are more beneficial at the individual, environment or national level, or they believe that the usage of electric vehicles is simpler and more convenient, they will show a more positive attitude towards the purchase of electric vehicles. Consumers consider electric vehicles as forward-looking technology products with similar driving operation and usage cost compared to traditional vehicles. (3) In terms of regulations: The opinions of consumers' family members, friends, colleagues or supervisors do not significantly affect the attitude or behavior of consumers regarding electric vehicle purchase. The key factors influencing consumers' purchase of electric vehicles are not only applicable to the design and development of electric vehicles that better suit consumer demands, but also serve as a theoretical basis for the popularization of electric vehicles, and provide a reference for consumers' choice and purchase. Therefore, the government and relevant manufacturers need to consider increasing the publicity of electric vehicles and launch more attractive battery and charging schemes to attract consumers and promote the sustainable development of the automobile industry.


122
2019
Sustainability

Key Factors Influencing Consumers’ Purchase of Electric Vehicles

Jui-Che Tu; Chun Yang


AbstractAlthough the rapid progress of the global economy and technology has advanced human civilization, it has also caused tremendous damage to the global ecological environment. Therefore, humans are thinking seriously about the environment and its sustainable development. One of the solutions to environmental problems is new energy vehicles. Since the promulgation of the “Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2012–2020)” by the General Office of the State Council, the Chinese government has determined a strategy of pure electric driving technology. The electric vehicle market in China has expanded rapidly, making China the largest electric vehicle market in the world. Hence, research on the situation of electric vehicles in China is highly necessary and of reference value for other countries to develop electric vehicles. As a result, it is a critical issue to develop low-carbon, energy-saving, and intelligent electric vehicles to reduce the environmental impact. This paper establishes a theoretical framework based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), technology acceptance model (TAM) and innovation diffusion theory (IDT), and explores the key factors influencing consumers' purchase of electric vehicles. The results show that: The application of the key factor model constructed in this study to consumers' behavioral intention regarding electric vehicle purchase is acceptable. According to the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis results, (1) In terms of behavioral intention: Consumers' control over the resources required to purchase electric vehicles has the highest influence on their behavioral intention, while consultation opinions from consumers' surroundings also significantly affect their behavioral intention to purchase electric vehicles. In addition, consumers' environmental awareness and acceptance of technology products will also influence their behavioral intention. (2) In terms of attitude toward behavior: When consumers believe that electric vehicles are more beneficial at the individual, environment or national level, or they believe that the usage of electric vehicles is simpler and more convenient, they will show a more positive attitude towards the purchase of electric vehicles. Consumers consider electric vehicles as forward-looking technology products with similar driving operation and usage cost compared to traditional vehicles. (3) In terms of regulations: The opinions of consumers' family members, friends, colleagues or supervisors do not significantly affect the attitude or behavior of consumers regarding electric vehicle purchase. The key factors influencing consumers' purchase of electric vehicles are not only applicable to the design and development of electric vehicles that better suit consumer demands, but also serve as a theoretical basis for the popularization of electric vehicles, and provide a reference for consumers' choice and purchase. Therefore, the government and relevant manufacturers need to consider increasing the publicity of electric vehicles and launch more attractive battery and charging schemes to attract consumers and promote the sustainable development of the automobile industry.


122
2019
Sustainability

Key Factors Influencing Consumers’ Purchase of Electric Vehicles

Jui-Che Tu; Chun Yang


AbstractAlthough the rapid progress of the global economy and technology has advanced human civilization, it has also caused tremendous damage to the global ecological environment. Therefore, humans are thinking seriously about the environment and its sustainable development. One of the solutions to environmental problems is new energy vehicles. Since the promulgation of the “Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2012–2020)” by the General Office of the State Council, the Chinese government has determined a strategy of pure electric driving technology. The electric vehicle market in China has expanded rapidly, making China the largest electric vehicle market in the world. Hence, research on the situation of electric vehicles in China is highly necessary and of reference value for other countries to develop electric vehicles. As a result, it is a critical issue to develop low-carbon, energy-saving, and intelligent electric vehicles to reduce the environmental impact. This paper establishes a theoretical framework based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), technology acceptance model (TAM) and innovation diffusion theory (IDT), and explores the key factors influencing consumers' purchase of electric vehicles. The results show that: The application of the key factor model constructed in this study to consumers' behavioral intention regarding electric vehicle purchase is acceptable. According to the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis results, (1) In terms of behavioral intention: Consumers' control over the resources required to purchase electric vehicles has the highest influence on their behavioral intention, while consultation opinions from consumers' surroundings also significantly affect their behavioral intention to purchase electric vehicles. In addition, consumers' environmental awareness and acceptance of technology products will also influence their behavioral intention. (2) In terms of attitude toward behavior: When consumers believe that electric vehicles are more beneficial at the individual, environment or national level, or they believe that the usage of electric vehicles is simpler and more convenient, they will show a more positive attitude towards the purchase of electric vehicles. Consumers consider electric vehicles as forward-looking technology products with similar driving operation and usage cost compared to traditional vehicles. (3) In terms of regulations: The opinions of consumers' family members, friends, colleagues or supervisors do not significantly affect the attitude or behavior of consumers regarding electric vehicle purchase. The key factors influencing consumers' purchase of electric vehicles are not only applicable to the design and development of electric vehicles that better suit consumer demands, but also serve as a theoretical basis for the popularization of electric vehicles, and provide a reference for consumers' choice and purchase. Therefore, the government and relevant manufacturers need to consider increasing the publicity of electric vehicles and launch more attractive battery and charging schemes to attract consumers and promote the sustainable development of the automobile industry.


122
2019
Sustainability

Social Influence 
and the Formation of Markets 
for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

David R. Keith


AbstractMultiple new technologies have recently been introduced in the US automotive market in efforts to build markets for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug...


2018
Academy of Management Proceedings

State-of-the-Art Review of the Key Factors Affecting Electric Vehicle Adoption by Consumers

K. Anastasiadou; N. Gavanas


AbstractThe dependence of road transport on fossil fuels and its contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) and pollutant emissions are main concerns leading to the need for shifting toward alternative energy sources and, namely, electromobility. The current paper aims to identify the key determinants affecting the consumer adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), focusing on private passenger cars. Toward this purpose, a systematic review of recent international literature is conducted in order to identify motivators and barriers, which are then categorized following the PESTLE (Political–Economic–Social–Technological–Legal–Environmental) approach. Based on the review results, main policy implications and recommendations are discussed. A main conclusion is that the recent literature highlights a wide array of determinants, without converging as to which ones are the most influential regarding EV adoption by consumers. Another conclusion is that the environmental aspects are less important for consumers than anticipated, despite the concerns about climate change and renewable energy transition.


8
2022
Energies

聚焦日本美国的电动自行车市场

邓桂芳


摘要近些年来,当交通拥堵、空气污染日益成为困扰现代都市的老大难问题时,电动自行车作为一种环保、便捷、健康的绿色交通工具便应运而生。国外发展电动自行车较早的要数日本、德国以及欧洲各个国家,近几年来,美国对电动自行车的需求迅速升温。国外的电动自行车主要用于代步、休闲、健身和旅游。总体来说,电动自


4
2017-07-28
中国自行车
期刊

Exploring consumers' motives for electric vehicle adoption: bridging the attitude–behavior gap

P. Chaturvedi; K. Kulshreshtha; V. Tripathi; D. Agnihotri


AbstractPurposeThe current study aims to investigate the various consumption motives (hedonic, gain and normative) responsible for strengthening consumers' intentions toward purchase behavior for electric vehicle (EV).Design/methodology/approachA total of 411 valid survey responses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to investigate the empirical fit of the hypothesized framework.FindingsThe results of structural equation modeling revealed that all three motives were positively correlated with purchase intentions for EV. Hedonic motives were found to have the strongest influence on purchase intentions. In addition, gain and normative motives were also found to be significant predictors of EV buying behavior. Further analysis revealed a positive correlation between gain, normative and hedonic motives. Moreover, personal moral standards seem to have a significant and positive impact on the positive emotions associated with buying EV.Practical implicationsThe results of current research can be useful for marketers while designing promotional strategies for all the high-involvement green products. Marketing professionals and policymakers can use these results to build effective marketing strategies for EVs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions resulting from personal vehicle use.Originality/valueTo the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in the South Asian region that explores consumers' motives for EV purchase behavior. Further, this is among a few studies, which have attempted to investigate the impact of hedonic, gain and normative motives on green purchase behavior in the context of high involvement green products.


2
2022
Benchmarking: An International Journal

Electric vehicle adoption: can short experiences lead to big change?

Laura-Anne Roberson; J. Helveston


AbstractPlug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer a promising pathway to decarbonizing the personal transportation sector, but PEV sales remains low. Prior research has found that direct experience with PEVs increases consumers' stated purchase consideration, but these studies have used relatively long exposure times (days to months) with a PEV. To assess the effect of shorter exposure times (e.g. minutes) on stated purchase consideration, we conducted an experiment at the 2019 Washington D.C. Auto Show. Participants (n = 6518) were asked to rate their level of consideration to adopt a PEV before and after riding in one of four different PEVs for just 3–5 min. We find that the experience of riding in a PEV on average had a significant, positive effect on participants' consideration ratings. We also find that the vast majority of respondents were unable to correctly answer basic knowledge questions about refueling a PEV and federal subsidies available for purchasing a PEV. These results suggest that while consumer knowledge about PEVs remains low, short rides or drives in a PEV could be an effective, more scalable strategy for increasing PEV consideration across larger populations.


11
2020
Environmental Research Letters

美国加大电动自行车相关立法力度

宋若函


摘要美国电动自行车市场也有了一项鼓舞人心的进展,越来越多的州政府接受了统一的法规。在欧洲,像这样的统一法规可以毫无异议地在所有成员国施行。而在美国却不同,因为这些法规条例并不是由美国政府制定的,而是由各州政府制定的。这意味着这些法规条例需要每个州都批准接受。


1
2019-11-28
中国自行车
期刊

Consumer preferences of electric and automated vehicles

Ramin Shabanpour; Seyedeh Niloufar Dousti Mousavi; Nima Golshani; Joshua A. Auld; A. Mohammadian


AbstractIn an effort to understand public acceptance and adoption behavior of smart vehicles technologies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of consumer preference for electric and autonomous vehicles. The analysis is based on the results of a recent survey conducted in the Chicago Metropolitan area. Multiple stated choice experiments are designed and the respondents are asked to choose the most preferable vehicle option to purchase among the four described alternatives: non-automated gasoline vehicle, non-automated electric vehicle, automated gasoline vehicle, and automated electric vehicle. This study adopts the random parameter logit model to estimate respondents' vehicle choice behavior while accounting for preference heterogeneity across respondents. We found that demographics, driving patterns, experience with technology and expectations for benefits/concerns affect participants' adoption behavior. It is also found that the possibility of imperfect performance in response to unexpected traffic situations is the most critical concern of respondents, while increased safety is the most significant expected benefit of automated vehicles. Young adults, well-educated and tech-savvy respondents, those with high annual VMT and those who have long-distance work trips are found to be more willing to choose automated and electric automated options.


28
2017
2017 5th IEEE International Conference on Models and Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems (MT-ITS)

Electric vehicle adoption: can short experiences lead to big change?

Laura-Anne Roberson; J. Helveston


AbstractPlug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) offer a promising pathway to decarbonizing the personal transportation sector, but PEV sales remains low. Prior research has found that direct experience with PEVs increases consumers' stated purchase consideration, but these studies have used relatively long exposure times (days to months) with a PEV. To assess the effect of shorter exposure times (e.g. minutes) on stated purchase consideration, we conducted an experiment at the 2019 Washington D.C. Auto Show. Participants (n = 6518) were asked to rate their level of consideration to adopt a PEV before and after riding in one of four different PEVs for just 3–5 min. We find that the experience of riding in a PEV on average had a significant, positive effect on participants' consideration ratings. We also find that the vast majority of respondents were unable to correctly answer basic knowledge questions about refueling a PEV and federal subsidies available for purchasing a PEV. These results suggest that while consumer knowledge about PEVs remains low, short rides or drives in a PEV could be an effective, more scalable strategy for increasing PEV consideration across larger populations.


11
2020
Environmental Research Letters

美式极简概念电动自行车,国内售价高达上万元

陈兵


摘要日前,来自美国的Karmic公司推出一款名为Oslo电动自行车,该款电动自行车将链条、刹车线和电池都封闭在它的车身内,从设计上看极具未来科技感,但高达1 499美元售价让更多人望而却步。Oslo电动自行车拥有单速电动自行车类似


2020-01-10
电动自行车
期刊

一款在美国引起轰动的电动两轮车

忻元敏


摘要 专利发明人迪安·卡门发明的名为“塞格威”的神秘产品经过约一年的喧闹,目前终于被撩开了半明半暗的面纱。我们不能不惊叹它的露面会在美国的媒体引起如此强烈的轰动。 为什么在这里要冠以“神秘”字样?为什么会引起强烈轰动?


2003-02-15
中国自行车
期刊

The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine

S. Brin; Lawrence Page


16400
1998
Comput. Networks

In Search of Attention

Zhi Da; Joseph Engelberg; P. Gao


AbstractTurnover, extreme returns, news and advertising expense are indirect proxies of investor attention. In contrast, we propose a direct measure of investor demand for attention -- active attention -- using search frequency in Google (SVI). In a sample of Russell 3000 stocks from 2004 to 2008, we find SVI to be correlated with but different from existing proxies of investor attention. In addition, SVI captures investor attention on a more timely basis. SVI allows us to shed new light on how retail investor attention affects the returns to IPO stocks and price momentum strategies. Using retail order execution in SEC Rule 11Ac1-5 reports, we establish a strong and direct link between SVI changes and trading by less sophisticated individual investors. Increased retail attention as measured by SVI during the IPO contributes to the large first-day return and long-run underperformance of IPO stocks. We also document stronger price momentum among stocks with higher levels of SVI, consistent with the explanation of momentum proposed by Daniel, Hirshleifer and Subrahmanyam (1998).


2191
2009
AFA 2010 Atlanta Meetings (Archive)

What's in a Name? Measuring Prominence, and Its Impact on Organic Traffic from Search Engines

M. Baye; Babur De los Santos; M. Wildenbeest


AbstractOrganic product search results on Google and Bing do not systematically include information about seller characteristics (e.g., feedback ratings and prices). Consequently, it is often assumed that a retailer's organic traffic is driven by the prominence of its position in the list of search results. We propose a novel measure of the prominence of a retailer's name, and show that it is also an important predictor of the organic traffic retailers enjoy from product searches through Google and Bing. We also show that failure to account for the prominence of retailers' names—as well as the endogeneity of retailers' positions in the list of search results—significantly inflates the estimated impact of screen position on organic clicks.


5
2014
IO: Empirical Studies of Firms & Markets eJournal

Worldwide Electric Powered Two Wheel Market

F. Jamerson; E. Benjamin


AbstractElectric Powered Two Wheeler (EPTW) market has exploded the past decade. The EPTW is mainly an electric bike today but new electric scooters are entering the market as well and will add to the EPTW product mix. China is the dominant user and producer of electric bikes, with 150 million in use, and powerful electric scooters are beginning to appear there. Europe is the second biggest user of electric bikes with over a million sold each year. North American market is tiny in comparison but there is evidence that is to change. The breaking news is that nations in other continents are beginning to explore and are starting to put EBs and ESs into the market. This bodes well that the EPTW will have a respected place in the mix of local transportation that will be affordable and sustainable. EPTW sales will eventually exceed four wheel vehicle sales worldwide. That will be a permanent shift. New versions of the EPTW, like the General Motors/Segway Electric-Network Vehicle, will appear that will enlarge product choice and increase usage. Annual EPTW sales are projected to be 130 million by 2025 and 800 million by 2100. Four Wheel EVs annual sales are projected to grow to 2.5 million by 2025 and 100 million by 2100.


10
2012
World Electric Vehicle Journal

An empirical user rating of popular search engines using RankPower

X. Meng; T. Clark


AbstractWe present in this paper the effectiveness and the feasibility of measuring search engine efficiency using RankPower, a single value measurement. RankPower rates the search engines by computing the number and the rank of relevant URLs among the returned results. This is different from traditional performance measures of information retrieval systems using the precision and recall rates. The RankPower is much more easier to compute and much more intuitive for ordinary Web search users. The conclusions are supported by a set of empirical results collected from the experiments that the authors designed and carried out.


4
2005
International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) - Volume II

基于谷歌趋势的中国网络热词国际关注度与话语权分析——以在美国区域范围的关注热度为例

陆钰灵; 李佳颖; 龙若华; 王浩哲


摘要随着互联网技术与社交媒体的飞速发展,网络热词已经成为我国互联网语境中一个难以忽视的热点现象,"duang""土豪"等词甚至被国外媒体所报道。本文通过全球最大的搜索引擎——谷歌所提供的谷歌趋势(Google Trends)功能作为研究工具,筛选出在美国网络空间拥有足够关注度的中国网络热词,以相应热词在美国地区的用户关注度数据作为数据来源,并结合具体案例对其进行关注度峰值、地域热度等方面的分析,挖掘数据背后的多方面价值。由此,本文进一步探寻了美国网民对中国热词关注度所带来的有关话语权的思考。


4
2016-06-25
新闻研究导刊
期刊

Dynamics of Search Engine Rankings - A Case Study

J. Bar-Ilan; M. Levene; Mazlita Mat-Hassan


AbstractThe objective of this study was to characterize the changes in the rankings of the top-n results of major search engines over time and to compare the rankings between these engines. We considered only the top-ten results, since users usually inspect only the first page returned by the search engine, which normally contains ten results. In particular, we compare rankings of the top ten results of the search engines Google and AlltheWeb on identical queries over a period of three weeks. The experiment was repeated twice, in October 2003 and in January 2004 in order to assess changes to the top ten results of some of the queries during a three months period. Results show that the rankings of AlltheWeb were highly stable over each period, while the rankings of Google underwent constant yet minor changes, with occasional major ones. Changes over time can be explained by the dynamic nature of the Web or by fluctuations in the search engines' indexes (especially when frequent switches in the rankings are observed). The top ten results of the two search engines have surprisingly low overlap. With such small overlap (occasionally only a single URL) the task of comparing the rankings of the two engines becomes extremely challenging, and additional measures are needed to assess rankings in such situations.


14
2004
WebDyn@WWW

EVALUATING THE USAGE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEARCH ENGINES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES

Zafar Ali Khan N; T. Sunil; T.Charan Ajay Kumara


AbstractA search engine is known as software that is accessed on the internet which aids in searching a database of information accor ding to the users query. The engine provides a list of results that best match what the user is trying to find. Today various types of search engines are available on the internet each with its own abilities and features. Search engines became an important day to day tool for finding the required information without knowing where exactly it is stored. Internet usage has been tremendously increased in recent days with the easy to use search engines like Google, Bing and Yahoo!. There are different types of search engines to get the information that one is looking for. The most used world -wide search engine is Google. There are a number of different international search engines and US search engines. In this study different types of search engines are analyzed. The study tries to find which search engines are mostly used and why they are preferred in particular selected countries. The study is based on collected statistics of usage of top search engines in selected countries. The study also evaluates based on which features the search engines varies and why search engines varies from country to country.


2022
International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews

美国电动自行车类市场前景

葆新


摘要 据美国 Cycle Electric 国际咨询公司报道,电动自行车市场在美国呈现了快速增长的态势,美国电动小摩托车(Scooter)也显示旺销的势头。轻型电动车辆包括:电动自行车、助动车、低座小摩托车、电动三轮车(16km/h)、电力助动轮椅(11km/h)、电动跑车(8~40km/h)、多用运货车(Utility/Carge 16~64km/h)、个人用快运车(Personal Transit-PRT 32~160km/h)以及常与高尔夫小车混淆的近距离用电动


2005-01-30
电动自行车
期刊

美国电动自行车市场升级


摘要去年在美国销售的大部分电动自行车是从中国大陆或中国台湾进口的。还有一些是在当地装配加工的,其中最大的一家装配加工企业是位于佛罗里达州的Prodeco Tech。其他的则是产量相对较低的企业。最新统计数据显示,去年美国电动自行车销售量下降。而2014年的市场情况比较乐观,当时对2015年成交量预估为19.3万辆。


2
2016-07-28
中国自行车
期刊

Future Paths of Electric Vehicle Adoption in the United States: Predictable Determinants, Obstacles, and Opportunities

James Archsmith; E. Muehlegger; D. Rapson


AbstractThis paper identifies and quantifies major determinants of future electric vehicle demand to inform widely held aspirations for market growth. Our model compares three channels that will affect electric vehicle market share in the United States from 2020 to 2035: intrinsic (no-subsidy) electric vehicle demand growth, net-of-subsidy electric vehicle cost declines (e.g., batteries), and government subsidies. Geographic variation in preferences for sedans and light trucks highlights the importance of viable electric vehicle alternatives to conventional light trucks; belief in climate change is highly correlated with electric vehicle adoption patterns; and the first $500 billion in cumulative nationwide electric vehicle subsidies is associated a 7%–10% increase in electric vehicle market share in 2035, an effect that diminishes as subsidies increase. The rate of intrinsic demand growth dwarfs the impact of demand-side subsidies and battery cost declines, highlighting the importance of nonmonetary factors (e.g., charging infrastructure, product quality, and/or cultural acceptance) on electric vehicle demand.


21
2021
Environmental and Energy Policy and the Economy

电动自行车市场前景面面观

李芝建


摘要为创造市场需要,适合老弱妇孺各种年龄层骑乘自行车,厂商多年前即开始研制辅助驱动自行车并且在新电池和驱动机械马达技术成熟发展之下,电动自行车应运而生。海外发展较早的要数日本、奥地利、德国、台湾等国家和地区。近几年美国发展也比较快。国外的电动自行车主要是作为一种轻松代步及休闲健身工具。例如,在大型的停车场、超市和旅游区里使用。从1994到1999年6


4
2005-09-25
今日科技
期刊

Switch to electric vehicles will gain momentum

M. Reisch


AbstractElectric vehicle sales will likely rise in the US this year, driven by global warming concerns and associated regulatory mandates, industry observers say. Overall, US light-vehicle sales will slip 2.3% to 16.5 million units in 2020 compared with 2019, according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC), a trade association. The ongoing economic slowdown accounts for this general decline. In contrast, the consulting firm IHS Markit predicts that the percentage of US electric vehicle sales—including fuel-cell and hybrid-electric units—will more than double, from roughly 4% of overall vehicle sales in 2018 to 9% in 2020. Europe and China will see electric car sales surge from 6% of overall 2018 sales in each region to 23 and 19%, respectively, in 2020. Behind the increases are fleet carbon dioxide reduction targets in California and similar greenhouse gas reduction requirements in Europe and China. Kevin Swift, the ACC's chief economist, can't say if the


1
2020
Chemical & Engineering News

美国电动自行车受热捧:从小众走向主流

李蓉


摘要唐·迪康斯坦佐是美国加州一电动自行车店的老板,他只用了一个词就解释了电动自行车受欢迎的原因,那就是:丘陵。他说:"我出售的不是电动自行车,而是快乐。"6年前他创立了这个品牌,电动自行车能够给像他这样正在老去的"婴儿潮"一代带来无限的乐趣。他们既需要新鲜的空气和锻炼,又不想出太多的汗,"我们90%的顾客在买电动自行车前都是骑行爱好者。"曾经的美国,汽车文化雄霸天下,电动自行车骑行不过是个小众的消遣活动。2013年美国的电动自行车销售


2014-06-30
电动自行车
期刊

North America’s rapidly growing electric vehicle market: Implications for the geography of automotive production

T. Klier; James M. Rubenstein


AbstractIn this article, we first examine the pertinent differences between electric vehicles (EVs) and internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles and then address the question of how the rapid growth of EVs might impact the prevailing geography of automotive production in North America—which comprises Canada, Mexico, and the United States.1 We suggest that the geography of battery electric vehicle (BEV) production is influenced by factors such as agglomeration economics and economies of scale that also underlie the location of ICE vehicle production.


2
2022
Economic Perspectives

Prospects for mass production of electric vehicles

H. Mathews


AbstractIn this paper, the author describes problems, issues, and the industry's current readiness for the mass production of electric vehicles in the United States. The information presented was garnered from interviews conducted with 150 executives of more than 100 Government and industry organizations and institutions and has been complemented by the analysis, experience, and perspective of the author. The report is structured upon such topics as related vehicle manufacturers, component suppliers, and auto-related institutions, and presents data related to the current status of the industry. The development of electric vehicles has received world-wide attention in the past decade and the EV industry has now reached a readiness status to the extent that an EV passenger car built from the "ground-up" will be available by late 1980. By the turn of the century, the author expects EVs to play an important role in the automotive industry.


1981
31st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference

国外电动自行车市场综述

邓桂芳


摘要对日本、美国、欧洲国家的电动自行车发展现状及其政策、市场等做了详细阐述和对比分析,旨在为我国电动自行车发展提供借鉴。


8
2017-05-31
上海节能
期刊

Electric vehicles' market share will rise worldwide


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2019
Emerald Expert Briefings

The Electric Bicycle: Worldwide Research Trends

Esther Salmerón-Manzano; F. Manzano-Agugliaro


AbstractThe bicycle has gone from being an old-fashioned recreational product to a less polluting means of transport and a compact, ultra-light personal mobility tool. This is how electrical bicycles will be used as the pillar that could support individual public transport in large cities worldwide. The objective of this manuscript is to detect how worldwide research on the electric bicycle is being developed, and, especially, around which scientific domains is it clustered, to finally identify the main trends in the field. This study has been carried out based on the Scopus database, where all the publications related to the topic of the electric bicycle have been analyzed up to the year 2017. ¨Therefore, research on the global research trends of this topic was conducted. Its evolution over time shows that since 2008 the growth of publications is much higher than in the previous period. The main countries are China and the USA, and it can be inferred that there are two major trend countries with high environmental awareness, which also have a large population and that the electric bicycle is a suitable and sustainable form of transport. Among the main scientific fields, engineering leads in research. The keyword analysis shows that the central theme is electric, then battery and motor stand out. A community detection was applied to detect the six main clusters of this research, largely dedicated to the following topics: Transportation–Environment, Electrical Engineering, Safety, Batteries, Sporting Goods–Urban Planning, and Mechanical Engineering. This manuscript shows that global research trends about the electric bicycle are increasing, and that it should be considered a means of sustainable urban transport and will therefore contribute to energy saving and sustainable energy.


62
2018
Energies

State of the Art and Trends in Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

M. Ehsani; K. Singh; H. Bansal; Ramin Tafazzoli Mehrjardi


AbstractElectric and hybrid electric vehicles (EV/HEV) are promising solutions for fossil fuel conservation and pollution reduction for a safe environment and sustainable transportation. The design of these energy-efficient powertrains requires optimization of components, systems, and controls. Controls entail battery management, fuel consumption, driver performance demand emissions, and management strategy. The hardware optimization entails powertrain architecture, transmission type, power electronic converters, and energy storage systems. In this overview, all these factors are addressed and reviewed. Major challenges and future technologies for EV/HEV are also discussed. Published suggestions and recommendations are surveyed and evaluated in this review. The outcomes of detailed studies are presented in tabular form to compare the strengths and weaknesses of various methods. Furthermore, issues in the current research are discussed, and suggestions toward further advancement of the technology are offered. This article analyzes current research and suggests challenges and scope of future research in EV/HEV and can serve as a reference for those working in this field.


109
2021
Proceedings of the IEEE

The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

C. Chan


AbstractWith the more stringent regulations on emissions and fuel economy, global warming, and constraints on energy resources, the electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles have attracted more and more attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on developing novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable hybrid electric powertrain. This paper reviews the state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. The topologies for each category and the enabling technologies are discussed


1814
2007
Proceedings of the IEEE

Age and attitude: Changes in cycling patterns of different e-bike user segments

S. Haustein; M. Møller


AbstractABSTRACT The use and purchase of electric bicycles (e-bikes) is emerging in many countries. Existing knowledge about changes in cycling patterns and car replacement after gaining e-bike access is limited and partly contradictory. Based on an online survey among e-bike users in Denmark (n = 427), this study looked into these effects by differentiating between different segments of e-bike users. We distinguished four age groups as well as three segments based on cycling attitudes and motives for the use and purchase of e-bikes: (1) enthusiastic e-bikers showed the most positive attitudes toward e-bikes and mainly bought an e-bike to increase cycling frequency; (2) utilitarian e-bikers already cycled regularly before having access to an e-bike and used the e-bike particularly for practical purposes and to reduce travel time; (3) recreational e-bikers were very positive about e-bike use but used it less regularly and mainly for long-distance recreational trips. Enthusiastic e-bikers reported the highest increase in overall cycling. Half of the enthusiastic e-bikers agreed that they bought the e-bike to replace a car. Differences between the four age groups were less pronounced. Nevertheless, we found that e-bike access decreased age differences in self-reported cycling frequency, whereas it increased differences in self-reported distances. Measures to increase e-bike use should primarily focus on potential enthusiastic e-bikers. Possible interventions include promotional campaigns at workplaces, intended to address not only instrumental but also affective motives of e-bike use.


71
2016
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation

ELECTRIC VEHICLE EXPECTATIONS AND POPULARIZATION POLICIES

M. Iguchi


AbstractElectric vehicles have the on-road capability only for shorter distances of urban travel. For the general user, the electric vehicle fails in comparison to the gasoline driven vehicle whose performance exceeds the requirements for urban travel. In addition, the price of an electric vehicle is higher than a gasoline vehicle despite imminent mass-production. The popularization of electric vehicles needs to reform public awareness to accept the high price of non-emission exhaust gases. The present day capabilities of electric vehicles are such that electric vehicles cannot replace all vehicles. Low emission vehicles such as those that use natural gas or alcohol for fuel, and hybrid vehicles with regenerating brakes must occupy a position in the marketplace in accordance with their purpose. Because vehicles have evolved hand in hand with fossil fuels huge costs and development efforts are essential if they are to part company with fossil fuels. Hopefully, existing gasoline and diesel engines will exert their territorial presence by markedly improving exhaust gas purification and energy efficiency.


1
1993
Iatss Research

Scaling Trends of Electric Vehicle Performance: Driving Range, Fuel Economy, Peak Power Output, and Temperature Effect

Heejung S. Jung; Rebecca Silva; Michael Han


AbstractThis study investigated scaling trends of commercially available light-duty battery electric vehicles (BEVs) ranging from model year 2011 to 2018. The motivation of this study is to characterize the status of BEV technology with respect to BEV performance parameters to better understand the limitations and potentials of BEV. The raw data was extracted from three main sources: INL (Idaho National Laboratory) website, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Fuel Economy website, and the websites BEV manufacturers and internet in general. Excellent scaling trends were found between the EPA driving range per full charge of a battery and the battery capacity normalized by vehicle weight. In addition, a relatively strong correlation was found between EPA city fuel economy and vehicle curb weight, while a weak correlation was found between EPA highway fuel economy and vehicle curb weight. An inverse power correlation was found between 0–60 mph acceleration time and peak power output from battery divided by vehicle curb weight for 10 BEVs investigated at INL. Tests done on the environmentally controlled chamber chassis dynamometer at INL show that fuel economy drops by 19 ± 5% for the summer driving condition with air conditioner on and 47 ± 7% for the winter driving condition.


31
2018
World Electric Vehicle Journal

New mobility service users' perceptions on electric vehicle adoption

A. Jenn; K. Laberteaux; Regina R. Clewlow


AbstractABSTRACT The recent growth of new mobility services such as car-sharing (ZipCar, Car2Go) and ride-hailing (Uber, Lyft) has interesting implications for new vehicle technologies. We explore the users of the services and their relation to electric vehicles preferences by analyzing two large-scale mobility service surveys. A number of categories (car-share usage, ride-hail usage, commute mode, demographics, current vehicle attributes, environmental attitudes, technology attitudes, and life-stage information) are examined in order to determine the likelihood a respondent considers purchasing an electric vehicle in the future. Survey respondents explicitly expressed that exposure to ride-hailing did not increase their propensity for wanting to purchase an electric vehicle in the future. However, we run a full suite of cross-validation models and find that in addition to the typical factors used in modeling preferences, the use of new mobility services statistically increases the predictive power of our model to identify preferences for electric vehicles.


31
2018
International Journal of Sustainable Transportation

Bibliometric Analysis of Electric Vehicle Adoption Research: Trends, Implications, and Future Directions

Edi Purwanto; Agus Irawan


AbstractABSTRACT


2023
International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering

Key Factors Influencing Consumers’ Purchase of Electric Vehicles

Jui-Che Tu; Chun Yang


AbstractAlthough the rapid progress of the global economy and technology has advanced human civilization, it has also caused tremendous damage to the global ecological environment. Therefore, humans are thinking seriously about the environment and its sustainable development. One of the solutions to environmental problems is new energy vehicles. Since the promulgation of the “Energy Saving and New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2012–2020)” by the General Office of the State Council, the Chinese government has determined a strategy of pure electric driving technology. The electric vehicle market in China has expanded rapidly, making China the largest electric vehicle market in the world. Hence, research on the situation of electric vehicles in China is highly necessary and of reference value for other countries to develop electric vehicles. As a result, it is a critical issue to develop low-carbon, energy-saving, and intelligent electric vehicles to reduce the environmental impact. This paper establishes a theoretical framework based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), technology acceptance model (TAM) and innovation diffusion theory (IDT), and explores the key factors influencing consumers' purchase of electric vehicles. The results show that: The application of the key factor model constructed in this study to consumers' behavioral intention regarding electric vehicle purchase is acceptable. According to the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis results, (1) In terms of behavioral intention: Consumers' control over the resources required to purchase electric vehicles has the highest influence on their behavioral intention, while consultation opinions from consumers' surroundings also significantly affect their behavioral intention to purchase electric vehicles. In addition, consumers' environmental awareness and acceptance of technology products will also influence their behavioral intention. (2) In terms of attitude toward behavior: When consumers believe that electric vehicles are more beneficial at the individual, environment or national level, or they believe that the usage of electric vehicles is simpler and more convenient, they will show a more positive attitude towards the purchase of electric vehicles. Consumers consider electric vehicles as forward-looking technology products with similar driving operation and usage cost compared to traditional vehicles. (3) In terms of regulations: The opinions of consumers' family members, friends, colleagues or supervisors do not significantly affect the attitude or behavior of consumers regarding electric vehicle purchase. The key factors influencing consumers' purchase of electric vehicles are not only applicable to the design and development of electric vehicles that better suit consumer demands, but also serve as a theoretical basis for the popularization of electric vehicles, and provide a reference for consumers' choice and purchase. Therefore, the government and relevant manufacturers need to consider increasing the publicity of electric vehicles and launch more attractive battery and charging schemes to attract consumers and promote the sustainable development of the automobile industry.


122
2019
Sustainability

北美洲电动助力车和电动自行车新市场

崇旭


摘要 电动自行车的潜在市场主要在北美洲,它的大量自行车拥有量表明该市场之巨大。在美国,1999年自行车拥有量达1.2亿辆,而当时人口为2.72亿;2002年自行车销售量为2200万辆。1999年加拿大3100万人口拥有自行车约达1300万辆。近来,加拿大和美国都修改了相应的法规以促进更多地使用电动自行车。它们所制定的输出功率上限比澳洲的规定要高。1 美国的法规美国在2003年3月公布的法规,电动自行车功率上限为750W,助动状态下的速度上限为每小时20


1
2006-04-30
电动自行车
期刊

Electric vehicles move closer to market

L. O'Connor


AbstractThis article reports that though battery technology is currently limiting the growth of EVs, the search for improvements is spurring innovative engineering developments. As battery makers, automakers, national laboratories, and others continue their search for a practical source of electric power that will make electric vehicles (EVs) more viable, engineers worldwide are making progress in other areas of EV development. Vector control, for example, enables better regulation of motor torque and speed; composite and aluminum parts reduce the vehicle`s weight, which in turn reduces the load on the motor and battery; and flywheel energy storage systems, supercapacitors, regenerative brake systems, and hybrid/electric drive trains increase range and acceleration. Despite efforts to develop an electric vehicle from the ground up, most of the early EVs to be sold in the United States will likely be converted from gasoline-powered vehicles. Chrysler Corp., for example, is expected to sell electric versions of its minivans and build them on the same assembly line as its gasoline-powered vehicles to reduce costs. The pace of engineering development in this field is fast and furious. Indeed, it is virtually impossible to monitor all emerging EV technology. To meet their quotas, the major automakers may even consider buyingmore » credits from smaller, innovative EV manufacturers. But whatever stopgap measures vehicle makers take, technology development will be the driving force behind long-term EV growth.« less


4
1995
Mechanical Engineering

Will Electric Cars Transform the U.S. Market?

Henry Lee; Grant Lovellette


AbstractFor the past forty years, United States Presidents have repeatedly called for a reduction in the country's dependence on fossil fuels in general and foreign oil specifically. Stronger efficiency standards and higher taxes on motor fuels are a step in this direction, but achieving even greater reductions in oil consumption will require changing the way Americans power their transportation system. Some officials advocate the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet as a path to meeting this goal. The Obama administration has, for example, embraced a goal of having one million electric-powered vehicles on U.S. roads by 2015, while others proposed a medium-term goal where electric vehicles would consist of 20% of the passenger vehicle fleet by 2030—approximately 30 million electric vehicles. The technology itself is not in question—many of the global automobile companies are planning to sell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and/or battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by 2012. The key question is, will Americans buy them? The answer depends on four additional questions: 1. Is the cost of purchasing and operating an electric vehicle more or less expensive than the cost of a comparable conventional gasoline-powered vehicle? 2. Are the comparative costs likely to change over the next twenty years? 3. Do electric vehicles provide the same attributes as conventional cars, and if not, do the differences matter? 4. Will electric car owners be able to access the electricity needed to power their vehicles? This paper attempts to answer these four questions.


30
2011
Information Systems & Economics eJournal