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2024_06_05_1fd3b6cc710f6df89b8eg
引用:魏怀斌,赵士威,刘静,等.地下水超采综合治理效益评价 . 华北水利水电大学学报(自然科学版), 2024,45(3): .
Citation:Wei Huaibin,Zhao Shiwei,Liu Jing,et al. Benefit evaluation of comprehensive management of groundwater over-mining . Journal of North China University of Water Conservancy and Hydropower (Natural Science Edition), 2024,45(3): .
WEI Huaibin, ZHAO Shiwei, LIU Jing, et al. Evaluation of benefits of comprehensive management of groundwater over-exploitation [ J]. Journal of North China university of water resources and electric power (natural science edition), 2024, 45 (3) : 51-59.
DOI: j. ncwu. zk. 2024029

地下水超采综合治理效益评价  Evaluation of the Benefits of Comprehensive Groundwater Overexploitation Management

Abstract

魏怀斌 赵士威 刘静 , 张丽莉 (1. 华北水利水电大学管理与经济学院, 河南 郑州 2 华北水利水电大学 水利学院, 河南 郑州 450046; 3. 华北水利水电大学水资源学院, 河南郑州 450046 ; 4. 河南省黄河流域水资源节约集约利用重点实验室,河南 郑州 450046; 5. 沦州市水利工程质量技术中心, 河北 沧州 061000)
Wei Huaibin Zhao Shiwei Liu Jing , Zhang Lili (1. College of Management and Economics, North China University of Water Resources and Hydropower, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 2. College of Water Resources, North China University of Water Resources and Hydropower, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 450046; 3. College of Water Resources, North China University of Water Resources and Hydropower, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 450046; 4. Key Laboratory of Conservation and Intensive Utilization of Water Resources of the Yellow River Basin of Henan, Zhengzhou, Henan, China 450046; 5. Reducing the quality center of water resources engineering, Cangzhou, Hebei 061000. Water Resources Engineering Quality and Technology Center, Cangzhou 061000, Hebei, China).

摘 要: 地下水超采综合治理是加强新时代生态文明建设、保障国家水安全的重大决策部署, 是打基础、利长远的战略性工程。其治理效益关乎着治理工作推进的有效性, 是衡量地下水超采综合治理水平的关键。为定量评价地下水超采区综合治理效益, 以 “八大准则”为框架, 以 18 项必选指标、12 项备选指标为基础, 构建了基于 “目标-准则 -指标” 的多层级地下水超采综合治理效益评价体系; 结合层次分析法和摘权法确定指标权重, 采用 “单指标量化-多指标综合-多准则集成” 的方法计算地下水超采综合治理效益指数 (GGI), 定量评价了地下水超采综合治理水平, 并对河南省滑县、内黄县、汤阴县开展地下水超采综合治理效益评价实例研究。结果表明: 滑县、内黄县、汤阴县的地下水超采综合治理效益指数的等级均为良好, 主要制约因素为地下水水位变化幅度、地下水水质达标情况、水文化传承载体数量。基于该研究结果提出多渠道增加水源供给、优化农业种植结构 、改造升级企业生产工艺、加大宣传和教育力度等改善措施。经实例验证, 所提出的地下水超采综合治理效益评价体系能真实反映地下水超采综合治理的工作效果, 可为地下水超采综合治理提供参考依据。
Abstract: Comprehensive management of over-mining of groundwater is a major decision-making deployment to strengthen the construction of ecological civilization in the new era and safeguard national water security, and it is a strategic project to lay the foundation for long-term benefits. The effectiveness of the management depends on the effectiveness of the management work and is the key to measure the level of the comprehensive management of groundwater over-mining. In order to quantitatively evaluate the benefits of comprehensive management of groundwater overmining areas, a multi-level evaluation system of the benefits of comprehensive management of groundwater overmining based on "target-criteria-indicators" was constructed with the framework of "eight criteria", 18 mandatory indicators and 12 alternative indicators. The system combines the hierarchical analysis method and the weighting method to determine the weights of the indicators, and adopts the method of "single-indicator quantification-multi-indicator synthesis-multi-criteria integration" to calculate the GGI, which quantitatively evaluates the level of the comprehensive management of groundwater over-mining and conducts a case study on the evaluation of the benefits of comprehensive management of groundwater over-mining for the counties of Slide County, Neihuang County, and Tangyin County, Henan Province. The results show that: the groundwater over-mining comprehensive management level in The results show that the benefit indexes of groundwater over-mining in Jiuxian, Neihuang and Tangyin counties are all good, and the main constraints are the magnitude of change in the groundwater level, the compliance of groundwater quality, and the number of water culture inheritance carriers. Based on the results of this study, the proposed improvement measures include increasing water supply through multiple channels, optimizing agricultural planting structure, upgrading production process of enterprises, and increasing publicity and education. It is verified by examples that the proposed benefit evaluation system of comprehensive groundwater over-mining management can truly reflect the effect of comprehensive groundwater over-mining management, and can provide a reference basis for comprehensive groundwater over-mining management.

关键词: 地下水综合治理; 效益评价; 评价体系; 评价指标; 评价方法
Keywords: Integrated Groundwater Management; Benefit Evaluation; Evaluation System; Evaluation Indicators; Evaluation Methods
中图分类号:TV213.4 Classification Number:TV213.4
文献标识码:A Literature identification code:A
文章编号 :2096-6792(2024)03-0051-09
Article number :2096-6792(2024)03-0051-09

Evaluation of Benefits of Comprehensive Management of Groundwater Over-exploitation

WEI Huaibin , ZHAO Shiwei , LIU Jing , ZHANG Lili
WEI Huaibin , ZHAO Shiwei , LIU Jing , ZHANG Lili

Abstract

(1. School of Management and Economics, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450046, China; 2. School of Water Conservancy, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450046, China; 3. College of Water Resources, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450046, China; 4. Henan Key Laboratory of Water Resources Conservation and Intensive Utilization in the Yellow River Basin, Zhengzhou 450046, China; 5. Cangzhou Water Conservancy Engineering Quality Technology Center, Cangzhou 061000, China)

收稿日期: 2022-07-15 Received: 2022-07-15
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目 (51979107)。
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51979107).
第一作者: 魏怀斌 (1981-),男,副教授,博导,博士,从事水文水资源方面的研究。E-mail:weihuaibin2008@126.com。通信作者:刘静 (1987一), 女,博士,讲师,从事水文水资源方面的研究。E-mail:liujingdx@ncwu.edu.cn。
First author: Wei Huaibin (1981-), Male, Associate Professor, PhD, Doctor, engaged in hydrology and water resources research. E-mail:weihuaibin2008@126.com. Corresponding author: Liu Jing (1987-), Female, PhD, Lecturer, engaged in hydrology and water resources research. e-mail:liujingdx@ncwu. E-mail: liujingdx@ncwu. edu.cn.

Abstract

Comprehensive management of over-exploitation of groundwater is a major decision-making deployment to strengthen the construction of ecological civilization in the new era and safeguard national water security, and it is a strategic project to lay a foundation for long-term benefits. The effectiveness of its governance is related to the effectiveness of the advancement of the governance work, which is the key to measure the level of comprehensive governance of groundwater overdraft. In order to quantitatively evaluate the comprehensive management benefit of groundwater over-exploitation area, a multi-level evaluation system of "target, criterion, and index" was constructed based on the "eight criteria" and 18 required indicators and 12 alternative indicators. Combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy weight method to determine the index weight, the method of "single index quantification, multi-index synthesis, multi-criteria integration" is applied to calculate the comprehensive governance benefit Index (GGI) of groundwater over-exploitation. The comprehensive treatment level of groundwater overextraction was quantitatively evaluated, and the case study of comprehensive treatment benefit evaluation of groundwater overextraction was carried out in Hua County, Neihuang County and Tangyin County of Henan Province. The results are as follows. The comprehensive benefit index of groundwater over-exploitation in Hua County, Neihuang County and Tangyin County is sound. The main restricting factors are the change amplitude of groundwater level, the standard of groundwater quality and the number of carriers of water culture inheritance. Based on the results of the study, the author puts forward some improvement measures such as increasing water supply through multiple channels, optimizing agricultural planting structure, reforming and upgrading production technology of enterprises, and strengthening publicity and education. The results show that the evaluation system can truly reflect the effect of comprehensive treatment of groundwater over-exploitation, and can provide reference for comprehensive treatment of groundwater over-exploitation.

Keywords : comprehensive management of groundwater; benefit evaluation; evaluation system; evaluation index; evaluation method
2022 年 “中国水周”活动的宣传主题为 “推进地下水超采综合治理 复苏河湖生态环境”,说明地下水超采问题已引起社会的广泛关注。河南省是我国水资源严重短缺的省份, 地下水作为其重要的供水水源,在保障城乡供水安全和农业灌溉方面发挥了不可替代的作用。20 世纪 70 年代后地下水被大规模开发利用, 2013 年地下水开采量达到峰值, 为 138.8 亿 , 占当年全省用水总量的 。长期过度开发利用地下水, 造成地下水水位下降, 从而引发地面沉降等地质环境问题, 成为影响生态保护和经济社会可持续健康发展的瓶颈。2018 年,河南省选取滑县、内黄县、汤阴县、浚县、兰考县共 5 个县开展地下水超采综合治理试点工作; 2019 年, 又增加了清丰、南乐两个县; 2022 年, 河南省地下水超采综合治理涉及 14 个市 (县、区), 着重从地下水水源置换、非常规水利用、节水灌溉工程和地下水监测体系建设等方面开展治理工作 。目前, 地下水超采综合治理工程建设已完成, 需要及时评价地下水超采综合治理成效, 从而不断改进治理措施。效益评价是检验地下水超采综合治理工作的重要方法, 是加强国家财政支出管理、提高资金使用效益的重要手段。科学合理的评价治理效果才能保障治理工作长期有效推进
The publicity theme of "China Water Week" in 2022 is "Promoting comprehensive management of groundwater over-exploitation and revitalizing the ecological environment of rivers and lakes", indicating that the problem of groundwater over-exploitation has attracted extensive attention from the society. Henan Province is a province with serious water resources shortage in China, and groundwater, as an important source of water supply, plays an irreplaceable role in guaranteeing the safety of urban and rural water supply and agricultural irrigation. Groundwater has been exploited and utilized on a large scale since the 1970s, and the amount of groundwater exploitation reached a peak in 2013, which was 13.88 billion , accounting for the total water consumption of the province in that year, which was . The long-term over-exploitation and utilization of groundwater has caused the groundwater level to drop, which in turn has led to geological and environmental problems such as ground subsidence, and has become a bottleneck that affects ecological protection and sustainable and healthy economic and social development. 2018, Henan Province selected five counties, namely, Slide County, Neihuang County, Tangyin County, Joon County, and Lankao County to carry out the pilot project of comprehensive management of over-exploitation of groundwater; in 2019, two counties, namely, Qingfeng County and Nanle County, will be added; and in 2022, the groundwater exploitation of the Henan Province will be reduced to a maximum of 10 billion yuan, which is the largest in the province. In 2022, the comprehensive management of groundwater over-mining in Henan Province involves 14 cities (counties and districts), focusing on the replacement of groundwater sources, non-conventional water utilization, water-saving irrigation projects and the construction of a groundwater monitoring system . At present, the construction of the groundwater over-mining comprehensive management project has been completed, and it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the groundwater over-mining comprehensive management in a timely manner, so as to continuously improve the management measures. Benefit evaluation is an important method to test the comprehensive management of groundwater over-mining, and it is an important means to strengthen the management of national financial expenditures and improve the efficiency of the use of funds. Scientific and reasonable evaluation of the management effect can guarantee the long-term effective promotion of the management work .
在治理效果评价方面,一些学者分别从农业节水效果 、综合治理效果评价 、地下水回补效果 、封填地下水开采井措施效果 和水量、水位、水质 等角度进行了评价研究。随着研究的深人,部分学者还考虑了社会经济因素。胡振通等 从农户视角对地下水超采治理措施进行了评价; 于翔等 从地下水超采治理效果过程化的角度进行了评价;杨得瑞等 通过采用“清” “补” “管” “测”等治理措施对华北地区地下水超采治理补水成效进行了评价; LV C M 等 开展了地下水过度开发生态补偿定量评价研究; MIRNEZAMI S J 等 采用情境交互理论评价了地下水治理效果。总体而言, 地下水超采综合治理效益评价提出时间尚短,目前相关研究主要是针对某项具体治理措施的单项评价,且尚未建立广为认可的地下水超采综合治理效益评价体系 。本文在前期研究的基础上, 建立地下水超采综合治理效益评价体系,并以河南省地下水超采综合治理试点为例进行应用研究, 以期为其他地区地下水超采综合治理效益评价工作提供参考和借鉴。
In the evaluation of management effect, some scholars have conducted evaluation studies from the perspectives of agricultural water saving effect , comprehensive management effect evaluation , groundwater recharge effect , sealing and filling of groundwater mining wells effect , and water quantity, water level and water quality , etc. With deeper studies, some scholars have also considered socio-economic factors. With the deepening of research, some scholars have also considered socio-economic factors. Hu Zhentong et al. evaluated groundwater over-mining control measures from the perspective of farmers; Yu Xiang et al. evaluated the effect of groundwater over-mining control from the perspective of the process; Yang Derui et al. evaluated the effect of groundwater over-mining control through the use of the "clean," "replenishment," "management," "measurement" and other measures. evaluated the effectiveness of groundwater recharge by adopting "clearing", "replenishment", "management", "measurement" and other management measures; LV C M et al. carried out a quantitative evaluation study on ecological compensation for over-exploitation of groundwater; and MIRNEZAMI S J et al. evaluated the effectiveness of groundwater management by adopting the theory of situational interactions. Generally speaking, the evaluation of groundwater over-exploitation comprehensive management benefits has been proposed for a short period of time, and the relevant studies are mainly for the single evaluation of a specific management measure, and have not yet established a widely recognized evaluation system for the benefits of over-exploitation comprehensive management of groundwater . On the basis of the previous research, this paper establishes an evaluation system for the benefits of comprehensive groundwater over-mining management, and carries out an applied research on the pilot project of comprehensive groundwater over-mining management in Henan Province as an example, so as to provide reference and reference for the evaluation of the benefits of comprehensive groundwater over-mining management in other regions.

1 评价体系理论框架 1 Theoretical framework of the evaluation system

构建科学合理的效益评价指标体系是科学评价治理效果的关键,本文提出一套具有普适性的地下水超采综合治理效益评价体系。其建立过程为:1)构建评价指标体系。基于对地下水超采综合治理措施的深人分析, 以治理措施和效益为依据选取相关
Constructing a scientific and reasonable benefit evaluation index system is the key to scientifically evaluating the effect of governance, and this paper proposes a set of comprehensive groundwater over-exploitation management benefit evaluation system with universality. The establishment process is as follows: 1) Construct the evaluation index system. Based on the in-depth analysis of the comprehensive management measures of groundwater overmining, the relevant evaluation index system is selected based on the management measures and benefits.

指标, 构建评价指标体系。(2) 确定评价方法。选择指标量化方法, 结合建立的评价指标体系, 确定评价方法和步骤。(3)制定评价标准。根据国内现有规范、治理建设计划、超采区特征, 选取与评价要求相符的指标评价标准。(4) 实例应用研究。基于建立的评价体系进行实例分析, 验证评价体系的可靠性,并结合评价结果识别出制约地下水超采综合治理的主要因素,提出地下水管理对策与建议。地下水超采综合治理体系框架如图 1 所示。
Indicators, to build the evaluation index system. (2) Determine the evaluation method. Select the quantitative method of indicators, combined with the establishment of the evaluation index system, to determine the evaluation methods and steps. (3) Formulate evaluation standards. According to the existing domestic norms, governance and construction plans, and the characteristics of the overmining area, select the evaluation standard of the indicators in line with the evaluation requirements. (4) Example application research. Based on the established evaluation system, carry out example analysis to verify the reliability of the evaluation system, identify the main factors constraining the comprehensive management of groundwater over-mining and put forward groundwater management countermeasures and suggestions. The framework of the comprehensive management system of groundwater over-mining is shown in Fig. 1.
图 1 地下水超采综合治理体系框架 Figure 1 Comprehensive Groundwater Overdraft Management System Framework

2 地下水超采综合治理效益评价 2 Evaluation of the benefits of comprehensive management of groundwater over-mining

2.1 评价指标体系构建 2.1 Construction of evaluation index system

从地下水超采的综合治理措施、治理结果及效益等多个方面选取指标初步建立评价指标体系, 参考地下水超采综合治理效益评价已有研究成果、地下水超采综合治理效益评价的现有文献、国家标准、行业规范、相关规划制度等文件,采用高频分析法、专家咨询法分析所选中的评价指标与各准则层的相关性,经过笕选确定最终的评价指标。文中基于目标层、准则层、指标层的层次关系框架,从体制机制建设、工程措施建设、监管措施建设、资金投人使用情况、压采目标成效、生态效益、经济效益、社会效益等 8 个方面出发构建了地下水超采综合治理效益评价指标体系,包括必选指标 18 个,备选指标 12 个,共计 30 个指标 (见表 1 )。
The evaluation index system was initially established by selecting indicators from various aspects such as comprehensive management measures, results and benefits of over-mining of groundwater, etc. The evaluation index system was established by referring to the existing research results on the evaluation of the benefits of over-mining of groundwater, existing literature on the evaluation of the benefits of over-mining of groundwater, national standards, industrial norms, relevant planning systems, etc. The correlation of selected evaluation indicators with the guideline levels was analyzed by using the high-frequency analysis method and the expert consultation method, and the final evaluation indicators were determined by Kakehashi selection. High frequency analysis method and expert consultation method were used to analyze the correlation between the selected evaluation indexes and each criterion layer, and the final evaluation indexes were selected by Kakei. Based on the hierarchical framework of target layer, criterion layer and indicator layer, the evaluation index system of comprehensive management of groundwater overdraft was constructed from eight aspects, including the construction of institutional mechanism, the construction of engineering measures, the construction of regulatory measures, the utilization of capital investment, the effectiveness of the target of suppression of mining, ecological benefits, economic benefits, social benefits, etc., and included 18 mandatory indexes and 12 alternative indexes, totaling 30 indexes (see Table 1). See Table 1).
表 1 地下水超采综合治理效益评价指标体系 Table 1 Evaluation index system for the benefits of comprehensive groundwater over-mining management
准则层 指标层 指标标准值 Indicator standard value
 Indicator Nature
指标
性质
 Indicator Type
指标
类型
优秀 良好 中等 及格 不及格
 Institutional mechanisms
体制机制
建设情况
农业水价改革制度完善程度  Degree of improvement of the agricultural water pricing reform system 正向 必选
最严格水资源管理制度完善程度  Degree of improvement of the most stringent water resources management system 正向 必选
工程管护体制完善程度  Degree of sophistication of the project management system 正向 必选
水法律法规建设程度  Degree of construction of water laws and regulations 正向
高效节水灌溉工程  Efficient Water Saving Irrigation Project 正向 必选
工程措施 Engineering measures 水肥一体化工程  Water and Fertilizer Integration Project 正向 备选
建设情况 Construction 水源置换工程  water replacement project 正向 必选
非常规水工程  Non-conventional water works 正向
地下水回补工程  Groundwater recharge project 正向
续表
准则层 指标层 指标标准值 Indicator standard value
 Indicator Nature
指标
性质
 Indicator Type
指标
类型
优秀 良好 中等 及格 不及格
 Regulatory measures Construction B3
监管措施
建设情况
B3
地下水开采井封填工程  Groundwater extraction well sealing and filling works 正向 必选
取用水计量工程  Water intake metering project 正向 必选
地下水动态监测工程  Groundwater dynamic monitoring project 正向 必选
 Funding sources Utilization
资金投人
使用情况
资金投人量 (亿元
Volume of funds invested (billion dollars)
正向 备选
资金到位率  Funding availability 正向 必选
资金安全使用情况  Secure utilization of funds 正向 备选
 Pressurized mining targets Achievement
压采目标
成效情况
地下水超采系数  Groundwater overdraft coefficient 反向 备选
地下水压采率  Groundwater squeeze rate 正向 必选
地下水水位变化幅度  Magnitude of change in groundwater levels 正向 必选
地下水供水比例  Proportion of water supplied by groundwater 反向 备选
 Ecological Benefits
生态
效益
地面沉降速率
Ground Subsidence Rate years
反向 必选
浅层超采区面积  Area of shallow overmined area 反向 必选
深层超采区面积  Area of deep overmining 反向 备选
地下水水质达标情况  Groundwater quality compliance I 类 II 类 Category II III 类 Category III IV 类 Category IV V 类 反向 备选
 Economic benefits
经济
效益
农业收人占 GDP 比重  Agricultural income as a share of GDP 反向 必选
工业收人占 GDP 比重  Industrial receipts as % of GDP 正向 必选
农业节水收益率  Agricultural water saving yields 正向 备选

Per capita income of urban residents million yuan
城镇居民人均收人
万元
正向 备选
 Social benefits
社会
效益
水文化传承载体数量  Number of water culture heritage carriers 正向 必选
公众对综合治理的认知度  Public Perception of Integrated Governance Score