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2024 年全国硕士研究生招生考试英语(一)

Section I Use of English
第一节 英语的使用


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
阅读下面的文字。为每个编号的空白处选择最佳的单词,并在答题卡上标记 A、B、C 或 D。 (10分)

There’s nothing more welcoming than a door opening for you. 1 the need to be touched to open or close, automatic doors are essential in 2 disabled access to buildings and helping provide general 3 to commercial buildings.
没有什么比为您敞开的大门更受欢迎的了。 1 需要触摸才能打开或关闭,自动门对于 2 残疾人进入建筑物至关重要,并有助于为商业建筑提供通用服务 3。

Self-sliding doors began to emerge as a commercial product in 1960 after being invented six years 4 by Americans Dee Horton and Lew Hewitt. They 5 as a novelty feature, but as their use has grown, their 6 have extended within our technologically advanced world. Particularly 7 in busy locations or during times of
自滑门由美国人迪伊·霍顿 (Dee Horton) 和卢·休伊特 (Lew Hewitt) 在 6 年 4 月发明后,于 1960 年开始作为商业产品出现。它们 5 是一种新颖的功能,但随着它们的使用不断增长,它们 6 已经扩展到我们技术先进的世界。特别是 7 在繁忙的地点或在繁忙时间

emergency, the doors 8 crowd management by reducing the obstacles put in people’s way.

9 making access both in and out of buildings easier for people, the difference in the way many of these doors open helps reduce the total area 10 by them. Automatic doors often open to the side, with the panels sliding across one another. Replacing swing doors, these 11 smaller buildings to maximise the usable space inside without having to 12 the way for a large, sticking-out door. There are many different types of automatic door, with each 13 specific signals to tell them when to open. 14 these methods differ, the main 15 remain the same.
9 使人们更容易进出建筑物,许多门打开方式的差异有助于减少它们的总面积 10。自动门通常向一侧打开,面板相互滑动。这 11 栋较小的建筑取代了平开门,最大限度地利用了内部的可用空间,而无需像 12 栋大型伸出门那样。自动门有多种不同类型,每种都有 13 个特定信号来告诉它们何时打开。这些方法有14个不同,主要的15个保持不变。

Each automatic door system 16 the light, sound, weight or movement in their vicinity as a signal to open. Sensor types are chosen to 17 the different environments they are needed in. 18 , a busy street might not 19 a motion-sensored door, as it would constantly be opening for passers-by. A pressure-sensitive mat would be more 20 to limit the surveyed area.
每个自动门系统16将其附近的光、声音、重量或运动作为打开信号。传感器类型根据需要的不同环境进行选择。 18 繁忙的街道可能不会 19 运动感应门,因为它会不断地为路人打开。压敏垫将超过 20,以限制测量区域。

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1. A. Through
1. A. 通过

B. Despite

C. Besides

D. Without

2. A. revealing
2. A. 揭示

B. demanding

C. improving

D. tracing

3. A. experience

B. convenience

C. guidance

D. reference

4. A. previously

B. temporarily

C. successively

D. eventually

5. A. held on
5. A.坚持下去

B. started out

C. settled down

D. went by

6. A. relations
6. A. 关系

B. volumes

C. benefits

D. sources

7. A. useful

B. simple

C. flexible

D. stable

8. A. call for
8. A. 呼吁

B. yield to

C. insist on

D. act as

9. A. As well as
9. A.以及

B. In terms of

C. Thanks to

D. Rather than

10.A. connected

B. shared

C. represented

D. occupied

11.A. allow

B. expect

C. require

D. direct

12.A. adopt

B. lead

C. clear

D. change

13.A. adapting to

B. deriving from

C. relying on

D. pointing at

14.A. Once

B. Since

C. Unless

D. Although

15.A. records

B. positions

C. principles

D. reasons

16.A. controls

B. analyses

C. produces

D. mixes

17.A. decorate

B. compare

C. protect

D. complement

18.A. In conclusion

B. By contrast

C. For example

D. Above all

19.A. identify

B. suit

C. secure

D. include

20.A. appropriate

B. obvious

C. impressive

D. delicate

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or
阅读下面四篇课文。选择 A、B、C 或 回答每篇文章下面的问题

D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
D. 在答题卡上标记您的答案。 (40分)

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Text 1

Nearly 2,000 years ago, as the Romans began to pull out of Scotland, they left behind a curious treasure: 10 tons of nails, nearly a million of the things. The nail hoard was discovered in 1960 in a four-metre-deep pit covered by two metres of gravel.
大约 2000 年前,当罗马人开始撤出苏格兰时,他们留下了一件奇怪的宝藏:10 吨钉子,相当于近百万件。 1960 年,人们在一个 4 米深、覆盖着 2 米砾石的坑中发现了钉子库。

Why had the Romans buried a million nails? The likely explanation is that the withdrawal was rushed, and they didn’t want the local Caledonians getting their hands on 10 tons of weapon-grade iron. The Romans buried the nails so deep that they would not be discovered for almost two millennia.

Later civilisations would value the skilled blacksmith’s labour in a nail even more than the raw material. As Roma Agrawal explains in her new delightful book Nuts and Bolts, early 17th-century Virginians would sometimes burn down their homes if they were planning to relocate. This was an attempt to recover the valuable nails, which could be reused after sifting the ashes. The idea that one might burn down an entire house just to
后来的文明对熟练铁匠在钉子上的劳动的重视甚至超过了原材料。正如罗马·阿格拉瓦尔 (Roma Agrawal) 在她令人愉快的新书《基本要素》(Nuts and Bolts) 中所解释的那样,17 世纪早期的弗吉尼亚人如果计划搬迁,有时会烧毁自己的房屋。这是一种回收有价值的钉子的尝试,这些钉子可以在筛选骨灰后重新使用。人们可能会烧毁整栋房子只是为了

reclaim the nails underlines how scarce, costly and valuable the simple-seeming technology was.

The price of nails fell by 90% between the late 1700s and mid-1900s, as economist Daniel Sichel points out in a research paper. According to Sichel, although the falling price of nails was driven partly by cheaper iron and cheaper energy, most of the credit goes to nail manufacturers who simply found more efficient ways to turn steel into nails.
经济学家 Daniel Sichel 在一篇研究论文中指出,从 1700 年代末到 1900 年代中期,钉子的价格下降了 90%。西切尔表示,虽然钉子价格下跌的部分原因是廉价的铁和能源,但大部分功劳都归功于钉子制造商,他们只是找到了更有效的方法将钢材变成钉子。

Nails themselves have changed over the years, but Sichel studied them because they haven’t changed much. Roman lamps and Roman chariots are very different from LED strips and sports cars, but Roman nails are still clearly nails. It would be absurd to try to track the changing price of sports cars since 1695, but to ask the same question of nails makes perfect sense.
这些年来,指甲本身已经发生了变化,但西歇尔研究了它们,因为它们没有发生太大变化。罗马灯和罗马战车与LED灯带和跑车有很大不同,但罗马钉显然仍然是钉子。试图追踪自 1695 年以来跑车价格的变化是荒谬的,但问同样的钉子问题却是完全有道理的。

I make no apology for being obsessed by a particular feature of these objects: their price. I am an economist, after all. After writing two books about the history of inventions, one thing I’ve learnt is that while it is the enchantingly sophisticated technologies that get all the hype, it’s the cheap technologies that change the world.

The Gutenberg printing press transformed civilisation not by changing the nature of writing but by changing its cost and it would have achieved little without a parallel collapse in the price of surfaces to write on, thanks to an often-overlooked technology called paper. Solar panels had few niche uses until they became cheap; now they are transforming the global energy system.

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21. The Romans buried the nails probably for the sake of

A. saving them for future use. B. keeping them from rusting. C. letting them grow in value. D. hiding them from the locals.
A. 保存它们以供将来使用。 B. 防止生锈。 C. 让它们增值。 D. 向当地人隐藏它们。

22. The example of early 17th-century Virginians is used to
22. 17 世纪早期弗吉尼亚人的例子被用来

A. highlight the thriftiness of early American colonists.
A. 强调早期美国殖民者的节俭。

B. illustrate the high status of blacksmiths in that period.

C. contrast the attitudes of different civilisations towards nails. D. show the preciousness of nail-making technology at that time.
C.对比不同文明对指甲的态度。 D.可见当时制钉技术的珍贵。

23. What played the major role in lowering the price of nails after the late 1700s?
23. 1700 年代后期之后,什么因素对钉子价格的下降起到了主要作用?

A. Increased productivity.
A. 提高生产力。

B. Wider use of new energies.

C. Fiercer market competition.

D. Reduced cost of raw materials.
D. 降低原材料成本。

24. It can be learned from Paragraph 5 that nails
24. 从第 5 段可以看出,钉子

A. have undergone many technological improvements.
A. 进行了许多技术改进。

B. have remained basically the same since Roman times.
B. 自罗马时代以来基本保持不变。

C. are less studied than other everyday products.
C. 与其他日常产品相比,研究较少。

D. are one of the world’s most significant inventions.
D. 是世界上最重要的发明之一。

25. Which of the following best summarises the last two paragraphs?
25. 以下哪一项最能概括最后两段?

A. Cheap technologies bring about revolutionary change.
A. 廉价技术带来革命性变化。

B. Technological innovation is integral to economic success.
B. 技术创新是经济成功不可或缺的一部分。

C. Technology defines people’s understanding of the world.
C. 技术定义了人们对世界的理解。

D. Sophisticated technologies develop from small inventions.
D. 复杂的技术是从小发明发展而来的。

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Text 2

Parenting tips obtained from hunter-gatherers in Africa may be the key to bringing up more contented children, researchers have suggested. The idea is based on studies of communities such as the Kung of Botswana, where each child is cared for by many adults. Kung children as young as four will help to look after younger ones and “baby-wearing”, in which infants are carried in slings, is considered the norm.
研究人员表示,从非洲狩猎采集者那里获得的育儿秘诀可能是培养更满足的孩子的关键。这个想法是基于对博茨瓦纳 Kung 等社区的研究,那里的每个孩子都由许多成年人照顾。年仅四岁的 Kung 儿童将帮助照顾年幼的孩子,而“婴儿装”(用背带携带婴儿)被认为是常态。

According to Dr Nikhil Chaudhary, an evolutionary anthropologist at Cambridge University, these practices, known as alloparenting, could lead to less anxiety for children and parents.
剑桥大学进化人类学家尼基尔·乔杜里 (Nikhil Chaudhary) 博士表示,这些被称为“异育”的做法可以减少孩子和父母的焦虑。

Dr Annie Swanepoel, a child psychiatrist, believes that there are ways to incorporate them into western life. In Germany, one scheme has paired an old people’s home with a nursery. The residents help to look after the children, an arrangement akin to alloparenting. Another measure could be encouraging friendships between children in different school years, to mirror the unsupervised mixed-age playgroups in hunter-gatherer communities.

In a paper published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, researchers said that the western nuclear family was a recent invention which broke with evolutionary history. This abrupt shift to an “intensive mothering narrative”, which suggests that mothers should manage childcare alone, was likely to have been harmful. “Such narratives can lead to maternal exhaustion and have dangerous consequences,” they wrote.
研究人员在《儿童心理学和精神病学杂志》上发表的一篇论文中表示,西方核心家庭是最近的发明,打破了进化史。这种突然转变为“强化母爱叙事”,即母亲应该独自照顾孩子,可能是有害的。 “这样的叙述可能会导致母亲精疲力竭,并产生危险的后果,”他们写道。

By contrast, in hunter-gatherer societies adults other than the parents can provide almost half of a child’s care. One previous study looked at the Efé people of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It found that infants had an average of 14 alloparents a day by the time they were 18 weeks old, and were passed between caregivers eight times an hour.
相比之下,在狩猎采集社会中,父母以外的成年人可以提供几乎一半的儿童照料。之前的一项研究针对的是刚果民主共和国的埃菲人。研究发现,到 18 周大时,婴儿平均每天有 14 个异父母,每小时在护理人员之间传递 8 次。

Chaudhary said that parents now have less childcare support from family and social networks than during most of humans’ evolutionary history, but introducing additional caregivers could reduce stress and maternal depression, which could have a “knock-on benefit to a child’s wellbeing. An infant born to a hunter-gatherer society could have more than ten caregivers this contrasts starkly to nursery settings in the UK where regulations call for a ratio of one carer to four children aged two to three.

While hunter-gatherer children learnt from observation and imitation in mixed-age playgroups, researchers said that western “instructive teaching”, where pupils are asked to sit still, may contribute to conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chaudhary said that Britain should explore the possibility that older siblings helping their parents “might also enhance their own social development.”

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26. According to the first two paragraphs, alloparenting refers to the practice of
26. 根据前两段,异养是指

A. sharing childcare among community members. B. assigning babies to specific adult caregivers.
A. 社区成员分担育儿责任。 B. 将婴儿分配给特定的成人护理人员。

C. teaching parenting skills to older children. D. carrying infants around by their parents.
C. 向年龄较大的孩子传授养育技巧。 D. 由父母携带婴儿到处走动。

27. The scheme in Germany is mentioned to illustrate
27. 提到德国的计划是为了说明

A. an attempt to facilitate intergenerational communication.
A. 促进代际沟通的尝试。

B. an approach to integrating alloparenting into western society.
B. 将异养融入西方社会的方法。

C. the conventional parenting style in western culture.

D. the differences between western and African ways of living.
D. 西方和非洲生活方式的差异。

28. According to Paragraph 4, the “intensive mothering narrative”
28. 根据第 4 段,“密集的母爱叙事”

A. alleviates parenting pressure.

B. consolidates family relationships.

C. results in the child-centered family.
C. 导致以孩子为中心的家庭。

D. departs from the course of evolution.
D. 背离了进化的过程。

29. According to Paragraph 6, what can we learn about the nurseries in the UK?
29. 根据第 6 段,我们可以从英国的托儿所了解到什么?

A. They tend to fall short of official requirements. B. They have difficulty finding enough caregivers. C. They ought to improve their carer-to-child ratio. D. They should try to prevent parental depression.
答:它们往往达不到官方要求。 B. 他们很难找到足够的护理人员。 C. 他们应该提高看护者与孩子的比例。 D. 他们应该尽力防止父母抑郁。

30. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
30. 下列哪一项是本文的最佳标题?

A. Instructive Teaching: A Dilemma for Anxious Parents
A. 指导性教学:焦虑家长的困境

B. For a Happier Family, Learn from the Hunter-gatherers
B. 为了幸福的家庭,向狩猎采集者学习

C. Mixed-age Playgroup, a Better Choice for Lonely Children D. Tracing the History of Parenting: from Africa to Europe
C. 混龄游戏班,孤独儿童的更好选择 D. 追溯育儿史:从非洲到欧洲

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Text 3

A Polish digital artist who uses classical painting styles to create dreamy fantasy landscapes, Greg Rutkowski has made illustrations for games such as Dungeons & Dragons and Magic: The Gathering. And he’s become a sudden hit in the new world of text-to-image AI generation.
Greg Rutkowski 是一位波兰数字艺术家,他使用古典绘画风格创造梦幻般的奇幻风景,曾为《龙与地下城》和《万智牌》等游戏制作插图。他在文本到图像人工智能生成的新世界中突然走红。

His distinctive style is now one of the most commonly used prompts in the new open- source AI art generator Stable Diffusion. The tool, along with other popular image- generation AI models, allows anyone to create impressive images based on text prompts. For example, type in “Wizard with sword and a glowing orb of magic fire fights a fierce dragon Greg Rutkowski,” and the system will produce something that looks not a million miles away from works in Rutkowski’s style.
他独特的风格现在是新的开源 AI 艺术生成器 Stable Diffusion 中最常用的提示之一。该工具与其他流行的图像生成人工智能模型一起,允许任何人根据文本提示创建令人印象深刻的图像。例如,输入“拿着剑和发光的魔法火球的巫师与凶猛的龙格雷格·鲁特科斯基战斗”,系统将生成看起来与鲁特科夫斯基风格的作品相差不到一百万英里的东西。

But these open-source programs are built by scraping images from the internet, often without permission and proper attribution to artists. As a result, they are raising tricky questions about ethics and copyright. And artists like Rutkowski have had enough.

According to the website Lexica, which tracks over 10 million images and prompts generated by Stable Diffusion, Rutkowski’s name has been used as a prompt around 93,000 times. Rutkowski was initially surprised but thought it might be a good way to reach new audiences. Then he tried searching for his name to see if a piece he had worked on had been published. The online search brought back work that had his name attached to it but wasn’t his.
Lexica 网站跟踪了 Stable Diffusion 生成的超过 1000 万张图像和提示,据该网站称,Rutkowski 的名字已被用作提示约 93,000 次。鲁特科夫斯基最初感到惊讶,但认为这可能是接触新受众的好方法。然后他尝试搜索自己的名字,看看他创作的作品是否已出版。网上搜索找到了附有他名字但不是他的作品。

“It’s been just a month. What about in a year? I probably won’t be able to find my work out there because the internet will be flooded with AI art,” Rutkowski says. That’s concerning.”
“才一个月而已。一年后呢?我可能无法在那里找到我的作品,因为互联网将充斥着人工智能艺术,”鲁特科夫斯基说。 “这很令人担忧。”

Other artists besides Rutkowski have been surprised by the apparent popularity of their work in text-to-image generators and some are now fighting back. Karla Ortiz, an illustrator based in San Francisco who found her work in Stable Diffusion’s data set, has been raising awareness about the issues around AI art and copyright.
除了 Rutkowski 之外,其他艺术家都对他们的作品在文本到图像生成器中的明显受欢迎感到惊讶——有些人现在正在反击。 Karla Ortiz 是一位居住在旧金山的插画家,她在 Stable Diffusion 的数据集中发现了自己的作品,她一直在提高人们对人工智能艺术和版权问题的认识。

Artists say they risk losing income as people start using AI-generated images based on copyrighted material for commercial purposes. But it’s also a lot more personal, Ortiz says, arguing that because art is so closely linked to a person, it could raise data protection and privacy problems.

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“There is a coalition growing within artist industries to figure out how to tackle or mitigate this,” says Ortiz. The group is in its early days of mobilization, which could involve pushing for new policies or regulation. One suggestion is that AI models could be trained on images in the public domain, and AI companies could forge partnerships with museums and artists, Ortiz says.

31. What can be learned about Rutkowski from the first two paragraphs?
31. 从前两段中可以了解到鲁特科夫斯基的什么信息?

A. He is enthusiastic about using AI models.

B. He is popular with users of an AI art generator. C. He attracts admiration from other illustrators.
B. 他很受人工智能艺术生成器用户的欢迎。 C. 他引起了其他插画家的钦佩。

D. He specializes in classical painting digitalization.
D. 专攻古典绘画数字化。

32. The problem with open-source AI art generators is that they
32. 开源人工智能艺术生成器的问题在于它们

A. lack flexibility in responding to prompts. B. produce artworks in unpredictable styles. C. make unauthorized use of online images. D. collect user information without consent.
A. 对提示的反应缺乏灵活性。 B. 创作风格不可预测的艺术品。 C. 未经授权使用在线图像。 D.未经同意收集用户信息。

33. After searching online, Rutkowski found
33. 网上搜索后,Rutkowski 发现

A. a unique way to reach audiences.
A. 接触受众的独特方式。

B. a new method to identify AI images.

C. AI-generated work bearing his name.
C. 人工智能生成的以他的名字命名的作品。

D. heated disputes regarding his copyright.
D. 关于他的版权的激烈争议。

34. According to Ortiz, AI companies are advised to
34. Ortiz 认为,建议人工智能公司

A. campaign for new policies or regulation.
A. 新政策或法规的运动。

B. offer their services to public institutions.
B. 向公共机构提供服务。

C. strengthen their relationships with AI users.
C. 加强与人工智能用户的关系。

D. adopt a different strategy for AI model training.

35. What is the text mainly about?

A. Artists’ responses to AI art generation. B. AI’s expanded role in artistic creation. C. Privacy issues in the application of AI. D. Opposing views on AI development.
A. 艺术家对人工智能艺术生成的反应。 B. 人工智能在艺术创作中的作用不断扩大。 C.人工智能应用中的隐私问题。 D. 对人工智能发展的反对意见。

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Text 4

The miracle of the Chesapeake Bay lies not in its depths, but in the complexity of its natural construction, the interaction of fresh and saline waters, and the mix of land and water. The shallows provide homes for hundreds of species while storing floodwaters, filtering

pollutants from water, and protecting nearby communities from potentially destructive storm surges.

All this was put at great risk late last month, when the U.S. Supreme Court issued a ruling in an Idaho case that provides the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) far less authority to regulate wetlands and waterways. Specifically, a 5-4 majority decided that wetlands protected by the EPA under its Clean Water Act authority must have a “continuous surface connection” to bodies of water. This narrowing of the regulatory scope was a victory for builders, mining operators and other commercial interests often at odds with environmental rules. And it carries “significant repercussions for water quality and flood control throughout the United States,” as Justice Brett Kavanaugh observed.
上个月末,当美国最高法院对爱达荷州的一起案件做出裁决时,所有这一切都面临着巨大的风险,该裁决赋予美国环境保护局(EPA)监管湿地和水道的权力大大减少。具体而言,以 5 比 4 的多数票决定,根据《清洁水法》授权,受 EPA 保护的湿地必须与水体有“连续的表面连接”。监管范围的缩小对于建筑商、采矿运营商和其他经常违反环境规则的商业利益集团来说是一次胜利。正如布雷特·卡瓦诺法官所说,它“对整个美国的水质和防洪产生了重大影响”。

In Maryland, the good news is that there are many state laws in place that provide wetlands protections. But that’s a very shortsighted view, particularly when it comes to the Chesapeake Bay. The reality is that water, and the pollutants that so often come with it, don’t respect state boundaries. The Chesapeake draws from a 64,000-square-mile watershed that extends into Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia, the District of Columbia and Delaware. Will those jurisdictions extend the same protections now denied under
在马里兰州,好消息是有许多州法律提供湿地保护。但这是一种非常短视的观点,尤其是在切萨皮克湾方面。现实情况是,水以及随之而来的污染物并不尊重国界。切萨皮克河流域面积达 64,000 平方英里,延伸至弗吉尼亚州、宾夕法尼亚州、纽约州、西弗吉尼亚州、哥伦比亚特区和特拉华州。这些司法管辖区是否会提供现在被拒绝的相同保护?

Sackett v. EPA? Perhaps some, but all? That seems unlikely.

It is too easy, and misleading, to see such court rulings as merely standing up for the rights of land owners when the consequences can be so dire for their neighbors. And it’s a reminder that the EPA’s involvement in the Chesapeake Bay Program has long been crucial as the means to transcend the influence of deep-pocketed special interests in neighboring states. Pennsylvania farmers, to use one telling example, aren’t thinking about next year’s blue crab harvest in Maryland when they decide whether to spread animal waste on their fields, yet the runoff into nearby creeks can have enormous impact downstream.

And so we would call on state lawmakers from Richmond to Albany to consider reviewing their own wetlands protections and see for themselves the enormous stakes involved. We can offer them a visit to Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge in Dorchester County where bald eagles fly over tidal marshes so shallow you could not paddle a boat across them but teaming with aquatic life. It’s worth the scenic drive.

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36. The Chesapeake Bay is described in Paragraph 1 as
36. 第 1 段将切萨皮克湾描述为

A. a valuable natural environment.
A. 宝贵的自然环境。

B. a controversial conservation area.
B. 有争议的保护区。

C. a place with commercial potential. D. a headache for nearby communities.
C. 具有商业潜力的地方。 D. 令附近社区头疼的问题。

37. The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in the Idaho case
37. 美国最高法院对爱达荷州案件的裁决

A. reinforces water pollution control.

B. weakens the EPA’s regulatory power.

C. will end conflicts among local residents.

D. may face opposition from mining operators.
D. 可能会面临采矿经营者的反对。

38. How does the author feel about future of the Chesapeake Bay?

A. Worried.

B. Puzzled.

C. Relieved.

D. Encouraged.

39. What can be inferred about the EPA’s involvement in the Chesapeake Bay Program?
39. 关于 EPA 参与切萨皮克湾计划可以推断出什么?

A. It has restored the balance among neighboring jurisdictions. B. It has triggered a radical reform in commercial fisheries.
A. 它恢复了邻近管辖区之间的平衡。 B. 它引发了商业渔业的彻底改革。

C. It has set a fine example of respecting state authorities. D. It has ensured the coordination of protection efforts.
C.它树立了尊重国家权力机构的良好榜样。 D. 确保了保护工作的协调。

40. The author holds that the state lawmakers should
40. 提交人认为,州立法者应该

A. be cautious about the influence of landowners. B. attach due importance to wetlands protections. C. recognize the need to expand wildlife refuges. D. improve the wellbeing of endangered species.
A. 警惕土地所有者的影响。 B.重视湿地保护。 C. 认识到扩大野生动物保护区的必要性。 D. 改善濒危物种的福祉。

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Part B


Read the following comments on a report about American museums returning artifacts to their countries of origin and a list of statements summarizing the comments. Choose the best statement from the list A-G for each numbered name (41-45). There are two extra choices which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
请阅读以下关于美国博物馆将文物归还其原产国的报告的评论以及总结这些评论的声明列表。从列表 A-G 中为每个编号名称 (41-45) 选择最佳陈述。有两个您不需要使用的额外选项。在答题卡上标记您的答案。 (10分)

(41) Hannah
(41) 汉娜

Simply, there are people in Nigeria who cannot travel to the Smithsonian Institution to see that part of their history and culture represented by the Benin Bronzes. These should be available to them as part of their cultural heritage and history and as a source of national pride. There is no good reason that these artifacts should be beyond the ordinary reach of the educational objectives or inspiration of the generations to which they were left. They serve no purpose in a museum in the United States or elsewhere except as curious objects. They cannot be compared to works of art produced for sale which can be passed from hand to hand and place to place by purchase.

(42) Buck
(42) 巴克

We know very exact reproductions of artwork can be and are regularly produced. Perhaps museums and governments might explore some role for the use of nearly exact reproductions as a means of resolving issues relating to returning works of art and antiquities. The context of any exhibit is more important to me than whether the object being displayed is 2000 years old or 2 months old. In many cases the experts have a hard time agreeing on what is the real object and what is a forgery. Again, the story an exhibit is trying to tell is what matters. The monetary value of the objects on display is a distant second place in importance.
我们知道可以并且定期制作非常精确的艺术品复制品。也许博物馆和政府可以探索使用近乎精确的复制品作为解决与归还艺术品和古董有关的问题的一种手段。对我来说,任何展览的背景比所展示的物品是有 2000 年历史还是有 2 个月历史更重要。在许多情况下,专家们很难就什么是真品、什么是赝品达成一致。再说一遍,展览试图讲述的故事才是最重要的。展出物品的货币价值远远落后于第二位。

(43) Sara
(43) 萨拉

When visiting the Baltimore Museum of Art, I came across a magnificent 15th-century Chinese sculpture. It inspired me to learn more about the culture that it represented. Artifacts in museums have the power to inspire, and perhaps spark that need to learn and understand the nature of their creators. Having said that, I do feel that whatever artifacts find their way to public museums should, in fact, be sanctioned as having been obtained on loan, legally purchased, or obtained by treaty. Stealing artifacts from other peoples’ cultures is obscene; it robs not only the physical objects, but the dignity and spirit of their creators.

(44) Victor
(44) 维克多

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Ancient art that is displayed in foreign countries by all means should be returned to the original country. The foreign countries have no right to hold back returning the items. I would ask that the foreign nations and the original country discuss the terms of transfer. Yes, there is the risk that the original country will not have as good security as do the foreign countries. But look at what happened to Boston’s Gardner Museum theft in 1990, including the loss of Rembrandt, Vermeer, Manet, and other masterpieces. Nothing is absolutely safe, nowhere. And now Climate Change agitators are attacking publicly displayed works in European museums.
无论如何,在国外展出的古代艺术品都应该回归原籍国。外国无权拒绝退回物品。我建议外国和原籍国讨论转让条件。是的,存在原籍国安全不如外国的风险。但看看 1990 年波士顿加德纳博物馆失窃事件,包括伦勃朗、维米尔、马奈和其他杰作的丢失。没有什么是绝对安全的,没有任何地方。现在,气候变化煽动者正在攻击欧洲博物馆公开展出的作品。

(45) Julia
(45) 朱莉娅

To those of you in the comments section who are having strong feelings about artifacts being removed from cities in the US and Britain and returned to their countries of origin, I would ask you to consider: why do you think Americans have more of a right to easily access the Benin Bronzes than the people of Nigeria? Why are people who live within a day’s drive of London entitled to go and see the Elgin Marbles whenever they want, but the people of Athens aren’t? What intrinsic factors make the West a suitable home for these artifacts but preclude them from being preserved and displayed by their countries of origin? If your conclusion is that the West is better able to preserve these artifacts, think about why you’re assuming that to be true.

A. It is clear that the countries of origin have never been compensated for the stolen artifacts.

B. It is a flawed line of reasoning to argue against returning artifacts to their countries of origin.
B. 反对将文物归还其原产国的推理是有缺陷的。

C. Museum visitors can still learn as much from artifacts’ copies after the originals are
C. 在原件被修复后,博物馆参观者仍然可以从文物的复制品中学到同样多的知识


D. Reproductions, even if perfectly made, cannot take the place of the authentic objects.
D. 复制品即使制​​作完美,也不能取代真品。

E. The real value of artifacts can only be recognized in their countries of origin rather than anywhere else.
E. 文物的真正价值只能在其原产国而非其他任何地方才能得到认可。

F. Ways to get artifacts from other countries must be decent and lawful.
F. 从其他国家获取文物的方式必须是正当且合法的。

G. Concern over security is no excuse for refusing to return artifacts to their countries of
G. 对安全的担忧不能成为拒绝将文物归还其所在国的借口


Part C


Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
仔细阅读下面的文字,然后将划线部分翻译成中文。将您的答案写在答题卡上。 (10分)

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“Elephants never forget” or so they say and that piece of folklore seems to have some foundation.

The African savanna elephant, also known as the African bush elephant, is distributed across 37 African countries. They move between a variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, woodlands, wetlands and agricultural land. (46) They sometimes travel more than sixty miles to find food or water, and are very good at working out where other elephants are even when they are out of sight. Using tracking devices, researchers have shown that they have “remarkable spatial acuity.” When finding their way to waterholes, they headed off in exactly the right direction, on one occasion from a distance of roughly thirty miles. What is more, they almost always seem to choose the nearest waterhole. (47) The researchers are convinced that the elephants always know precisely where they are in relation to all the resources they need, and can therefore take shortcuts, as well as following familiar routes.
非洲草原象,又称非洲丛林象,分布于非洲37个国家。它们在各种栖息地之间迁徙,包括森林、草原、林地、湿地和农田。 (46) 它们有时会长途跋涉六十多英里去寻找食物或水,并且非常擅长找出其他大象的位置——即使它们不在视线范围内。研究人员使用跟踪设备证明它们具有“非凡的空间敏锐度”。当他们找到去水坑的路时,他们朝着完全正确的方向出发,有一次距离大约三十英里。更重要的是,他们似乎总是选择最近的水坑。 (47) 研究人员确信,大象总是准确地知道它们所需要的所有资源的位置,因此可以走捷径,也可以遵循熟悉的路线。

Although the cues used by African elephants for long-distance navigation are not yet understood, smell may well play a part.

Elephants are very choosy eaters, but until recently little was known about how they selected their food. (48) One possibility was that they merely used their eyes and tried out the plants they found, but that would probably result in a lot of wasted time and energy, not least because their eyesight is actually not very good.
大象是非常挑剔的食者,但直到最近人们对它们如何选择食物还知之甚少。 (48) 一种可能是他们只是用眼睛来尝试他们发现的植物,但这可能会导致大量时间和精力的浪费,尤其是因为他们的视力实际上不是很好。

(49) The volatile chemicals produced by plants can be carried a long way, and they are very characteristic: Each plant or tree has its own particular odor signature. What is more, they can be detected even when they are not actually visible. New research suggests that smell is a crucial factor in guiding elephants and probably other herbivores to the best food resources.
(49) 植物产生的挥发性化学物质可以携带很远的距离,而且它们非常有特点:每种植物或树木都有其独特的气味特征。更重要的是,即使它们实际上不可见,也可以被检测到。新的研究表明,气味是引导大象(可能还有其他食草动物)寻找最佳食物资源的关键因素。

The researchers first established what kinds of plant the elephants preferred either to eat or avoid when foraging freely. They then set up a “food station” experiment, in which they gave the elephants a series of choices based only on smell. (50) The experiment showed that elephants may well use smell to identify patches of trees that are good to eat, and secondly to assess the quality of the trees within each patch. Free-ranging elephants presumably also use this information to locate their preferred food.
研究人员首先确定了大象在自由觅食时喜欢吃或避免吃哪种植物。然后,他们建立了一个“食物站”实验,在实验中,他们仅根据气味给大象提供一系列选择。 (50) 实验表明,大象很可能利用气味来识别可食用的树木块,然后评估每块树木的质量。自由放养的大象大概也利用这些信息来找到它们喜欢的食物。

Their well-developed hippocampal structures may enable elephants, like rats and people, to construct cognitive maps.

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Section III Writing
第三节 写作

Part A

51. Directions:
51. 方向:

Read the following email from an international student and write a reply.

Dear Li Ming,

I’ve got a class assignment to make an oral report on an ancient Chinese scientist, but I’m not sure how to prepare for it. Can you give me some advice? Thank you for your help.

Yours, Paul

Write your answer in about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
用大约 100 个字将答案写在答题卡上。

Do not use your own name in your email; use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)
不要在电子邮件中使用您自己的姓名;用“李明”代替。 (10分)

Part B

52. Directions:
52. 方向:

Write an essay based on the picture and the chart below. In your essay, you should

1) describe the picture and the chart briefly,

2) interpret the implied meaning, and

3) give your comments.

160-200 words
(20 points)






2020 2021 2022

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