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F. Kingdon Ward

Map follows page 272.
地图如下第 272 页。

IT seems at first sight rather curious that the earlier travellers in western China should have had so little to say about the snow mountains of Yunnan. The reasons however are simple. Travellers as a rule have chosen the summer months for their journeys through so mountainous a country, when the snow peaks are usually veiled. Since at this season on any given route they may be visible only for a day or two at a time, unless one is favoured by fortune, it is easy to pass close to a great range without even suspecting its existence. Thus Gill, crossing the Paima La, south of Atuntze, on September 1877, makes no mention of the snowy range on his right only a few miles distant, though on a fine day the peaks and glaciers are very conspicuous. "As for the rain and fog ,"he writes, "except for five minutes. rain fell and fog enveloped us incessantly the whole day "('The River of Golden Sand, ' vol. 2)
乍一看,这似乎很奇怪,早期中国西部的旅行者对云南的雪山竟然没有什么可说的。然而原因很简单。旅行者通常会选择夏季来穿越这个多山的国家,此时雪峰通常被遮盖起来。因为在这个季节,在任何给定的路线上,它们一次只能看到一两天,除非运气好,否则很容易靠近很大的范围,甚至不会怀疑它的存在。因此,1877 年 9 月,吉尔在穿越阿通策 (Atuntze) 以南的派玛拉 (Paima La) 河时,没有提及右侧几英里外的雪岭,尽管在晴朗的日子里,山峰和冰川非常引人注目。 “至于雨和雾,”他写道,“除了五分钟之外,一整天都下雨了,雾气不断地笼罩着我们。”(《金沙江》第2卷)

There is another reason. Many of the trade routes in the north-west corner of the province, where the snow ranges are situated, are confined for long distances to the deep river gorges. The high ranges for the most part rise abruptly above the rivers, and only an occasional glimpse of the snow peaks is obtained from below Unless one is spending some time in the country, therefore, the chance of seeing them is remote at best one is likely to pass on with only a vague idea of their position, height, and extent. So Cooper, in 1868, when travelling from Atuntze to the Mekong, failed to see Kakarpo, which, during the latter half of the descent, fills the mouth of the Atuntze valley, and again becomes visible for a few minutes only further down the Mekong. Similarly, M. Bacot, who visited Gongkaling (Congkaling on his map) in 1909, departed ignorant of the fine snowy range which must almost overlook the monastery. He remarks that on the day he was there the sky was overcast and rain fell-an event so rare at that season as to cause comment He was particularly unlucky. Not so long ago, as geological time is reckoned, it must have been quite impossible to traverse Yunnan without seeing snow peaks on every hand. One can picture the remarkable spectacle in the north-west, where glaciers crawled down every range to at least as low as 10,000 feet, and in many cases must have entered the Mekong itself. At that time too the rivers must have flowed at a higher level, and it is possible that glaciers reached the Salween, and the Yangtze also. But the ice has steadily retreated till now the snowy ranges are well defined, the snow peaks isolated.
还有另一个原因。该省西北角有积雪,许多贸易路线都局限于深河峡谷。大部分高山突然上升到河流上方,只能偶尔从下面瞥见雪峰。因此,除非在乡下待一段时间,否则看到雪峰的机会微乎其微。传递时只对它们的位置、高度和范围有一个模糊的概念。因此,库珀在 1868 年从阿通策 (Atuntze) 前往湄公河时,未能看到卡卡波 (Kakarpo),在下降的后半程中,卡卡波 (Kakarpo) 填满了阿通策 (Atuntze) 山谷的河口,并在湄公河下游几分钟内再次可见。 。同样,巴科特先生于 1909 年访问贡卡林(他的地图上是贡卡林),离开时对那片细雪山脉一无所知,那里几乎可以俯瞰这座寺院。他说,他去的那天,天阴沉沉的,还下着雨,这在那个季节很少见,以至于引起了评论说他特别倒霉。不久之前,按照地质年代计算,穿越云南肯定是不可能不看到到处都是雪峰的。人们可以想象西北部的壮观景象,那里的冰川沿着每一个山脉爬行,低至至少 10,000 英尺,在许多情况下肯定已经进入了湄公河本身。那时河流的水位也一定较高,冰川有可能到达萨尔温江,也可能到达长江。但冰层已经稳步消退,直到现在,雪域轮廓分明,雪峰孤立无援。

Even so, and despite the attention paid to Yunnan by recent explorers little is known of the snow mountains of Yunnan. The heights of the great peaks are mere matters of estimation. No one has ever climbed a snow peak in Yunnan-or in Szechwan either. Their positions on the map, when recognized at all, are often wrong, their extent vague.

The standard map of Yunnan is that by General H. R. Davies. On this map however no snow peaks are marked, though several are referred to in Davies' book, Yunnan; the Link between India and China.' The relationships of Yunnan and Szechwan to adjacent regions are well shown on the map of Tibet published by the Survey of India; but the 1919 edition does not credit Yunnan with a single snow peak, its compilers evidently being quite blinded by the glitter of the Himalaya. In vindication, therefore, I am tempted to write these notes-a summary of observations made during journeys undertaken in 1911, 1913-14, and 1921-22-put together in the hope that they may be of use to future explorers and climbers, since western China will certainly attract scientific travellers in larger numbers in the future.
云南的标准地图是 H. R. 戴维斯 (H. R. Davies) 将军绘制的。然而,在这张地图上,没有标出雪峰,尽管戴维斯的书《云南》中提到了几座雪峰;印度和中国之间的联系。印度测绘局出版的西藏地图清楚地表明了云南、四川与邻近地区的关系;但 1919 年版本并未将云南的一座雪峰归功于其,其编者显然被喜马拉雅山的光芒蒙蔽了双眼。因此,为了证明自己的正确性,我很想写下这些笔记——对 1911 年、1913 年 14 月和 1921 年 22 年旅行期间所进行的观察进行的总结——放在一起,希望它们对未来的探险家和登山者有用,因为未来中国西部肯定会吸引更多的科学旅行者。

The snow ranges of Yunnan are a prolongation southwards of uplifts which have their origin in Tibet. They have in the past been regarded as spurs of the Tibetan plateau; view which, whatever meaning may be attached to the word "spur," is certainly wrong. Some of them at any rate are independent uplifts. These parallel ranges grow lower in the south, and more dissected so that in Yunnan, the groups of snow peaks are at the ends of well-defined ranges, and are neither so lofty nor so numerous as they are in Tibet itself.

The present snow peaks can hardly be considered apart from the glaciated ranges of which they are the culminating points and I shall have frequent occasion in the course of this survey to refer to past glaciation. I will begin with the Likiang range, because that is the first snow range likely to be encountered by travellers from the Burma side. Probably it is the most southerly group of snow peaks in Yunnan, though the Tali range, 70 miles to the south, must have been recently glaciated.
目前的雪峰几乎不能与冰川山脉分开来考虑,它们是冰川山脉的最高点,在这次调查过程中我将经常提到过去的冰川作用。我将从丽江山脉开始,因为那是来自缅甸一侧的旅行者可能遇到的第一个雪域。它可能是云南最南端的雪峰群,尽管以南 70 英里的塔里山脉肯定是最近才被冰川覆盖的。

The Likiang Range. -The French traveller Gervais-Courtellemont seems to have been the first to notice the Likiang snow peaks, though several travellers must have been in a position to see them, had the conditions been favourable, long before 1898. Following the main road northwards from Tali to Weisi or Likiang, a good view of them is obtained from the head of the Kienchwan valley. An even better view is obtained from the neighbourhood of Yungpeh, in the east, when the whole extent of the southern range is revealed, from the southernmost peak which rises from the head of the Likiang valley, to the gap in the north where the Yangtze cuts its way through.
丽江山脉。 - 法国旅行家 Gervais-Courtellemont 似乎是第一个注意到丽江雪峰的人,尽管早在 1898 年之前,如果条件有利的话,一定有几位旅行者能够看到它们。沿着大理的主要道路向北行驶到维西或丽江,从Kienchwan山谷的顶部可以看到很好的景色。从东部的永北附近可以看到更好的景色,此时整个南部山脉的范围都被展现出来,从丽江河谷顶部升起的最南端山峰,一直到长江流域的北部缺口。切开一条路。

After the discovery of the great Yangtze loop round Likiang, it was assumed that the snowy range (though not then recognized as such) was responsible for this. The river, so it was asserted, had been turned aside by this obstacle, and forced to flow round its end. Unfortunately for this comfortable theory, the axis of the Likiang range lies north and south, while the Yangtze here flows north-north-east, thus cutting clean across it the range is in fact continued beyond the Yangtze, which flows through it at the bottom of a profound gorge.

The Likiang range, on Handel-Mazzetti's map published in Vienna in 1919, for the first time receives a definite name-Yülung Shan. He gives the altitude of the main summit(Satseto) as 5900 metres, subsequently reduced to 5815 metres; and in a letter he informs me that this height was obtained by "photogrammetric construction over Lidjiang (Likiang) 3340 metres." It is unlikely that the highest summit is under 19,000 feet, or that it attains 20,000 feet.*
1919年在维也纳出版的亨德尔-马泽蒂地图上,丽江山脉首次有了一个明确的名称——玉龙山。他给出的主峰(Satseto)海拔为 5900 米,随后降低至 5815 米;他在一封信中告诉我,这个高度是通过“丽江(丽江)3340米的摄影测量施工”获得的。最高峰不太可能低于 19,000 英尺,也不太可能达到 20,000 英尺。*

The Likiang range is crossed at its southern end (at Kan-hai-tzu, "dry lake") by the main road to Chungtien which after crossing the Yangtze follows its western foot. The main road to Yungning, on the other hand, passes through the centre of the Yangtze loop, following the eastern foot of the range and gradually diverging from it. On the first two days the glacier torrents Pai-shui Ho and He-shui Ho are crossed. From Minying, reached on the fourth day, a road crosses the mountains to Taku, on the Yangtze, whence Chungtien may be reached by a road along the eastern foot of the snows.

The big glacier which feeds the Paishui on the east flank of the range has retreated some miles, and is evidently still in retreat; and the same is true of the other glaciers. The lake at Kan-hai-tzu has virtually disappeared, and so has a lake on the east flank, immediately south of the Paishui. A lake at the head of the Likiang valley has shrunk till it is now little more than a marsh while the valley or plain of Likiang itself is obviously the bed of a former lake. The level strata of gravel and sand on the floor, containing lacustrine shells, prove that. The Likiang range was marked correctly as snowy range on the map of Tibet and Adjacent Regions published by the Survey of India in 1914. For some curious reason it was removed from the 1919 edition, yet it is some 40 miles in length. Unlike most of the snow peaks of Yunnan, the Likiang range is composed mainly of limestone.
山脉东侧排水的大冰川已经后退了几英里,而且显然仍在后退中。其他冰川也是如此。坎海子的湖实际上已经消失了,排水以南东侧的一个湖也消失了。丽江河谷顶端的一个湖泊已经萎缩,现在只剩下一片沼泽,而丽江河谷或平原本身显然是一个以前的湖的河床。地面上的砾石和沙子的水平地层含有湖相贝壳,证明了这一点。 1914 年印度测量局出版的《西藏及邻近地区地图》中,丽江山脉被正确标记为雪域。出于某种奇怪的原因,它从 1919 年版中被删除,但它的长度却约有 40 英里。与云南大部分雪峰不同,丽江山脉主要由石灰岩组成。

Kakarpo.-Neither Cooper nor Gill mentions these peaks. M. Roux, whom Prince Henry, when at Tzeku, had sent up to Atuntze, sighted "the three snow peaks of Dokar La, with its fine glaciers, on the right bank of the Mekong, and estimated their height at about 17,875 feet" ( ‘ From Tonkin to India,’ Prince Henry of Orleans). Davies and Ryder saw two of the peaks from the Dong Gorge just north of Atuntze, and calculated them at 20,000 feet by clinometer observation. Handel-Mazzetti on his map marks them " about 6000 metres." Prof. J.W. Gregory, on the other hand, who saw them only from a considerable distance, estimated the highest peak at 24,000 feet. Considering that the rainfall on Kakarpo is probably much heavier than on Paima Shan, it is quite unlikely that the highest peak exceeds 22,000 feet.
卡卡波-库珀和吉尔都没有提到这些山峰。亨利王子在泽库时派鲁克斯先生前往阿通泽,他看到“湄公河右岸多卡尔拉的三座雪峰及其精美的冰川,估计它们的高度约为 17,875 英尺” (“从东京到印度”,奥尔良亨利王子)。戴维斯和莱德在阿通策以北的东峡谷看到了两座山峰,并通过测角仪观测计算出它们在 20,000 英尺处的高度。亨德尔-马泽蒂在他的地图上标记了它们“大约 6000 米”。 J.W.教授另一方面,格雷戈里只能从相当远的距离看到它们,估计最高峰为 24,000 英尺。考虑到卡卡波的降雨量可能比派马山多得多,因此最高峰不太可能超过 22,000 英尺。

The Kakarpo range extends for about 30 miles from north to south between lats. 28°45' and 28°15', forming part of the Mekong-Salween divide. The range is crossed at its southern end by the Dokar La, and at its northern end by the Chu La, each pass being overshadowe by a snow peak. From above Atuntze six snow peaks are revealed, one of which-the southernmost and highest-is itself a triple peak. This type of peak, a central pyramid flanked by two smaller teeth, common in Yunnan. The central peaks of the range are almost due west of Atuntze, and are well seen from the high peak west of that village. An even better view is obtained from Paima Shan. Again, some of the peaks are visible from the valley of the Yü Chu, and one at least from Trana, just below Menkung, in the Salween valley. Kakarpo, in fact, is a sacred mountain, and one or other of its half-dozen peaks is in view from almost any point on the circuit followed by the pilgrims.
卡卡波山脉在纬度之间从北向南延伸约 30 英里。 28°45'和28°15',构成湄公河-萨尔温江分水岭的一部分。该山脉的南端是多卡拉河,北端是楚拉河,每一个山口都被一座雪峰遮蔽。从阿通策上方可以看到六座雪峰,其中最南端、最高的一座本身就是一座三重山峰。这种类型的山峰,中央呈金字塔形,两侧有两个较小的牙齿,在云南很常见。该山脉的中心山峰几乎位于阿通策的正西,从该村庄西边的高峰可以清楚地看到。排马山的景色更美。同样,从玉珠河谷可以看到一些山峰,至少可以从萨尔温江河谷孟贡下方的特拉纳看到其中一座山峰。事实上,卡卡波是一座神圣的山,从朝圣者所走的路线上的几乎任何一点都可以看到它的六座山峰中的一座或另一座。

When crossing the Dokar La I glimpsed the big glacier which dis- charges a torrent into the Salween at Lakorah. But there appears to be no record of the appearance of these glaciers on the western flank, or of the peaks: doubtless owing to the inaccessible nature of the Salween-Irrawaddy divide.

From the Dokar La it is a simple matter to reach the foot of the southernmost glacier and approach the highest peak. Similarly the most northern peak could be climbed from the Chu La.
从多卡拉到达最南端的冰川脚下并接近最高峰是一件简单的事情。同样,最北的山峰也可以从 Chu La 攀登。

M. Bacot, when crossing the Dokar La in 1910, caught sight of the glaciers of Kakarpo. He does not, however, call the mountain by that name, but speaks of a saint named Koa Kerbo, who some centuries ago lived (so it is alleged) amidst the desolate snows; hence the name of the mountain, henceforth sacred ( ' Dans les Marches Tibetaines,' J. Bacot). But Karpo ("dkar po," དཀར་པོ་ ) means "white" and "Ka"('k'a ཁ ) means "snow," a description attached to many otherwise nameless snow peaks in eastern Tibet; for instance, Kangri Karpo. This therefore seems to be the more simple explanation of the name. new edition of the Indian Survey map, and no longer figures as a shon Like the Likiang peak, Kakarpo has had its plumes cropped on the peak. The range appears to be composed chiefly of granite.
1910 年,M. Bacot 在穿越多卡尔拉河时,看到了卡卡波冰川。然而,他并没有用这个名字来称呼这座山,而是提到了一位名叫 Koa Kerbo 的圣人,几个世纪前,他生活在(据称)荒凉的雪地之中。因此,这座山的名字从此成为神圣的(“Dans les MarchesTibetaines”,J.Bacot)。但卡波(“dkar po”,དཀར་པོ་)的意思是“白色”,“Ka”('k'a ཁ)的意思是“雪”,这是对西藏东部许多无名雪峰的描述;例如康日噶波。因此,这似乎是对该名称的更简单的解释。新版印度测量地图,不再显示为“短”像丽江峰一样,卡卡波峰的羽毛被剪掉了。该山脉似乎主要由花岗岩组成。

Paima Shan is a snowy range, part of the Mekong-Yangtze divide between lat. 28°10' and lat. 28°25'. It does not exceed 15 miles in length, with four or five snow summits. On the west flank there appear to be no glaciers. From those on the east flank rises the Kari river. They all show signs of long-continued retreat, which is still in progress. A good view of the whole range is obtained from the high plateau between the Mienchu La and the Paima La, on the route between Tungkhuling and Atuntze. The view from Kakarpo is more distant and less convincing. Indeed, from this direction they would hardly pass for snow peaks but for the fact that one of the glaciers of Tsaya, the highest peak, is just visible.
派马山是一片雪域,是湄公河与长江分水岭的一部分。 28°10' 和纬度。 28°25'。它的长度不超过15英里,有四五个雪峰。西侧似乎没有冰川。卡里河从东侧发源。它们都显示出长期持续撤退的迹象,而且仍在进行中。在通古林和阿通策之间的缅楚拉和派玛拉之间的高原上,可以看到整个山脉的美景。卡卡波(Kakarpo)的景色更遥远,也更不那么令人信服。事实上,从这个方向看,它们几乎不会被误认为是雪峰,但事实上,最高峰查亚冰川之一是清晰可见的。

There is difficult pass across the range immediately north of Tsaya, the trail crossing the foot of a glacier. On the right-hand side, i.e. north, is small "dead" glacier (or corrie glacier) facing the valley of Atuntze there is no snow peak here, however. There are three distinct glaciers on Tsaya, and two more on Omagu, the next peak to the south. Beyond Omagu are two smaller peaks, each with one glacier. All these discharge into a deep valley which runs from north to south at the western foot of the range and this stream appears to be the source of the Kari river, the evidence for which is as follows: The Kari river is formed by the confluence of two streams which unite just below the village of Kari. From this point to the Kari pass, whence one of the streams is derived is just 7 miles and to the head of the Paima Shan valley, due nortl 23 miles. From this confluence, however to the source of the main stream, as shown on Davies'map, is only 14 miles. But this main stream, from the north, is enormously greater than the stream from the Kari pass, and it is inconceivable that, with an identical rainfall, the source of the main stream is only twice as far distant as that of the small tributary descending from the Kari Pass, unless indeed it rises amongst very lofty snow peaks. For the Kari river at this point is still formid- able stream, and it has moreover all the appearance of a glacier torrent.* I may add that Dr. Handel-Mazzetti is quite of the same opinion as to the source of this stream.
查亚以北有一条艰难的山口,这条小路穿过冰川脚。右侧(即北部)是小型“死”冰川(或科里冰川),面朝 Atuntze 山谷,但这里没有雪峰。查亚 (Tsaya) 上有三座不同的冰川,南边的另一座山峰奥马古 (Omagu) 上还有两座冰川。奥马古之外有两座较小的山峰,每座山峰都有一座冰川。所有这些都流入山脉西麓从北向南延伸的深谷,这条溪流似乎是卡里河的源头,证据如下:卡里河是由两条溪流在卡里村下方汇合。从这里到卡里山口(其中一条溪流的发源地)仅 7 英里,到派马山山谷的顶端,向北 23 英里。然而,从这个汇合处到主流的源头,如戴维斯的地图所示,只有 14 英里。但这条来自北方的干流比来自卡里山口的干流要大得多,令人难以置信的是,在相同的降雨量下,干流的源头距离只有小支流的两倍远。从卡里山口出发,除非它确实在非常高的雪峰中升起。因为此时的卡里河仍然是一条令人畏惧的河流,而且它还具有冰川洪流的所有外观。*我可以补充一点,汉德尔-马泽蒂博士对于这条河流的源头有着完全相同的看法。

The only reasonable alternative is to suppose group of high snow peaks immediately south and west of Tungkhuling, from which the Kari river rises; and for this there is no evidence. The glacier stream from Paima Shan rises from the glacier on the north face of Tsaya, crossed on the way to the pass over the range. It flows at first northwards, then east round the shoulder of the pyramid leaving a glacier lake at the angle where it turns though most of the water does not flow through the lake now. While flowing east it receives the drainage of the big “ amceboid glacier on the north-east face. Finally it turns south. Streams from the limestone range east of Paima Shan flow west or south- west to join the main stream. Photograph of this mountain were published in the Geographical Fournal (48, 56, July 1916, and 56,188, September 1920). Gill writes that the Chinese name Paima Shan, or Paina Shan, is probably an attempted translation or transliteration of an old Tibetan name-a conclusion not supported by modern Tibetan nomenclature, at any rate. He adds that the present Tibetan name isn'geu-la-kasurely it ought to be N'geu' ka La), or the mountain of Atuntze ( ‘ River of Golden Sand,’ vol. 2, p. 239).
唯一合理的选择是假设紧邻通库林以南和以西的一组高雪山峰,卡里河就从那里发源;对此没有任何证据。派马山的冰川溪流从察亚山北壁的冰川中发源,在通往山脉山口的途中流过。它首先向北流动,然后绕着金字塔的肩部向东流动,在它转向的角度留下一个冰川湖,尽管现在大部分水不再流过该湖。在向东流动时,它接受了东北面大“amceboid”冰川的排水。最后转向南方。来自排马山以东石灰岩山脉的溪流向西或西南流汇入干流。这座山的照片发表在《地理杂志》上(1916 年 7 月 48、56 期,1920 年 9 月 56,188 期)。吉尔写道,中文名称“派玛山”或“派那山”可能是对一个古老藏语名称的尝试翻译或音译——无论如何,这一结论不受现代藏语命名法的支持。他补充说,现在的藏文名称是‘geu-la-ka 当然,它应该是 N’geu’ ka La),或者是 Atuntze 山(《金沙河》,第 2 卷,第 239 页)。

The entire Mekong-Yangtze divide is intensely glaciated, but these appear to be the only surviving snow peaks between Yakalo in the north and Weisiting in the south, though there are several "dead" glaciers north-east of Atuntze.

Paima Shan has never been recognized or marked as a snow peak on any map with which I am acquainted. The range seems to be composed entirely of porphyry.

Damyon is a hump of porphyry, composed indeed of the same rock as Tsaya, situated on the same range as Kakarpo, but separated from the northern Kakarpo peak by 40 miles of mountains amongst which no snow peaks are visible. There are, however, in this gap numerous dead" glaciers, one of which is shown. A photograph of the peak was published in the Geographical fournal (62, 7, July 1923).
达米翁 (Damyon) 是一个斑岩驼峰,实际上由与查亚 (Tsaya) 相同的岩石组成,与卡卡波 (Kakarpo) 位于同一山脉,但与卡卡波 (Kakarpo) 北部山峰相隔 40 英里的山脉,其中看不到雪峰。然而,在这个缺口中存在着许多“死亡”冰川,图中展示了其中一个。这张山峰的照片发表在《地理杂志》(1923 年 7 月 62 日)上。

The Damyon group is well seen from any of the passes above Yakalo, which lead from the Mekong to the Chiang Ka river, namely, from nort to south, Lhong La, Bi La, and Kia La. I crossed the Lhong La in I9II, and caught sight of Damyon, then known to me under the name Ta-miu('Land of the Blue Poppy). Bailey, crossing the Kia La in the same year, did not see them, as they were then buried in cloud but when crossed the Kia La and subsequentl the Bi La in September 1922, I had perfect view. There are only two snow peaks, connected by saddle, the southern one being the higher. Damyon has two glaciers on its south-east face, uniting below and discharging into one valley. This stream, after receiving a contribution from the Pitu La, enters the Mekong below Legong.
从湄公河到清卡河,即从北到南,Lhong La、Bi La 和 Kia La,Yakalo 上方的任何一个山口都可以清楚地看到 Damyon 群。我在 19II 年穿过了 Lhong La,并看到了达米恩,当时我知道他的名字是“蓝罂粟之地”。贝利同年穿越基亚拉河时没有看到它们,因为它们当时被埋在云中,但当 1922 年 9 月穿越基亚拉河和随后的比拉河时,我看到了完美的视野。雪峰只有两座,以马鞍相连,南面较高。达米恩 (Damyon) 东南面有两条冰川,在下方汇合并注入一个山谷。这条溪流在受到皮图拉河的贡献后,在莱贡下方注入湄公河。

The glaciers of Damyon were formerly far more extensive.The existing glacier extended many miles down the main valley, which it now scarcely reaches; and from every side valley a glacier entered the main ice stream. The Pitu La also was glaciated, and so too was the Kia La on the opposite side of the Mekong, on neither of which does so much as“dead glacier remain to tell the story.

The Damyon peak is most easily approached from Legong by following the torrent northwards up the valley. Mules can be taken almost to the foot of the glacier, but not beyond the head of the valley. The trail leads nowhere, save by a difficult path back to the Mekong. It was formerly a pilgrim route round Damyon-though as a matter of fact it impinged on, but did not make the circuit of, that mountain. The Pitu La crosses the Damyon range at its southern end. North- wards there seems to be no way across until the Ghotu La is reached; the explorer A-K crossed the Ghotu La from Sambaduka, and his information is all there is from this part. The name Damyon is neither Tibetan nor Chinese. Probably it is of Moso origin. On some maps the range is marked Kha kar po; but this is incorrect. The height of Damyon is probably about the same as that of Paima Shan-in the neighbourhood of 20,000 feet.
从勒贡 (Legong) 沿着激流向北到达山谷,最容易到达达米恩 (Damyon) 峰。骡子几乎可以被带到冰川脚下,但不能超过山谷的顶部。除了一条返回湄公河的艰难道路外,这条小路没有任何出路。它以前是一条环绕达米恩的朝圣路线——尽管事实上它触及了那座山,但没有绕行那座山。皮图拉河在其南端穿过达米恩山脉。向北似乎没有路可走,直到到达古图拉。探险家 A-K 从桑巴杜卡 (Sambaduka) 渡过古图拉 (Ghotu La),他的信息就是这部分的全部内容。达缅这个名字既不是藏语也不是汉语。可能是摩梭人的血统。在一些地图上,该范围被标记为 Kha kar po;但这是不正确的。达米昂的高度大概与排马山的高度相同——在20,000英尺左右。

Gangkaling.-Strictly speaking, the Gangkaling range is in Szechwan, not in Yunnan, though close to the provincial boundary. However, it is convenient to consider it here. The Gangkaling range comprises three needle peaks, each between 19,000 and 20,000 feet high. Their position I was able to fix with fair accuracy from two peaks on the Yungning plain, observations to which had already been taken from measured base on the plain. The peaks may also be seen from the pass at the southern end of the Yungning lake, on the road to Yungpeh, and from the cliffs above Muli. A distant view of them is also obtained from the plateau above the Litang river, to the east. The range rises west of the Sholo river, one branch of which appears to rise from the snowy peaks.
冈卡岭。-严格来说,冈卡岭山脉位于四川,而不是云南,尽管靠近省界。不过,在这里考虑也方便。 Gangkaling 山脉由三个针峰组成,每个峰高 19,000 至 20,000 英尺。我能够从永宁平原的两个山峰上相当准确地确定他们的位置,这些观测已经从平原上的测量基地进行了。从永宁湖南端的垭口、通往永北的路上以及木里上方的悬崖上也可以看到这些山峰。从东边的理塘河上方的高原也可以看到它们的远处。该山脉发源于肖洛河以西,其中一条支流似乎从白雪皑皑的山峰中拔地而起。

Davies glimpsed the Gangkaling peaks when marching from Kulu to Muli, but says nothing more about them. Bacot visited Gangka Ling monastery in 1909-apparently the first and last European to do so. He does not mention any snow peaks, though he must have been very close to them; but he writes: " II pleut, malgré la saison qui devrait être èeche. La pluie en Octobre est dans ce pays aussi singulière que le serait la neige au mois de juin en France " ( ' Le Tibet Revolté,' by J. Bacot).
戴维斯从库鲁向木里行军时瞥见了岗卡岭山峰,但没有再多说什么。巴科特于 1909 年参观了冈卡林寺,这显然是第一个也是最后一个这样做的欧洲人。他没有提到任何雪峰,尽管他一定离雪峰很近。但他写道:“II pleut, malgré la saison qui devrait être èeche. La pluie en Octobre est dans ce pays aussi singulière que le serait la neige au mois de juin en France”(《西藏起义》,J. Bacot着) 。

The range is called Gangkaling (གངས་ཁ་ལླིང་, "the snowy place"), after the monastery of that name at its foot. The names of the three peaks are said to be Gangka, Nyapo, and Soni.
该山脉被称为 Gangkaling(གངས་ཁ་ལླིང་,“雪域”),以其山脚下同名的修道院而得名。据说这三座山峰的名字分别是冈卡峰、尼亚波峰和索尼峰。

The 1919 edition of the Indian Survey's map of Tibet, which is as prolific in snow peaks for Szechwan as it is niggardly towards Yunnan, marks a big range some so miles long here height 19,000 feet. The altitude is about right, but the range is not so extensive as shown.
1919 年版的印度勘察局绘制的西藏地图上,四川的雪峰和云南的雪峰一样多,标出了一个很大的山脉,其中一些长达数英里,高度为 19,000 英尺。高度大约是正确的,但范围没有如图所示那么广泛。

Gompa La. -Of all the snow peaks in Yunnan this is the least known. It has been seen by few travellers and crossed by still fewer. No one has ever explored or climbed it. However, it is shown on Handel-Mazzetti's map of his travels in Yunnan, which is excellent as far as it goes.
Gompa La. - 在云南所有的雪峰中,这是最不为人所知的。很少有旅行者见过它,穿过它的人就更少了。没有人探索或攀登过它。然而,亨德尔-马泽蒂的云南旅行地图上显示了这一点,就其范围而言,该地图非常出色。

The Gompa La (དགོག་པ་ལ་, "monastery mountain") is on the Salween-Irrawaddy divide just above the village of Tramutang (Chamutong) on the Salween, in about lat. 28°2'. Its name is derived from the monastery of Tramutang. It is visible from several passes over the Mekong-Salween divide, notably the Londre(a pass immediately south of the Dokar La), the Nyiserrigo above Bahang, and from a low internal pass above Kieunaton. Indeed it is visible from the Salween valley itself at Tramutang-a striking tribute to the difference between the Mekong and Salween valleys.
Gompa La(དགོག་པ་ལ་,意为“寺院山”)位于萨尔温江与伊洛瓦底江分水岭上,位于萨尔温江上的 Tramutang(Chamutong)村上方,大约在 12 点左右。 28°2'。它的名字来源于 Tramutang 修道院。从湄公河-萨尔温江分水岭上的几个山口都可以看到它,特别是伦敦山口(紧邻多卡尔拉河以南的山口)、巴巷上方的尼塞里戈山口以及基尤纳顿上方的低矮内山山口。事实上,从位于 Tramutang 的萨尔温江河谷本身就可以看到它——这是对湄公河和萨尔温江河谷之间差异的显着致敬。

Gompa La appears to have escaped even the eagle eyes of the Indian surveyors, working from the Irrawaddy side, though from that direction the mountain is probably far less imposing to look at. Undoubtedl the Salween-Irrawaddy divide is invisible the greater part of the year. If a glimpse of it is obtained between January and June, it is almost impossible to discern which are snow peaks and which are not. I have however, on three occasions seen it in October and November from three different places, and am thus able to give a definite description of it, as seen from the east. There is, to begin with, only one snow peak which sends down three glaciers towards the Salween. Two of these join up below, and discharge into the main valley over a cliff. The third down. There appears to be a fourth glacier flowing north but it is in any case much smaller than the other three. On the south-west face is a single small hanging glacier, high up in a couloir.

Dr. Handel-Mazzetti, who crossed the Gompa La in the summer of 1916, writes to me that he saw no glacier on the Gompa La, and only a very small one on peak he calls Schatsakon a few miles to the south But this statement is not borne out by his own map, which shows large glacier on the Gompa La, and the veriest remnant of one on Schatsakon. The existence of this latter is doubtful, as the whole range was visible day after day in October, and I saw no trace of it.
1916 年夏天穿越 Gompa La 的 Handel-Mazzetti 博士写信给我说,他在 Gompa La 上没有看到冰川,只在南边几英里处的山峰上看到了一个很小的冰川,他称之为 Schatsakon,但这一说法他自己的地图并没有证实这一点,地图显示了 Gompa La 上的大冰川,以及 Schatsakon 上最真实的冰川遗迹。后者的存在令人怀疑,因为整个山脉在十月份日复一日地可见,但我却没有看到它的踪迹。

The height of the Gompa La can only be assumed from the height of the pass. The peak rises in an almost sheer cliff above the pass to a height of perhaps 3000 feet, giving a total height for the mountain of about 17,000 feet. The glaciers once extended much further down the valley. The Gompa La, like Tsaya and Damyon, is built up chiefly of porphyry, which rests on limestone.
寺院的高度只能根据山口的高度来推测。山峰耸立在山口上方几乎陡峭的悬崖上,高度约为 3000 英尺,因此这座山的总高度约为 17,000 英尺。冰川曾经向山谷延伸得更远。与 Tsaya 和 Damyon 一样,Gompa La 寺院主要由斑岩建成,位于石灰岩之上。

Other Snow Peaks.-There is a snow peak on the Mekong-Salween divide south of the Si La, in about lats. 27°30'-27°45'. Looking south from the mountain above Atuntze, it is quite a conspicuous object, owing to a big snowfield on the east flank.
其他雪峰-在西拉以南的湄公河-萨尔温江分水岭上有一座雪峰,大约拉特。 27°30'-27°45'。从阿通策上方的山上向南望去,由于东侧有一大片雪原,它是一个相当引人注目的物体。

I know of no other snow peaks on this range but Dr. Handel- Mazzetti informs me there are several "dead" glaciers south of the Dokar La. The same authority denies the existence of my snow peak in lat. 27°4', so that can only leave the disagreement to the next traveller to unravel.
据我所知,在这个范围内没有其他雪峰,但汉德尔-马泽蒂博士告诉我,多卡尔拉以南有几座“死”冰川。同一权威机构否认我在拉特的雪峰的存在。 27°4',这样的分歧只能留给下一个旅行者去解决。

Between the Chu La and the Pitu La I counted five "dead" glaciers, but saw no snow peaks between the northernmost Kakarpo peak and Damyon.

Going much further east, from above Muli I observed a snow peak in the east, probably within the loop of the Yalung river, just as the Likiang range is situated in the loop of the Yangtse, and Namcha Barwa in the loop of the Tsangpo.

The range of snow peaks seen from the Pitu La, on the west bank of the Yü chu, is of course in Tibet proper and forms part of the water- shed between the Salween and Yü rivers. I counted eight glaciers on the eastern face of the range, all discharging into the Yü river.

It is possible that Orpor, a twin snow peak visible from the Chu La is on this same range, further south; but Orpor is certainly not visible from the Pitu La.
从 Chu La 山上可以看到的双雪峰 Orpor 可能就在同一山脉,但更靠南。但从皮图拉上肯定看不到奥尔波尔。

Here, however, we are overstepping the boundaries of Yunnan. I wish merely to emphasize the fact that, up to a point, the further one travels north-westwards the more snow peaks one meets with, and the more obviously they are gathered into great ranges. This is due in part to their greater altitude, and in part to increasing precipitation. After a certain distance, however, the drier regions behind the rain screen of the Himalaya are reached, and snow peaks probably become scarcer again. The greatest concentration would seem to lie in the almost unexplored region lying in lat. 28°-30° and long. 96°-98°.
然而,我们在这里超越了云南的边界。我只想强调这样一个事实:在某种程度上,向西北行进越远,遇到的雪峰就越多,而且雪峰也就越明显地聚集成一个大范围。这部分是由于海拔较高,部分是由于降水量增加。然而,经过一定距离后,就会到达喜马拉雅山雨幕后面的干燥地区,雪峰可能会再次变得稀少。最集中的区域似乎位于纬度几乎未开发的区域。 28°-30°且长。 96°-98°。

There are, however, many fine snow peaks in the almost equally unknown Tibetan Marches, and I may fitly close this brief survey with a note on what I believe to be the highest peak in these parts. This was a snow pyramid seen from Paima Shan in a north-easterly direction some distance away, across the Yangtze, in Szechwan. Judging by its apparent height at that distance, it must have been even more lofty than Kakarpo.

======== 缅甸植被笔记

L. Dudley Stamp, B.A., D.Sc., Professor of Geography in the University of Rangoon, Bu
L. Dudley Stamp,学士、理学博士,仰光大学地理学教授

Map followeing page 272.

THE following brief notes are published to enable geographers to correct the extraordinarily erroneous ideas which are contained in vegetation maps" of Burma published in atlases and elsewhere. Some of the latter seem to be founded on suppositions (eng. that tropical forest fringes the coasts and runs up the main valleys-which it does not); others on the idea that all forests are gazetted Government reserves, and that the remainder of the country is covered with grassland or scrub. Further, the vegetation has an extremely important significance in the economic development of the one of the least developed provinces of the Indian Empire. In value timber has long held third place amongst Burma's products, yet hitherto one timber alone-teak-out of the multitude of valuable species has been seriously exploited.
出版以下简短注释的目的是使地理学家能够纠正地图集和其他地方出版的缅甸植被地图中包含的极其错误的想法。后者中的一些似乎是建立在假设的基础上的(例如,热带森林位于海岸边缘,其他人则认为所有森林都被列为政府保护区,而该国的其余地区则覆盖着草地或灌木丛。 此外,植被在经济中具有极其重要的意义。印度帝国最不发达的省份之一的木材价值长期以来一直在缅甸产品中占据第三位,但迄今为止,在众多珍贵树种中,只有一种木材——柚木被严重开采。

These notes are based mainly on the author's own observations during the greater part of three years'travels in all parts of Burma. The details of the investigations are published or are in course of publi- cation elsewhere."

The Factors governing the Distribution of Vegetat

Taking Burma as a whole, 'two factors are of paramount importance in determining variation in vegetation. These two factors are climate Stamp and Lord, "The Ecology of Part of the Riverine Tract of Burma,


I am not here referring to their geological origin. Their underlying axes may run east and west but the traveller sees them as a series of independent ranges trending north and south. (p224)
我在这里并不是指它们的地质起源。它们的底层轴线可能向东和向西延伸,但旅行者将它们视为一系列向北和向南延伸的独立山脉。 (第224页)

Writing at a distance from libraries, the author seems to be slightly in error in regard to the earliest accounts of the Likiang snows. In describing his journey of 1895 Bonin already spoke of two peaks covered with perpetual snow and probably exceeding 5000 metres, and was aware that the Yangtze passed between them Gervais-Courtellemont was not there till 1903, and had been preceded in the same year by Litton, who also spoke of the great snowy range.-ED. G.F. (p225)
作者在远离图书馆的地方写作,对丽江雪的最早描述似乎略有错误。在描述他 1895 年的旅程时,博宁已经谈到了两座终年积雪覆盖的山峰,海拔可能超过 5000 米,并意识到长江从它们之间流过。热尔韦-库尔泰尔蒙直到 1903 年才到达那里,同年利顿先于这里,他还谈到了大雪域。-ED。 G.F. (第225页)

* From Kari we followed the stream to its junction with Chin-chǔ [Kari river], a beautiful clear river 16 to 20 yards wide, coming from the west, and flowing rapidly through a pretty valley " The River of Golden Sand,'vol. 2, p. 253) (p227)
* 从卡里出发,我们沿着溪流到达与 Chin-chǔ [卡里河] 的交汇处,这是一条美丽清澈的河流,宽 16 至 20 码,从西边涌来,快速流过一个美丽的山谷“金沙河,'vol 2,第 253 页)(第 227 页)