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00 FOREWORD ..... 1 00 前言 ..... 1
01 组成与三角形 ..... 2

02 对比原则 ..... 7

03 奥利奥饼干理论 ..... 10

04 曝光与压缩 ..... 14

05 反光亮点 ..... 20

06 边缘的等级 ..... 27

07 GLOSSARY ..... 35
07 术语表 ..... 35

08 RESOURCES ..... 38
08 资源 ..... 38


When I was first learning art more seriously, I would often feel like there was something more basic missing in my understanding. I'd look at master work and see traces of knowledge that I wanted to explore but didn't know how. Without the knowledge of the fundamental principles behind art, I felt like I couldn't sincerely express myself. Over time, and with more experience, I learned that there is no secret method or one best way to approach every situation, and it would be boring if there were. We can only gather as many tools as we can, and understand which problems they are best suited to solving. I wanted to write this book to help those on this journey find a path through a, now more than ever, ovewhelming sea of information.
Who is this book for? If you have watched an assortment of YouTube tutorials and gathered information from many disparate sources but struggled to combine them into a cohesive, unified set of principles that actually help you practically with your drawing and painting, then I hope this serves to fill in some of the gaps and inspires you to come up with your own theories that you test through experience. If you are technically minded, and are comfortable following directions in a tutorial but don't know how to creatively apply those lessons to your own ideas, then I hope this helps to make you more confident in your ability to be artistic. If you have felt like most education has taught you how to work like the teacher with their specific process, but you want to know the basic ideas that led them to their unique style and method in the first place, then I think this book will be of use to you. Most of all, I would hope that a greater understanding of the fundamentals allows a more personal, individual creativity and a greater intimate connection to art in general. I have found nothing to be more fulfilling.
这本书适合谁?如果你看过各种 YouTube 教程,从许多不同的来源收集信息,但难以将它们结合成一套实际帮助你在绘画方面的连贯、统一的原则,那么我希望这本书能填补一些空白,激发你提出自己的理论,并通过经验加以验证。如果你喜欢技术性的内容,能够轻松地按照教程中的指导进行操作,但不知道如何将这些教训创造性地应用到自己的想法中,那么我希望这本书能帮助你更加自信地发挥你的艺术才能。如果你觉得大多数教育都教你如何像老师一样按照他们特定的流程工作,但你想了解是什么基本理念让他们首先形成了独特的风格和方法,那么我认为这本书会对你有所帮助。最重要的是,我希望对基础知识的更深入理解能够带来更个性化、独特的创造力,以及更深入的对艺术的亲密连接。我发现没有什么比这更令人满足的了。
There are some unique joys and also challenges to improving at art. While the fundamental concepts exist independently of any one individual artist, the journey itself must be individual because the whole point is to communicate an idea. While peers, teachers, and masters of the past can be used as a guide, having something interesting and original to say is a question that must be answered from scratch by everyone who wants to be creative. The good news is that by virtue of being an individual your experiences are unique, and taking the time to listen to and follow your own interests without judgment can lead to an honest and sincere body of work. Above all of the technical considerations, work that is sincere and without pretense will always have the greatest weight.

Devin Korwin 德文·科温

构成 & 三角形

One of the most fundamental concepts of painting is that composition has its basis in abstract design. Rather than painting discrete objects, the abstract nature of the composition can be focused on as a way to further the intention of the painting in its entirety.

Fig. 1. Ramón Casas Au Moulin de la Galette, 1892. The white shape in the mirror could be considered a fourth point, and it is important for balancing the composition, but in this analysis, the head and hands have more psychological interest to us so they sit higher in the hierarchy of importance. The hierarchy of psychological interest highlighted by this triangle is just one of many happening simultaneously, much like harmony and counterpoint in music.
图 1. 拉蒙·卡萨斯《在加莱特磨坊》1892 年。镜子里的白色形状可以被视为第四个点,对于平衡构图很重要,但在这个分析中,头部和手部对我们有更多的心理吸引力,因此它们在重要性层次中更高。这个三角形突出的心理吸引力层次只是同时发生的许多层次之一,就像音乐中的和谐与对位一样。

If you start with an idea, and then explore ways to express that idea visually that is in sympathy with your intention, the painting will have a cohesiveness and clarity of focus. Paintings that don't always serve the underlying idea will often have a disconnected, pasted together look where the parts don't relate to the whole. The main idea of this chapter is that composition is not just about drawing discrete objects, like arranging apples in a still life, but that there is an underlying abstract language at work that can be manipulated to achieve artistic goals. When you think of composition as the abstract language of how you will express your idea, the painting tends to paint itself. "...there is an underlying abstract language at work that can be manipulated to achieve artistic goals."
Improving your composition is mostly a mental change in thinking rather than any one specific technique. Beginners who don't focus on the higher level composition tend to organize discrete objects around a scene, rather than designing an abstract composition that supports the artistic idea, which in some cases happens to be made up of recognizable things. There are countless ways to creatively use design principles to express a creative concept. These examples show specifically how powerful triangles are as a compositional tool. My intention is to show how certain tools can be used to solve artistic problems depending on the need of the artist. One reason that triangles specifically are so powerful and a good introduction to the abstract idea is that they are a great way to keep the eye moving inside the picture frame and the uneven number of points keeps the composition dynamic and interesting.

In the Ramon Casas painting in Fig. 1, the compositional device is more obvious, but in the Giovanni Boldini and John Singer Sargent paintings in the next pages it can be harder to see the underlying abstract anatomy of the painting.
在图 1 中的 Ramon Casas 绘画中,构图设备更为明显,但在接下来的页面中的 Giovanni Boldini 和 John Singer Sargent 的绘画中,可能更难看出绘画的基本抽象解剖结构。

Fig. 2. Frank Craig The Heretic, 1906. In contrast to a triangle four points arranged inside of a square would generally feel much more static in comparison, and is another tool that could be used depending on the effect desired. The Casas painting in fig. 1 has a feeling of unease as if she is waiting for someone, supported by the non-symmetrical triangle composition, while this Frank Craig painting with a rectangular compostion feels more stable and decorative.
图 2. 弗兰克·克雷格《异端者》,1906 年。与三角形相比,四个点排列在正方形内部通常会感觉更加静态,并且是根据所需效果可以使用的另一种工具。图 1 中的卡萨斯绘画给人一种不安的感觉,仿佛她在等待某人,这种感觉得到了非对称三角形构图的支持,而这幅弗兰克·克雷格的绘画则通过矩形构图感觉更加稳定和装饰性。
Despite these being very busy paintings in terms of density of information, there is an organization to them made up of both a central triangle and a supporting scaffolding of parallel angles that helps to keep clarity. These major angles keep the composition coherent and appealing and support the high frequency detail on top, much like how a simple rhythm section keeps structure during a guitar solo.
The central triangle could even serve a narrative purpose in the Boldini feast scene, suggesting a relationship between the three figures involved. The reason why these three figures make up the triangle is again due to psychological importance. The surrounding figures are extremely simplified and abstracted to lower their place in the hierarchy. There is a huge contrast in the level of rendering of the figures, and the surrounding figures are caricatured, stylized, and simplified to varying degrees.
中央的三角形甚至可以在 Boldini 的盛宴场景中起到叙事作用,暗示着三个人物之间的关系。这三个人物形成三角形的原因再次归结于心理上的重要性。周围的人物被极度简化和抽象化,以降低其在等级制度中的地位。人物的渲染水平存在巨大对比,周围的人物被夸张、风格化和简化到不同程度。
This is a very interesting and clever way to use contrast, and supports the creative intention of the painting, suggesting a frozen moment in time and selective focus at a drunken festivity.
In the next example, the John Singer Sargent painting uses a scaffolding of limited parallel angles as well to provide structure. The points of the deer and the figure are focal points not because of value contrast, but narrative and psychological contrast. We instinctively look for figures, faces, and story. Contrast comes in many forms, and human elements and narrative are one of the most important forms of contrast in a painting sitting high atop the hierarchy.
在下一个例子中,约翰·辛格·萨金特(John Singer Sargent)的绘画也使用了有限平行角度的脚手架来提供结构。鹿和人物的焦点并非因为价值对比,而是叙事和心理对比。我们本能地寻找人物、面孔和故事。对比有许多形式,人类元素和叙事是绘画中最重要的对比形式之一,位于层次结构的最高处。

Fig. 3. Giovanni Boldini Feast Scene, 1889. Scaffolding of major angles that helps keep the structure and clarity admist the detail. Major angles also serve a similar function in drawing in general.
图 3. 乔瓦尼·博尔迪尼的宴会场景,1889 年。主要角度的脚手架有助于在细节中保持结构和清晰度。主要角度在绘画中也起着类似的功能。
Fig. 4. John Singer Sargent The Hermit, 1908. The points of the
图 4. 约翰·辛格·萨金特《隐士》,1908 年。

deer and the figure are focal points not because of value contrast but narrative and psychological contrast. The close value contrast also provides a narrative meaning, the figure has quite literally become one with nature
Composition is best used in practical ways like this to support the intention of the painting and is unfortunately often mystified and complicated to the point where it is too esoteric for beginners to become interested in.
If you've ever been confused or discouraged by golden triangles and complicated mathematical divisions then it is worth stepping back and approaching composition more holistically. Abstract design is independent of subject matter and exists in all visual art. The same theme of parallel lines that we saw in these compositions exists in other genres as well and is even a staple of sci-fi design (think Halo architecture). In addition to being used in a macro sense in the large composition, they are also used in the micro in the design of individual elements. The trick then becomes balancing the individual elements in the context of the larger whole. The more you try to be consciously aware of these principles and look for it in paintings that you like, the easier it is to bring it into your own work. Every painting is based on composition at its core so it is very helpful to use it intentionally.
If you've ever tried to draw a specific expression, you know that a tiny change in the angle of the mouth or eyes has a really drastic effect on the overall impression. There is a similar sensitivity in how we respond to composition and it is always helpful to keep that in mind.
While there are no hard rules in painting, there are tools in a toolbox that tend to work for certain situations. The more you experiment, explore, and learn, the more options you have when you need to solve a problem or say a specific thing. Composition is the abstract language used to express ideas in painting, and concepts like this are ways that you can expand your vocabulary or learn how to say an idea with more clarity and focus. For example, letters in an alphabet are an abstract device that hold a deeper meaning, learning about new ways to combine those abstractions is liberating when it comes to communication. Part of visual literacy is seeing the abstractions behind the objects. Having this kind of direct control over a composition can be really freeing, and hopefully leads to more experimentation with design, one of the most important aspects of art in general.

"Composition is best used in practical ways... to support the intention of the painting..."

Fig. 5. John Liberto. A hierarchy of major angles exists in the micro as well as the macro.
图 5. 约翰·利贝托。在微观和宏观中存在一种主要角度的等级制度。


Contrast is one of the most fundamental concepts in all of art. The comparison of "this vs. that" is the foundation on which much of art, not just painting, is built. One common example is that a neutral grey looks warm next to a cool color and cool next to a warm color. This is due to the way that we perceive things in relation to each other, not in a vacuum, but by comparison.
Fig. 1-2. Lawrence Alma-Tadema A Roman Emporor, 1871. A Praetorian guard member pulls aside the curtain to reveal the new emperor of Rome, Claudius. His fearful expression stands in stark contrast to the statue of Augustus to his right, centered in the frame. The choice to center the statue rather than Claudius is a compositional decision in sympathy with the narrative of the painting, giving the title an ironic undertone. The straight line scaffolding of the composition, including the straight perspctive lines, are contrasted by the sweeping gesture of the figures.
图 1-2。劳伦斯·阿尔马-塔德玛《罗马皇帝》,1871 年。一名禁卫军成员拉开帷幕,揭示了罗马的新皇帝克劳狄。他恐惧的表情与他右侧的奥古斯都雕像形成鲜明对比,雕像位于画面中心。选择将雕像置于中心而非克劳狄是与绘画叙事相呼应的构图决定,赋予标题一种讽刺的含义。构图的直线脚手架,包括直线透视线,与人物的挥动姿势形成对比。

If you want to maximize the impact of an abstract design, play up the differences as well as the similarities. Curves look extra curvy next to perfectly straight lines and soft edges are particularly soft next to hard

ones. Because compositional elements like curves, softness, temperature, darkness, etc., all have degrees, it is necessary to set up a hierarchy so that the all of the relative differences are clearly readable.
The Alma-Tadema painting in Figure 1 is a great example of consciously and intelligently breaking the conventional wisdom of composition in order to achieve a desired effect. The composition is perfectly split in two down the center, which is usually considered undesirable because of how static and still the effect is. In this case, it is exactly what is needed to convey the idea intended. In the narrative of the painting, Caligula has been murdered, and the cowardly new emperor Claudius is hiding behind a curtain on the right side of the image. An upright, stately statue of Augustus is dead center in the composition, supported and highlighted by the perspective lines, which conveys the effect of the structure and order of the Roman past. 1 This is balanced and contrasted by the large sweeping gesture of the supporting figures at the sides of the image, the curves of which look particularly lawless in comparison and is perfectly in harmony with the subject of the unruly crowd.
图 1 中的阿尔玛-塔德玛绘画是一个很好的例子,有意识地、聪明地打破传统构图智慧,以达到预期效果。构图完美地沿中心分为两部分,通常被认为是不理想的,因为效果过于静态和静止。在这种情况下,这正是传达预期意图所需要的。在绘画叙事中,卡利古拉被谋杀,懦弱的新皇帝克劳狄斯躲在图像右侧的帷幕后。奥古斯都的威严直立雕像正好位于构图的正中央,由透视线支撑和突出,传达了罗马过去的结构和秩序效果。这与图像两侧支持人物的大幅挥动姿势形成平衡和对比,这些曲线看起来特别无序,与混乱人群的主题完美和谐。
In Figure 3, John Singer Sargent employs a particularly simple and effective expression of contrast. The curve of the profile of the girl is highlighted and accentuated by comparison with the straight line of the wall. It is akin to an architectural crown moulding which works by the same principle. These abstract concepts work best when used in service of an idea, one as simple as wanting to convey the delicate curve of a profile or one as complex as the Alma-Tadema narrative. When the underlying aesthetic principles are sympathetic to the goals of the artist, there is a good chance that the painting can become more than the sum of its parts.
在图 3 中,约翰·辛格·萨金特采用了一种特别简单而有效的对比表达。女孩的侧面曲线与墙壁的直线形成鲜明对比,突显出来。这类似于建筑上的顶角线条,遵循相同的原理。这些抽象概念在服务于一个想法时效果最佳,无论是简单地想要传达侧面的柔和曲线,还是像阿尔玛-塔德玛那样复杂的叙事。当潜在的美学原则与艺术家的目标相一致时,绘画有很大机会超越其各个部分的总和。

Fig. 3. John Singer Sargent Portrait of Dorothy Bernard, 1889 The simple composition is based on the contrast between the straight line of the wall compared to the delicate curve of the profile. The qualities of each are accentuated by their difference
图 3. 约翰·辛格·萨金特(John Singer Sargent)绘制的多萝西·伯纳德(Dorothy Bernard)肖像,1889 年。简单的构图基于墙壁的直线与轮廓的精致曲线之间的对比。它们的特质因其差异而被强调。
  1. Barrow, Rosemary J. (2003). Lawrence Alma-Tadema. (p. 61-62)
    巴罗,罗斯玛丽·J.(2003 年)。劳伦斯·阿尔马-塔德玛。 (第 61-62 页)
Fig. 4. A composition split evenly in two often conveys a very static effect, where the eye does not move and explore the composition Rather than being "wrong," these effects can be utilized where appropriate. The 70/30 split creates an balanced effect with both variety as well as unity making it useful in a broad range of applications, such as for compositional rest areas as well as in the design of individual elements.
图 4. 将构图均匀分为两部分通常传达一种非常静态的效果,眼睛不会移动和探索构图。这些效果并非“错误”,在适当的情况下可以利用。70/30 的分割创造了一种平衡的效果,既有变化又有统一,使其在广泛的应用中非常有用,例如用于构图休息区以及设计个别元素。
The first consideration in composition, and an example of contrast in itself, is aspect ratio of the canvas. The choice of aspect ratio has an effect on every compositional decision that follows because it all must relate to the original relationship of width to height. A square has a ratio of , or one part tall to one part wide. Another common aspect ratio is , or 4 parts wide to 3 parts tall. Aspect ratios can be reversed to change the orientation as well. If you are working digitally, instead of cropping arbitrarily, try using some of the presets within the crop tool when starting or reframing a composition. When the process starts with a canvas size that already has an established ratio it is easier to base subsequent decisions, such as further subdivisions, off of that relationship.
在构图中的第一个考虑因素,也是对比的一个例子,是画布的长宽比。长宽比的选择会影响随后的每个构图决策,因为它们都必须与原始的宽高比关系相关。一个正方形的长宽比是 ,或者说高度与宽度相等。另一个常见的长宽比是 ,或者说宽度是高度的 4 倍。长宽比也可以颠倒以改变方向。如果你在数字上工作,可以在开始或重新构图时尝试使用裁剪工具中的一些预设,而不是随意裁剪。当过程从已经确定比例的画布尺寸开始时,更容易基于该关系做出后续决策,比如进一步的细分。
Those further subdivisons can be based on their own ratios, 70:30 being a very common one. One way to balance areas of concentrated detail and variety in a painting is through the use of rest areas. Bernie Fuchs' illustrations make very apparent use of this tool partially due to the unique demands of the editorial illustration format, but rest areas are found in compositions from every time period.
这些进一步的细分可以基于它们自己的比例,70:30 是一个非常常见的比例。在绘画中平衡集中细节和变化的一种方法是通过使用休息区域。伯尼·富克斯(Bernie Fuchs)的插图明显地利用了这个工具,部分原因是由于编辑插图格式的独特要求,但休息区域在各个时期的构图中都能找到。
Fig. 5. (above) Bernie Fuchs, Life Magazine Illustration, 1959.
图 5.(上)伯尼·富克斯,1959 年《生活》杂志插图。
Fig. 6. (opposite) Bernie Fuchs Illustration for McCalls (A Small Miracle), 1959 .
图 6.(对页)伯尼·富克斯为《麦考尔》(《一个小奇迹》)插图,1959 年。
Fig. 7. Bernie Fuchs (Dawn), 1960. The 70:30 split of the focal point of the man's face and his distance in the composition supports the narrative of emotional detachment.
图 7. 伯尼·富克斯(黎明),1960 年。男子脸部焦点与他在构图中的距离的 70:30 分割支持情感上的疏离叙事。
Fig. 8. Examples of common aspect ratios.
图 8. 常见宽高比例示例。
What do values have to do with Oreo cookies and how are they the secret to good painting? John Singer Sargent's teacher stated "The secret of painting is in the half tone of each plane, in economizing the accents and in the handling of the lights." When I read that I was confused and felt like I was missing out on something big. Halftones seemed like a minor consideration to me at the time. I wasn't even exactly clear what they were.

I thought that midtones or halftones were simply transition areas between light and shadow, and that definitely could not be the secret that I was looking for. A major breakthrough for me was when I started to consider halftones as the whole area hit by light, excluding the highlights. Midtones are not part of the shadow at all.
Fig. 1. The three main grouped value areas of a portrait exposed for the light (see chapter 4).
图 1. 人像中曝光光线的三个主要分组值区域(见第 4 章)。

When exposing for the lights, shadows will fall into a unified, low-contrast mass, leaving room in the value scale for a variety of tone in the lights that describe each plane. Once the flat shadows are in place, there is more room for information in the lights due to exposure and relative value (see chapter 4). There is a subtle gradient as the light falls down the form, but it is very subtle, or else it will start to compete with the shadow value and the value relationships will start to become incorrect.
在曝光光线时,阴影会形成一个统一的、低对比度的整体,为描述每个平面的光调留下价值尺度上的空间。一旦平坦的阴影就位,由于曝光和相对价值(见第 4 章),光中的信息就会更丰富。光线沿形体下降时会有一个微妙的渐变,但必须非常微妙,否则它将开始与阴影价值竞争,价值关系将开始变得不正确。

Fig. 2. Edwin Landseer Portrait of John Gibson, R.A., ca. 1850. The light side is made up of the specular highlight and the halftones.
图 2. 约翰·吉布森肖像,约 1850 年,埃德温·兰西尔作。明亮的一侧由镜面反射光和半色调组成。
If the range of value in the halftones is too great, they start to become out of key, and the illusion light over form is lost. If I had to give one piece of advice with regards to rendering, it is to keep your values in areas of grouped values close together, and far apart from an area of a different value. Similar within, different between. When the values are kept close, the subtle differences in the values read as planes. I believe this is what Sargent's teacher Carolus-Duran meant when he describes halftones as the secret to painting: "Here lies, he would say, the secret of painting, in the half-tone of each plane, in economizing the accents and in the handling of the lights so that they should play their part in the picture only with a palpable and necessary significance. " 1

Fig. 3. The Oreo Cookie Theory. Using this principle, we can have one value for the shadow at the bottom of the scale, represented in red (the bottom cookie), a very subtle gradient for the lights, represented in blue (the filling), and one value for the specular highlight, represented in yellow (the top cookie). As long as these values are far enough apart, it will read as light. This principle is foremost about the relationships of the values, not that they necessarily need to be at any absolute point in the scale.
图 3. 奥利奥饼干理论。利用这个原则,我们可以在底部阴影处有一个数值,用红色表示(底部饼干),在光线处有一个非常微妙的渐变,用蓝色表示(内馅),以及在高光处有一个数值,用黄色表示(顶部饼干)。只要这些数值足够分散,它就会被视为光线。这个原则首要关乎数值之间的关系,而不是它们必须在刻度上的任何绝对点。
Fig. 4. John Singer Sargent Portrait of Jean Joseph Marie Carries, 1880 The light side is made up of the specular highlight and the halftones.
图 4. 约翰·辛格·萨金特肖像画《让·约瑟夫·玛丽·卡里斯》,1880 年。明亮的一侧由高光和半色调组成。
Fig. 5. Alessio Issupoff Self Portrait, 1928.
图 5. 亚历西奥·伊苏波夫自画像,1928 年。

Now that the light and shadow are far apart, the shadow shapes and light shapes can be merged together and used to create an abstract composition, as if you were using strips of construction paper to design. This is an example of the scientific principles of light informing a shorthand that is then used as abstract principles in order to design. In music, natural harmonies are arranged in sympathy with what the composer is intending to convey, and in painting it is the natural principles of light, anatomy, perspective, etc. that are used as the building blocks of a composition.

Fig. 6. Abbot Handerson Thayer Brother and Sister (Mary and Gerald Thayer), 1889
图 6. 阿博特·汉德森·塞耶尔兄妹(玛丽和杰拉尔德·塞耶尔),1889 年
“...keep your values in areas of grouped values close together, and far apart from an area of a different value. Similar within, different between."


How often do you think about exposure when starting a painting or drawing? How do we go from a lot of information in reality to something we can actually express with our medium? Organizing values and colors is a big part of successful painting and deciding on exposure is the first step in planning that out.
When painting from life, it is tempting to copy the exact colors and values we see literally, especially with even lighting that seems to easily fit within the value range of our medium. With strong light, the problem becomes obvious: paint, pencil, and even digital paint on a backlit screen can't reach the levels of light and dark that we see in the real world. The solution is to compare values and compress, and that way we will be able to translate what we see into an organized and designed composition. Paint from a tube can't be as bright as a lightbulb or as dark as the deepest shadow, so how do we paint them? We can omit information so that the relationships of values are correct, reconstruct a world with its own internal logic, and then use this to control the composition.
expose for sky 曝光天空
Fig. 1 (above). A scene of a ball on a table in front of a window. By comparing values across the entire scene rather than copying values directly we can create and maintain accurate value relationships.
图 1(上方)。一张桌子上放着一个球的场景,窗户就在前面。通过比较整个场景中的数值而不是直接复制数值,我们可以创造并保持准确的数值关系。

Fig. 2 (opposite). Exposure is the amount of light let into the eye, or in photography, the camera sensor or film. Exposure determines the relative value relationships achieved through compression.
图 2(对页)。曝光是指进入眼睛的光量,或在摄影中是指相机传感器或胶片。曝光决定了通过压缩实现的相对值关系。
To recap, we first decide what in the scene we want to show with the greatest amount of information. Say for example you are drawing a model from life with charcoal, and you want to capture the highlight on their earring. If you key to that highlight, or in other words set the exposure to that point, we would have to sacrifice some detail in the shadows because the value in reality is too far away from that highlight to express with the range possible with charcoal. How do we then accurately translate the values so that they are relatively correct and internally consistent, and also something we can express with the limited range that our medium is capable of? If you've ever used the posterize filter in Photoshop then you have some experience with value compression, but it is easier to have the computer run the calculation than it is to accurately compress values while composing a painting.
回顾一下,我们首先决定在场景中想展示的最多信息。比如,你正在用木炭画从实物模特身上,想捕捉他们耳环上的亮点。如果你将焦点放在那个亮点上,或者换句话说,将曝光设置在那一点上,我们就不得不牺牲一些阴影中的细节,因为现实中的价值与木炭所能表达的范围相距太远。那么我们如何准确地转换这些价值,使它们相对正确且内部一致,并且也能用我们的媒介所能表达的有限范围来表现呢?如果你曾在 Photoshop 中使用过色调分离滤镜,那么你对价值压缩有一些经验,但让计算机运行计算比在创作绘画时准确压缩价值要容易得多。

Fig. 3. Imagine that you're taking a phone picture: you want to show the detail on a lit lightbulb, so you tap on it to change the exposure and all the shadows go black but detail comes into the bul'. Next, you want to show information in the deep shadows from sunlight, so you tap on them, and the sky goes to a flat blinding white but reflected light detail in the shadow emerges.
图 3. 想象一下你在拍照:你想展示一盏亮着的灯泡上的细节,所以你点击它来改变曝光,所有的阴影变黑,但细节出现在灯泡上。接着,你想展示阳光下深阴影中的信息,所以你点击它们,天空变成了扁平刺眼的白色,但阴影中的反射光细节显现出来。
The solution is to rely on comparing values, and you will find that by making values that are similar even closer, and values that are far apart even more different, the values naturally start to compress through comparison. For example, if a real life scene we want to paint has a range of information from -1000 to 1000 , and our paint value scale is only capable of 0 to 10 , then each value step will represent a factor of 200 ! This shows why we need to keep the values subtle and controlled, since each jump represents a lot.
解决方案是依靠比较数值,通过使相似的数值更接近,相距较远的数值更不同,数值自然会通过比较开始压缩。例如,如果我们想要绘制的现实场景的信息范围是从-1000 到 1000,而我们的绘画数值范围只能是 0 到 10,那么每个数值步长将代表一个因子 200!这说明了为什么我们需要保持数值微妙和受控,因为每次跳跃都代表了很多。

Fig. 5. It is possible to choose how to compress a scene depending on what the artistic idea requires.
图 5. 可以根据艺术构思的要求选择如何压缩场景。
When we look into lit areas of a scene and literally copy what we see, and then look into shadow areas and literally copy what we see, we make a double exposure much like a stylized HDR photograph. The reason that these types of images are often forgettable is that they lose all of the organization of value and color. With bright sunlight we have a choice to make: expose for the light or for the shadow? If exposing for the light, try using one value in the shadow and two in the light. This way we can get a ton of form information in the light and the flat shadow value is still relatively correct.
当我们看向场景中明亮的区域并直接复制所见,然后看向阴影区域并直接复制所见时,我们制作了一种类似风格化 HDR 照片的双重曝光。这些类型的图像经常被遗忘的原因是它们失去了所有价值和颜色的组织。在明亮的阳光下,我们需要做出选择:曝光于光线还是阴影?如果曝光于光线,尝试在阴影中使用一个值,在光线中使用两个值。这样我们可以在光线中获得大量的形态信息,而平坦的阴影值仍然相对正确。

If exposing for the shadow, try using one value in the light and two in the shadow. This way we can get brilliant color information in the shadow and the relationship with the overexposed light still makes sense. In order to make a decision about exposing for either light or shadow in bright light we have to ask what our intentions are with the composition. Exposing for light allows a wide enough value range in the halftones to show form, so this might be a good choice if you want to emphasize the sculptural qualities of your subject. Exposing for the light often makes a lower key image overall because of the

Fig. 6. Abram Arkhipov Ryazan Coachman, 1916. Exposed for the light. The areas of light and shadow are kept distinct and the light has more information than the shadow.
图 6. 阿布拉姆·阿尔希波夫《1916 年的梁赞马车夫》。曝光于光线下。光影区域保持清晰,光线中包含的信息比阴影更多。
Fig. 7. Abram Arkhipov The Ice Has Passed, 1895. Exposed for the light.
图 7. 阿布拉姆·阿尔希波夫《冰已过去》,1895 年。曝光于光线下。

increased value range in the lights and the flat, dark shadows. Chiaroscuro painting and artists such as Caravaggio are a great introduction to this approach.
Exposing for the shadow allows enough information in the shadows to show brilliant reflected light, so if your intention is to show a dazzling display of color, then you might want to expose for the shadows.

This will often lead to a higher key image overall because of the overexposed lights and inreased value and color range in the shadows. Impressionist artists such as Monet as well as Russian artists of the same period often used exposing for the shadow to explore color effects. One more consideration is simply how much of your subject happens to be in light vs. shadow. If the subject is backlit and only of the form is hit by the light, then exposing for the shadow would be a natural choice. The opposite is also true: if most of the form is hit by light, then exposing for the light usually makes more sense. The science behind exposure and compression is the logic that drives technical decisions, and those technical decisions should always be in service of the creative statement.
这通常会导致整体画面更高的关键形象,因为过曝光的灯光和阴影中增加了价值和色彩范围。印象派艺术家如莫奈以及同一时期的俄罗斯艺术家经常利用曝光阴影来探索色彩效果。另一个考虑因素就是你的主题中有多少是在光线下与阴影中。如果主题是逆光的,只有 形式被光线照射到,那么曝光阴影将是一个自然的选择。相反也是正确的:如果大部分形式被光线照射到,那么曝光光线通常更有意义。曝光和压缩背后的科学是推动技术决策的逻辑,这些技术决策应始终服务于创意表达。
If it seems like we can copy the values in dim or overcast light, we should still think about values in a relative way and compare then while working. For overcast days you can make a "balanced" exposure since the range of value isn't as extreme as with sunlight. In these situations, since most of the values will naturally hover around a middle value range where many hues have their most intense chroma, the intensity of local color can be best expressed, with a silhouette unintenterupted by the patterns of

Fig. 8. Abram Arkhipov At The Market, (1862-1930). Exposed for the shadows.
图 8. 阿布拉姆·阿尔希波夫在市场上,(1862-1930 年)。暴露于阴影中。
Fig. 9. Abram Arkhipov Along the River Oka, 1890. Exposed for the shadows
图 9. 阿布拉姆·阿尔希波夫《沿着奥卡河》,1890 年。曝光以突出阴影
Fig. 10. Giuseppe de Nittis Westminster Bridge, 1878. With overcast light, silhouette and local value become the focus rather than patterns of light and shade.
图 10. 乔塞佩·德尼蒂斯《西敏桥》,1878 年。在阴天的光线下,轮廓和局部价值成为焦点,而不是光影的图案。

intense light and shade.
If we only paint things that seem to fit within the range of our medium then it is hard to learn comparative values, which is a fundamental skill. Being able to work comparatively is necessary not only for painting from life but for designing a composition and creating a convincing vision of reality while painting from imagination as well. Painting difficult subjects with large value ranges teaches this lesson and it should carry over to the other subjects where the need to compress is less obvious. If you only have experience painting indoors from evenly lit subjects, try heading outdoors and painting a variety of materials during a bright sunny day. As a bonus, since value is entirely dependent on exposure, and color is dependent on value, learning exposure is a great way to get more confidence and understanding with color. Overall, light has a unifying effect on what it illuminates. When light falls across a form, it naturally groups the areas of light and shadow into distinct areas. Grouped values should be kept very close, and the areas of light and shadow separated in order to keep the illusion of light over form. When we choose an exposure and compress our values accurately based on comparative observation, the value groups fall into place, and the elements more crucial to the artistic statement like the drawing, shapes, and composition can be focused on like arranging simple strips of flat construction paper.
如果我们只画那些似乎适合我们媒介范围内的事物,那么学习比较价值就会很困难,这是一项基本技能。能够进行比较是必要的,不仅适用于写生绘画,还适用于设计构图和在想象中绘画时创造出令人信服的现实视觉。用大价值范围绘画困难主题可以教会这个技巧,并且应该延伸到其他主题,即使在需要压缩的情况下不那么明显。如果你只有在室内从均匀照明的主题中绘画的经验,请尝试到户外,在明亮的阳光下绘画各种材料。作为奖励,由于价值完全取决于曝光,而颜色取决于价值,学习曝光是提高对颜色的信心和理解的好方法。总的来说,光线对其照亮的物体具有统一效果。当光线落在一个形式上时,它自然地将光与阴影区域分成明显的区域。分组的价值应该保持非常接近,而光与阴影的区域应该分开,以保持光线在形式上的幻觉。 当我们选择曝光并根据比较观察准确压缩我们的价值时,价值群就会自然而然地形成,而更关键于艺术表达的元素,如素描、形状和构图,就可以像整理简单的平面建筑纸条一样集中关注。
"The science behind exposure and compression is the logic that drives technical decisions, and those technical decisions should always be in service of the creative statement."

Figs. 11-12. With the values compressed and exposure decided the composition can now be focused on due to the light and shadow areas being separated into two simplified values.
图 11-12。随着数值的压缩和曝光的确定,由于光与阴影区域被分成两个简化数值,现在可以专注于构图。


Have you ever noticed when looking at something that the highlight moves around when you move your head? Why does this happen? Why does it only happen with the highlight and not the rest of the lit area?
The only reason we can see is because light reflects off objects and into our eye. There are two types of reflection: Specular and Diffuse. Specular reflection, or the highlight, is when the path the light takes to your eye is equal and opposite the angle it took to get to the object, like a mirror. Since the specular is a mirror like reflection of the light source, it will often reveal information about what is lighting the scene. For example, if it is a light bulb, you'll see a circular highlight in the shape of the bulb, if it is a fluorescent light, you'll see the long shape of the lightbulb tube wrapping around the form as if the object were a curved mirror.
As discussed in the chapter 2 on the Oreo Cookie Theory, when you expose for the lights, the specular highlights will often be part of their own value group noticably different from the rest of the light. Due to Newton's law of energy conservation, the mirror reflection of the light source will be the brightest part of the light.

"Highlights move when we do because the angle the light needs to get to our eye needs to match the angle at which the light is hitting the object."

Fig. 1. For an animation demonstrating the movement of the specular highlights with the viewer, head over to this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=siPK_EQoO4o
图 1. 欲观看演示镜面高光随观众移动的动画,请访问以下链接:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=siPK_EQoO4o
Fig. 2. Light bounces off objects and reaches our eye allowing us to see. For a specular highlight, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection causing a mirror like reflection The specular shows up where the surface normal of the object divides this angle equally in two.
图 2. 光线反射物体并到达我们的眼睛,使我们能够看到。对于镜面高光,入射角等于反射角,导致镜面般的反射。镜面高光出现在物体的表面法线将这个角度平均分为两部分的地方。
Highlights move when we do because the angle the light needs to get to our eye needs to match the angle at which the light is hitting the object. It's a lot like bouncing a pool ball to go into the pocket, and it can help to visualize it this way while painting. The angle that the ball takes into the pocket will equal the angle at which it hit the table. So logically, when we move, the angle that the light takes to reach our eye changes.
The other kind of reflection, diffuse reflection, is when the light goes beneath the surface, bounces around, and then comes back out in a bunch of different directions. Since the angle of incidence no longer perfectly matches the angle of reflection the pattern of light and shade is independent of the viewers position. Because some of the wavelengths of light get absorbed, what we finally see is a colored object regardless of where we look from.

Fig. 3. The highlight is a mirror reflection of the light source. The rest of the environment shows up as well, obvious in materials with a mostly specular component such as metals. In diffuse materials the environment often causes subtle shifts in temperature rather than value to keep the relative value relationships correct.
图 3. 高光是光源的镜像反射。其余环境也会显示出来,在大部分是镜面成分的材料中尤为明显,而在漫反射材料中,环境往往会引起微妙的温度变化,而非值的变化,以保持相对值关系正确。
Fig. 4. The shape of the light source can be seen in the specular reflection, in this case a star shape.
图 4. 光源的形状可以在镜面反射中看到,本例中为星形。
Fig. 5. (above) If the corner pocket moved, the angle at which you would need to hit the ball against the wall would change.
图 5(上)如果角袋移动,您需要击球撞墙的角度会发生变化。
Fig. 6. (opposite) The highlight moves with the viewer. The light that forms the specular highlight reaches the eye in its current position at an angle equal and opposite its path to the object.
图 6.(对面)突出部分随观察者移动。形成镜面反射的光线以与其到达物体路径相等且相反的角度到达眼睛的当前位置。
Diffuse reflection is often misunderstood as only being the smoothness of the surface, this only determines how blurry the highlight is, not how mirror like it is. For example, even if you polish marble and make it perfectly smooth, it will never turn into a mirror because light is still scattering inside the object. Some of the wavelengths are also absorbed, and because of this only a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is reflected back to the eye. This is what causes colored diffuse objects, but the specular highlight will not be colored in itself.
Colored metals, on the other hand, derive their colored reflections from an entirely different process relating to the absorption of photons by electrons. Non-colored metals have free electrons that reflect light at the same wavelength as the original light.

Fig. 7. In diffuse reflection, light enters the object, scatters inside and bounces multiple times, and then exits.
图 7. 在漫反射中,光线进入物体,内部散射并多次反射,然后离开。
Fig. 8. As the material is polished the highlight becomes more focused, but the material will never turn into a mirror.
图 8. 随着材料被打磨,高光变得更加集中,但材料永远不会变成镜子。
Since metals don't let any light inside the surface and have no diffuse component they are used to make mirrors. You can have a mirror with an uneven surface, thus a reflection that acts partially diffusely, but it is still not a diffuse material since no light goes inside.

How can we use this information practically in our paintings? Skin shows both types reflections at once, specular as well as diffuse. Here's the secret to using these principles effectively while painting: The highlights will dance down the form where two planes meet, the point at which the angle will reflect the light back into our eye. You can use this to confidently show form and express the details of the structural makeup of the face.

Fig. 9. A specular reflection can start to act diffusely and become blurry because of an uneven surface. This is known as surface roughness. The light is still reflecting based on the normal of the plane it hits, but microfacets on the surface cause the directionality of the specular to become less focused.
图 9. 由于表面不平整,镜面反射可能开始表现出漫反射并变得模糊。这被称为表面粗糙度。光仍然基于其所击中平面的法线进行反射,但表面上的微小面使得镜面的方向性变得不那么集中。

Fig. 10. A metallic material with a high surface roughness causes the reflection to become more diffuse, but light is still not going inside the surface and scattering.
图 10. 表面粗糙度高的金属材料会使反射变得更加散射,但光仍未进入表面并散射。

Fig. 11. Observe the areas where the speculars are present on the different forms in the same lighting condition.
图 11. 观察在相同光照条件下不同形式上存在镜面反射的区域。
Fig. 12. (opposite) Speculars tend to reflect back most where the planes meet.
图 12.(对面)镜面反射往往在平面相遇处反射最多。
Fig. 13. (above) John Singer Sargent Young Girl Wearing a White Muslin Blouse, 1885. The right side has the specular highlights accentuated. The nose has a prominent specular due to the fast plane change.
图 13.(上)约翰·辛格·萨金特《穿白色薄纱衬衫的年轻女孩》,1885 年。右侧突出了镜面高光。由于快速平面变化,鼻子有明显的镜面反射。
You can design these shapes in a way that is best to both make an interesting design compositionally as well as to show the structure of what you are painting. The better your knowledge of the planes of the face, the more confidently you can place the speculars where the planes meet. As the highlight gets further down and further from the light source, it will get darker, but it will never enter midtone territory (see chapter 2 on the Oreo Cookie Theory).
你可以设计这些形状,以最佳方式进行有趣的设计构图,同时展示你所绘制的结构。你对面部平面的了解越深,就越能自信地将高光放在平面相遇的地方。随着高光向下移动并远离光源,它会变暗,但永远不会进入中间色调领域(参见《奥利奥饼干理论》第 2 章)。

Fig. 16. Joaquin Sorolla Portrait of John Gibson, R.A., ca. 1850 .
图 16. 约阿金·索罗拉肖像约翰·吉布森,R.A.,约 1850 年。
Fig. 18. For a free download of this planar head for reference, head to: https://gumroad.com/I/bkSqw

Fig. 21. Abbot Handerson Thayer Brother and Sister (Mary and Gerald Thayer), 1889
图 21. 阿博特·汉德森·塞耶尔《兄妹》(玛丽和杰拉尔德·塞耶尔),1889 年


Hierarchies of value and color in our paintings are so important and a hierarchy of edges adds a whole other dimension. Edges are particularly fun because we can use a mental checklist to sort out which should be hard, soft, and everything in between.
  1. Where very similar values meet, it feels like a soft edge, and this can be accentuated to what is known as a "lost edge." Edges are strongly related to value. Remember that edges are relative, a soft edge from one painting can read as a hard edge in another. We can think of them as being part of a scale from 1-10 just like we would with value. The main idea is that there is no such thing as a "hard edge" independent of its context in a hierarchy.
    当非常相似的价值相遇时,感觉就像是一个柔和的边缘,这可以被强调为所谓的“失去的边缘”。边缘与价值密切相关。记住,边缘是相对的,一个画作中的柔和边缘在另一个画作中可能被解读为硬边缘。我们可以将它们看作是从 1 到 10 的一个尺度的一部分,就像我们对待价值一样。主要观点是,独立于在等级制度中的上下文,不存在所谓的“硬边缘”。
Fig. 1. A sphere against a background is a good way to start to observe edges due to the integration of the environment
图 1. 一个球体在背景下是开始观察边缘的好方法,这是由于环境的整合。
In the following page are examples that show this principle in action, one where the similar values of the shadows create lost edges, and one where the similar values of the midtones create lost edges. This should make clear the close relationship between edges and values. Exposure determines the method of compression, the compression determines the values, and the values influence the choice of edge handling. In the John Singer Sargent example, notice how the dark values get lost into the shadow entirely and how the arm in the academic study by Abbot Handerson Thayer gets lost into the torso.
Fig. 2. Lost edges occur where values become very close.
图 2. 当数值变得非常接近时,丢失边缘会发生。
Fig. 3. John Singer Sargent A Spanish Figure, ca. 1879-1880.
图 3. 约翰·辛格·萨金特 西班牙人物,约 1879-1880 年。
Fig. 4. Abbot Handerson Thayer Male Torso, ca. 1880.
图 4. 阿博特·汉德森·塞耶尔男性躯干,约 1880 年。
"Exposure determines the method of compression, the compression determines the values, and the values influence the choice of edge handling."
  1. Where very different values meet, the edge feels harder. For example, a dark tree against a bright noon sky will have hard edges. Another situation where this principle can be found is where a dark shadow is cast over a bright specular highlight, the value contrast will often make it one of the hardest edges in the hierarchy. Often, to increase the perceptual edge hardness even further, the contrast can be increased along the edge. If you have ever used the unsharp mask filter in Photoshop, this operates under the same principle. Try sharpening an image in Photoshop and notice what happens to the values.
    当非常不同的价值相遇时,边缘会感觉更加硬。例如,在明亮的正午天空下,一棵黑暗的树会有硬边缘。另一个可以找到这个原则的情况是,当黑暗的阴影投射在明亮的高光上时,价值对比通常会使其成为等级中最硬的边缘之一。通常,为了进一步增加感知边缘的硬度,可以沿边缘增加对比度。如果你曾经在 Photoshop 中使用过非锐化掩模滤镜,它就是根据同样的原则操作的。尝试在 Photoshop 中对图像进行锐化,注意价值发生的变化。
Fig. 5. Isaac Levitan Trunk of Burgeoning Oak, 1882. The shadowed branches have hard edges against the sky.
图 5. 伊萨克·列维坦《新生橡树的树干》,1882 年。阴影下的树枝在天空中有硬边。
Fig. 6. Walter Ernest Webster Puppets, (1878-1959). Notice how hard the edge of the light on her soulder is against the background (and notice the lost edges from close values as well.) The cast shadow from her eye onto the highlight on her nose creates another hard edge. See Chapter 4, fig. 13, for another example of this effect from the cast shadow under the nose.
图 6. 沃尔特·欧内斯特·韦伯特木偶,(1878-1959 年)。注意她肩膀上的光线边缘与背景的对比(以及近似值的失落边缘)。她眼睛投射到鼻子高光上的投影阴影形成另一个硬边缘。参见第 4 章,图 13,另一个来自鼻子下的投影阴影的例子。
  1. Edges are softer in the shadow, and harder in the light. Here's an example from Umberto Coromaldi, notice how the edges inside the shadow area from his hat, made up of ambient occlusion and secondary light bounces, are overall softer than the edges in the light side. Often the specular highlight, such as on the hat and nose, will be one of the hardest edges, depending on the focus of the painting.

    Fig. 7. (across) Umberto Coromaldi, Camice Rosse (Red Shirts), 1898
    图 7.(跨越)乌贝托·科罗马尔迪,红衫军,1898
Fig. 8. (above) The hard edge from the cast shadow of the hat onto the specular highlight on the nose is another example of the previous principle.
图 8:(上图)帽子的投影阴影在鼻子的高光上形成的硬边是前述原则的另一个例子。
Fig. 9. Edge 1 appears extra hard because of relative value contrast, while edge 2 appears extra soft.
图 9. 由于相对值对比,边缘 1 看起来更加硬,而边缘 2 看起来更加柔软。

  1. Scenes with lower light levels will have softer edges in general.
  1. Form shadows (when the form rolls away from the light) are soft, and the slower the plane turns, the softer the edge. For example, in this academic painting by Abbot Handerson Thayer, the form shadow gets tighter at the wrist to describe the box-like form, and softens up towards the deltoid to describe its roundness.
Fig. 12. 1 shows the soft form shadow and 2 shows the harder cast shadow.
图 12.1 显示了柔和的形态阴影,2 显示了更硬的投影阴影。
Fig. 13. The degree of hardness of form shadows depends on how fast the form turns.
图 13. 形体阴影的硬度程度取决于形体转动的速度。
Hardness falls off as distance increases
Fig. 14. Shadows become softer the further they are from the shadow caster.
图 14. 阴影离阴影投射者越远,阴影就会变得更柔和。
  1. Cast shadows (when light is blocked by an object) from a small light source or the sun are hard, and gradually get softer as the distance from the shadow caster increases.
Fig. 15. Joaquín Sorolla Portrait of John Gibson, R.A., ca. 1850.
图 15. 约阿金·索罗拉肖像画约翰·吉布森,R.A.,约 1850 年。
Fig. 16. The cast shadow from the cube on the ground is harder than the cast shadow from the cube in the air.
图 16. 立方体在地面上的投影比在空中的投影更硬。
Fig. 17. Vlaho Bukovac Self Portrait, 1914.
图 17. 弗拉霍·布科瓦克自画像,1914 年。
  1. Softer edges tend to give an overall effect of motion rather than a moment frozen in time. Notice how the soft edges in this portrait by Vlaho Bukovac give it a sense of life, and how the Sargent sketch in figure 18 feels like it has more movement than the finished version.
    较柔和的边缘往往会产生整体动态效果,而不是时间定格的瞬间。请注意 Vlaho Bukovac 的这幅肖像中柔和的边缘如何赋予其生命感,以及图 18 中 Sargent 的速写感觉比成品更具动感。
  2. Edges can be used to show material differences. Hair, fur, and delicate cloth will have softer edges compared to metal, for example. Notice how in these Sargent paintings the hair and fabric have softer edges than the skin.
This is non exhaustive! For example, edges can also simulate lens effects such as depth of field. This is not a list of rules, and using these principles creatively for the composition is most important, but take advantage of simple effective principles where you can find them. Again, edges are part of a hierarchy and a soft edge from one painting could read as a hard edge in another. Everything is relative, so compare!
Fig. 18. John Singer Sargent Madame Edouard Pailleron, 1879.
图 18. 约翰·辛格·萨金特 夫人埃德华·帕耶隆,1879 年。
Fig. 19. John Singer Sargent Madame Errazuriz, ca. 1880-1802.
图 19. 约翰·辛格·萨金特 夏娃·埃拉苏里斯夫人,约 1880-1802 年。



Abstract 摘要

Non-literal design principles that operate based on feeling. Independent of the object depicted.

Ambient occlusion 环境光遮蔽

Darkening of areas where light is less likely to reach, such as wrinkles and crevasses. Important for overcast lighting situations and also rendering inside the shadows, depending on the exposure.


Chiaroscuro 明暗对比

A style of modelling popular in the Baroque period by artists such a Caravaggio characterized by high contrast light and shade. An example of exposing for the light for dramatic effect and a good introduction to clearly separating light from shadow. Good for showing form.

Comparative 比较

A manner of working based on relationships and not absolute transcription of information.

Composition 作文

A designed arrangement of abstract parts, either representational or non-representational, used to communicate a larger idea.

Compression 压缩

The act of reducing information while keeping relationships the same.

Contrast 对比

The juxtaposition of two different states. Can refer to value, edge, color, narrative, psychological, etc. The degree of difference is relative based on comparison.


Diffuse reflection 漫反射

When light rays are scattered in multiple directions rather than equal and opposite the approaching angle as in specular reflection.

Direct light 直射光

A lighting condition with a small or powerful light source causing a clear separation between light and shade. A wide choice of exposure is possible, accentuating either bounce light or form in the midtones. See: overcast

Directional light 定向光

A light that emits parallel rays, such as the sun. The sun behaves this way, and not like a point light, because it is so large and far away.


Exposure 曝光

The amount of light let into the eye, or in photography, the camera sensor or film. Exposure determines the relative value relationships achieved through compression.


Fall of light 光的陨落

The subtle range of value in the midtones wherea point light falls off in intensity. Falloff is determined by the inverse-square law.

Focal point 焦点

Usually the area of greatest contrast in a composition, either value, edge, color, narrative, psychological, etc.

Halftones 半色调

The area which is hit by light excluding the specular highlights. When exposing for the light, subtle form modelling happens in this value range. Also known as midtones.

Hard edge 硬边

Where areas of very different value meet without much gradation.

Harmony 和谐

The simultaneous combination of separate parts for pleasing effect. Underlying themes that link otherwise separate elements lead to harmony.


High Dynamic Range, often refers to a fake method of photography achieving a large amount of information in both the light and shadow by combining standard exposures.

Hierarchy 等级制

A method of organization with cascading degrees of importance.

High key 高调

An image that has a higher proportion of light values than dark values.


Impressionism 印象派

A 19th-century style of painting characterized by faithful reproductions of light and the retinal image. Often uses overcast light and shadow exposure to make room for color effects and minimize form, although exposing for the light was also used.
19 世纪的绘画风格,以忠实再现光线和视网膜图像为特征。通常使用阴天光线和阴影曝光来为色彩效果腾出空间并减少形式,尽管也使用曝光光线。


Refers either to the design consideration of the overall lightness or darkess of an image (see: high key and low key), or the point at which the exposure and relative value relationships are set (as in keying the image to a certain value).

Lights 灯光

The area including the halftones and the specular highlights.

Lost edge 失去优势

An area of similar value between two objects that cause them to perceptually merge.

Low key 低调

An image that has a higher proportion of dark values than light values.


Macro 宏观

The big picture elements, usually referring to the composition or design as a whole

Metals 金属

Materials that don't allow light to penetrate the surface

Micro 微观

The individual elements that comprise the larger composition or design

Microfacet 微面元

A model for computing surface roughness based on the degree to which surface normals deviate from the smooth surface.

Narrative 叙述

Suggestive of a story or emotion beyond the immediate.

Normal 正常

An imaginary line perpendicular to a plane. Useful for plotting speculars and determining the value of each plane.


Overcast 阴天

A lighting condition where light is scattered to a high degree minimizing contrasts of light and shade and accentuating local color, ambient occlusion, and silhouette. See: direct light

Point light 点光

A source of light that emits light rays equally in all directions, like a lightbulb.

Psychological interest 心理兴趣

Refers to elements of a composition with a human component, such as hands, faces, expressions, etc.

Roughness 粗糙

The degree of uniformity of a surface, the greater the roughness the blurrier the reflection.

Scattering 散射

When light encounters something that causes it to change directions and deviate from a straight trajectory. In many materials with a high diffuse component, scattering mostly takes place under the surface.

Shadow 阴影

Area where light rays are occluded. Lit only by secondary sources of illumination such as bounce lighting and another light source.

Shape 形状

One of the major building blocks of composition, an area of controlled contrast that can be distinguished as a self-contained discrete element or field. Can be expressed abstractly through outline or visually through mass and tone. Areas of similar tone will merge to an abstract 2D shape.

Soft edge 柔边

A transition between two different values with moderate degree of gradation compared to a hard edge.

Specular highlight 镜面高光

A mirror-like reflection of the light source where the light ray's angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. Often the lightest value group in skin tones. The color and blurriness of the reflection depends on material properties.


SPECIAL THANKS TO 特别感谢Josh Korwin https://www.instagram.com/threestepsaheadsignco/
Josh Korwin https://www.instagram.com/threestepsaheadsignco/ 乔什·科温 https://www.instagram.com/threestepsaheadsignco/
Olly Lawson https://ollylawson.co.uk/Andrew Sonea http://andrewsonea.com/
安德鲁·索尼亚 http://andrewsonea.com/
Ramón Hurtado https://www.instagram.com/ramon.alex.hurtado/
Ramón Hurtado https://www.instagram.com/ramon.alex.hurtado/ 拉蒙·乌尔塔多 https://www.instagram.com/ramon.alex.hurtado/

Harold Speed The Practice and Science of Drawing, Oil Painting Techniques and Materials John H. Vanderpoel The Human Figure
Solomon J. Solomon The Practice of Oil Painting and Drawing James Gurney Color and Light: A Guide for the Realist Painter Robert Fawcett On the Art of Drawing Steve Huston Figure Drawing for Artists John Collier A Manual of Oil Painting Frank Fowler Drawing in Charcoal & Crayon
所罗门·J·所罗门《油画与素描实践》 詹姆斯·格尼《色彩与光线:写实画家指南》 罗伯特·福塞特《素描艺术论》 史蒂夫·休斯顿《艺术家的人物素描》 约翰·科利尔《油画手册》 弗兰克·福勒《炭笔与蜡笔素描》
Evan Charteris John Sargent
埃文·查特里斯 约翰·萨金特
John Milner The Studios Of Paris: The Capital Of Art In The Late Nineteenth Century Andreas Bluhm Light!: The Industrial Age 1750-1900, Art & Science, Technology & Society Emmanuel Schwartz Gods and Heroes: Masterpieces from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris Mau-Kun Yim Lessons in Masterful Portrait Drawing: A Classical Approach to Drawing the Head Richard Schmid Alla Prima: Everything I Know About Painting
约翰·米尔纳《巴黎工作室:19 世纪晚期的艺术之都》 安德烈亚斯·布卢姆《光!:工业时代 1750-1900,艺术与科学,技术与社会》 埃曼纽尔·施瓦茨《众神与英雄:巴黎美术学院的杰作》 嚴茂坤《精湛肖像画课:绘制头部的古典方法》 理查德·施密德《湿法:我对绘画的全部了解》
Rosemary J. Barrow Lawrence Alma Tadema
罗斯玛丽·J·巴罗 劳伦斯·阿尔玛·塔德玛

Craig Mullins 克雷格·穆林斯

Gnomon Masterclass: Traditional Art Values Applied to Digital Art
David Briggs 大卫·布里格斯
Ramón Hurtado 拉蒙·乌尔塔多
Studio Gossip: Conversations on Academic Drawing 1870-1889
工作室八卦:学术绘画对话 1870-1889
Thomas Scholes 托马斯·斯科尔斯
Method for Checking Values

    1. Charteris, Evan. (1927). John Sargent. (p. 28)
      查特里斯,埃文。 (1927 年)。 约翰·萨金特。 (第 28 页)