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 大三合会

 勒内·吉农


大三角形 伦内·盖诺


从法语翻译
by 彼得·金斯利

 第五元素

翻译(C)Quinta Essentia I 99 I


本书受到伯尔尼公约版权保护


未经许可不得复制。版权所有。


该版本首次于 1991 年出版


英国剑桥市绿色街 5 号,Quinta Essentia


由 Element Books Ltd 分发


英国多塞特郡沙夫茨伯里市朗米德,邮编 SP7 8PL


大不列颠图书馆编目数据 伟大的三位一体。

 I. 象征主义

I. 标题 II. 大三角形

306.4
ISBN I 870196 o6 6
ISBN I 870I96

由 Goodfellow & Egan 在剑桥排版


由圣埃德蒙斯伯里出版社印刷

 勘误

第 59 页,第 15 行


对于'5 天堂的数字',请读作'3 天堂的数字'

 目录

 前言..... 3

三元和三位一体.....我我


2 种不同类型的三进制..... I 6


3 天地 ..... 24


4 阴阳..... 30


5 双螺旋..... 36


解决和凝聚..... 43


7 个定位问题.....


8 天干地支数和地球数..... 58


天地之子.....65


人与三个世界..... 70


我我 灵魂,生命,身体..... 75


12 硫磺、水银和盐..... 82


我 3 存在与环境..... 88


我是调解者..... 97


我 5 在方尺和圆规之间..... I04


I6 明堂 ..... I IO


17 王:国王-教皇.....我 6


我是一个真正的人和超越人......我 24 岁


我 9 神,人,自然..... 我 29


现代哲学中的 20 个扭曲..... I 35


2 我的命运,意愿和命运..... I39


22 三拍子.....我 45


23 宇宙之轮..... I 52


24 三宝..... I 58


25 柳树市 ..... I63


26 中道..... I69

 前言


毫无疑问,许多人从这篇研究的标题就能意识到它主要涉及到远东传统的象征主义。我们说“毫无疑问”,是因为在这个传统中,“天、地、人”(天地人)这个三元组的角色是广为人知的;而正是这个三元组——即使人们并不总是完全理解这个术语的意义或重要性,他们已经习惯称之为“三位一体”——我们现在打算解释一下,同时也指出在其他形式传统中可以找到的对应关系。我们已经在另一篇研究中专门讨论过这个主题,但它值得更详细地探讨。

同样众所周知,在中国存在一个“秘密社团”,或者至少是通常被称为“三合会”的东西,在西方也被赋予了同样的名称。由于我们并不打算专门涉及这个组织,现在说几句关于它的话也是很好的,以免在我们的过程中再次提及它。

所涉组织的真实名称是天地会,可以翻译为“天地社”,鉴于其他原因,保留一切应有的保留

  1. 十字架的象征意义,由安格斯·麦克纳布(伦敦,1958 年)翻译,第 2 章。

  2. 有关该组织的详细信息,以及它的仪式和象征(尤其是它使用的数字符号),可以在 B. l'ivre 中根据中校的作品《中国秘密社团》中找到。尽管从一个局外人的角度写作,但作者至少已经开始辨别出一些通常被汉学家完全忽视的事物的轮廓;尽管他还没有解决他提出的所有问题,但他至少值得因清晰地提出这些问题而得到充分的赞赏。另请参阅 Matgioi 的《理性之道》,第 7 章。

  3. Iperçus 关于启蒙,第一章 2.


    关于使用“社会”一词的问题已经做出了一些决定。这是因为在这里所讨论的是一种虽然承认是相对外部的秩序,但与现代西方世界中这个词所必然引起的所有特征相去甚远。可以注意到,传统三位一体中只有前两个术语出现在标题中。这是因为组织本身(会),凭借其成员在集体和个体意义上的理解,取代了第三个术语的位置。这一点以后会更清楚。

据说有十分之一的人认为这个组织还以相当多且各种各样的其他名称而闻名,其中一些名称明确提到了三元的概念。然而,事实并非如此严格准确。所涉及的称号实际上只是指特定分支或该组织的各种临时“发射”,它们在历史的某个时刻出现,并在完成其特定角色后立即消失。

我们已经在其他地方指出了这类组织的真实本质。最终,它们必须被视为源自道教的等级制度,这个等级制度产生了它们,并在它们进行更多或更少外在活动时以不可见的方式指导它们,因为根据“无为”(wei)的原则,它本身不能直接干预。

  1. 应该注意到,jen 一词既表示“男人”又表示“人类”,在其应用于社会秩序时,它还意味着种族的“团结”-这个组织设定的其中一个具体目标就是实现这种团结。

  2. 例如,“三河”(San Ho)和“三点”(San Tien)。显然,最后一种表达方式是促使某些人寻找“三合会”与西方入会组织(如共济会和 Compagnonnage)之间联系的因素之一。

  3. 任何打算咨询上述由 B. Favre 中校撰写的书籍的人都绝不能忽视这个重要的区别。不幸的是,作者忽略了这一点,以至于他似乎认为所有这些名称都是彼此纯粹而简单的等同物。实际上,他提供的关于“三合会”的大部分细节实际上只是指它的一个表现形式,即洪会;特别是仅仅是洪会,而绝对不是天地会,后者最早可能在 17 世纪末或 18 世纪初才成立 - 换句话说,是在最近的日期。

  4. 请参阅《关于启蒙的洞见》第 12 章和第 46 章。


    根据这个原则,等级制度的角色本质上是“静止的推动者”,换句话说,是在不参与其中的情况下,控制所有事物运动的中心。

这一切对大多数汉学家来说自然是无法理解的。鉴于他们对待这个主题的特定立场,他们的研究无法告诉他们远东所有神秘或启蒙秩序的一切都必然在不同程度上源自道教,这并不令人意外。即便如此,同样令人奇怪的是,那些在“秘密社团”中发现道教影响的学者们竟然没有进一步探究并得出任何重要结论。相反,他们同时注意到其他元素的存在,尤其是佛教,他们匆忙用“融合主义”一词来否定整个问题。他们似乎没有意识到这个词完全相反,一方面与中国人民极具“综合性”的思维方式相悖,另一方面与这些组织显然源自的启蒙精神相悖,即使在这方面,我们只是在处理距离中心相当远的结构。 当然,我们并不希望声称这些相对外部组织的所有成员都必然意识到所有传统的基本统一性。然而,那些支持并激励这些组织的人,作为“真正的人”(chen jen),确实具备这种意识,并且正是这种意识使他们在情况适当或有利时,将严格属于其他传统的形式元素引入到这些组织中。 9

在这方面,我们必须稍微谈谈佛教元素的使用。这并不是因为它们无疑比其他元素更常见(这一事实很容易解释为佛教在中国以及整个远东地区的广泛传播所致),而是因为

  1. 参见《启蒙论》,第 6 章。

  2. 有时甚至包括对远东完全陌生的传统,比如基督教,正如我们即将提到的“太平”或“太平天国”的组织“大同会”一样。


    这种用法背后存在着更深层的原因,赋予了它非常特殊的意义。事实上,如果没有这个因素,刚才提到的佛教传播很可能不会发生。

我们可以很容易地找到许多这种用法的例子。然而,除了那些本身只具有或多或少次要重要性的例子之外,其价值正是在于它们能够(主要通过它们的数量)吸引并保持外部观察者的注意力,从而将其转移开来,使其远离更为重要的事物,至少有一个非常明显的例子与更多的细节有关。

我们指的是在另一个与天地会地位相同的远东组织的标题中使用“白莲花”符号。事实上,白莲宗或白莲宗是佛教学派的名称,而白莲教或白莲会是所讨论的组织的名称,它们代表两个完全独立的实体。然而,这个道教起源的组织采用这个特定的标题时存在一种有意的模糊性,就像某些外表上是佛教的仪式中一样,或者在佛教僧侣几乎不断扮演着或多或少重要角色的“传说”中一样。

从这个例子中可以清楚地看出,佛教如何作为道教的“掩护”,以此来保护道教免于过度外化的风险,因为道教本身的教义必须始终局限于一个有限的精英群体。这就是为什么道教可以支持佛教在中国的传播,而无需引用某些人想象中存在的起源亲缘关系的理由。

中国“秘密社团”的所谓“融合主义”概念是这一途径所得出的结果之一,当外部观察者碰巧是现代西方人时。

我们将其称为“另一个”,因为实际上只有两个。所有从外部所知的关联,实际上只是其中一个的分支或发出物。


东方学家。此外,它甚至更能促进佛教的传播,因为远东传统的两个部分——密教和外教——已经形成了两个教义分支,彼此之间的距离就像道教和儒教一样远,因此很容易在两者之间找到一些基本中间性质的东西。另外,这也导致中国佛教在很大程度上受到了道教的影响。这可以从一些佛教学派(尤其是禅宗)采用了明显受到道教启发的某些技术,以及吸收了某些符号(如观音)来自道教的本质上的符号来看出。毋庸置疑,通过这些吸收,佛教变得更加适合扮演我们刚刚概述的角色。

甚至是最热衷于“借用”理论的支持者也难以解释其他存在的元素,这些元素被称为“融合”,对于那些试图研究中国“秘密社团”的人来说,缺乏启蒙知识,这些元素对他们来说将始终是一个无法解决的谜团。我们所指的因素是那些导致这些组织与其他正式传统中的同类组织之间出现相似之处的因素,这些相似之处往往非常明显。在这方面,一些作家甚至提出了“三合会”和共济会有共同起源的假设;毫不奇怪的是,他们无法用任何实质性的推理支持他们的假设。 这并不意味着这个想法完全被拒绝,只是需要以完全不同的方式理解:也就是说,它需要以原则的身份来表达,而不是以更古老或更年轻的历史起源来表达,无论是东方还是西方的每一次启蒙都需要遵循这些原则。实际上,发现真正的

  1. 禅宗是梵文词汇"Dhyana"的汉字音译,意为"沉思"。这个宗派更常被称为 ,这是同一个词的日语形式。

    explanation for this similarity would require going back well beyond the beginning of history - to the primordial Tradition itself. As to certain similarities of a more specific nature, we will simply say that factors such as the use of numerical symbolism, to take one example, or the use of 'building' symbolism, to take another, are in no way peculiar to this or that initiatic scheme. On the contrary, they are merely some among the many elements to be encountered everywhere (with minor differences due to adaptation) because they relate to sciences or arts that exist equally, and possess the same 'sacred' character, in all traditions. Really, then, they belong to the domain of initiation in general, which means that where the Far East is concerned they will fall specifically within the province of Taoism. If the adventitious elements-Buddhist or otherwise-are basically a 'mask', these other elements on the contrary belong to what is truly essential.
    对于这种相似性的解释需要回溯到历史的起源之前 - 回到原初的传统本身。至于更具特定性质的某些相似之处,我们只能说,例如使用数字象征主义,或者使用“建筑”象征主义等因素,并不特定于这个或那个启蒙计划。相反,它们只是众多元素中的一部分(由于适应性而存在轻微差异),因为它们与存在于所有传统中的科学或艺术相关,并具有相同的“神圣”特性。因此,它们实际上属于启蒙的范畴,这意味着在远东地区,它们将特别属于道教的领域。如果偶然的元素 - 无论是佛教还是其他元素 - 基本上是一种“面具”,那么这些其他元素则属于真正重要的部分。
This brings us to a matter that requires further clarification. When we speak here of Taoism, and when we say that such-andsuch a thing falls within the province of Taoism (which will be the case with most of the issues we will be examining in this study), this is to be understood with ref erence to the Far-Eastern tradition in its present state. We mention this because people who are too prone to view everything 'historically' might be tempted to conclude that it is a question of concepts not to be met with prior to the development of what is strictly called Taoism; whereas in fact, very far from this being the case, these same concepts are to be found constantly throughout the entire Chinese tradition as it is known, starting from the earliest period which it is possible to go back to-in short, from the time of Fu Hsi. The reason for this is that in reality Taoism has made no 'innovations' whatever in the esoteric and initiatic domain-just as, for that matter, Confucianism has
这使我们需要进一步澄清的问题。当我们在这里谈论道教,并且说某某事物属于道教的范畴(这将是我们在这项研究中要考察的大多数问题的情况),这是指对远东传统的现状的理解。我们提到这一点是因为那些过于倾向于从“历史”角度看待一切的人可能会倾向于得出这样的结论,即这是一个在道教严格发展之前不会遇到的概念问题;然而事实远非如此,这些概念实际上在整个中国传统中始终存在,从我们可以追溯到的最早时期开始,简言之,从伏羲时代开始。这是因为实际上道教在神秘和启蒙领域没有做出任何“创新”——同样,儒家也是如此。
  1. It is quite true that initiation as such only became necessary at a certain period in the cycle of terrestrial humanity, as a consequence of man's widespread spiritual degeneration. However, prior to that point in time all the constituent elements of initiation formed the superior or higher part of the primordial Tradition, just as-by analogy and with reference to a cycle much more limited in time and spaceeverything implicit in Taoism formed from the very beginning the higher part of the one and only tradition which existed in the Far East prior to the splitting in two of its esoteric and exoteric aspects.
    这是非常真实的,作为这样的,启蒙只在地球人类周期的某个时期变得必要,这是由于人类广泛的精神堕落所致。然而,在那之前,启蒙的所有组成要素都构成了原初传统的上部或更高部分,就像-通过类比和参考一个时间和空间更有限的周期-道教中的一切都从一开始就构成了远东地区在其神秘和外教两个方面分裂之前唯一存在的传统的上部分。

    made none in the exoteric and social domain. Both Confucianism and Taoism are, each in their own way, merely 're-adaptations' necessitated by conditions which had led to the tradition in its original form no longer being understood in its entirety. From thattime on, one part of the previous tradition entered into Taoism and another part into Confucianism, and this is the state of affairs that has continued down to the present day. To refer this notion to Taoism, or that notion to Confucianism, is therefore in no way to attribute them to something more or less comparable to what Westerners would call 'systems'. Fundamentally it simply amounts to saying that they belong respectively to the esoteric and the exoteric parts of the Far-Eastern tradition.
    在外在和社会领域中没有做出任何改变。儒家和道家都只是以各自的方式进行的“重新适应”,这是由于导致传统在其原始形式上不再被完全理解的条件所必需的。从那时起,以前的传统的一部分进入了道家,另一部分进入了儒家,这种情况一直延续到今天。因此,将这个概念归于道家,或将那个概念归于儒家,绝不是将它们归因于西方人所称的“系统”之类的东西。从根本上说,这只是说它们分别属于远东传统的秘传部分和外传部分。
We shall not be returning explicitly to the subject of the 'ien , except when necessary in order to deal with certain particular points, because this is not part of our plan. However, what we shall be saying in the course of this study will, besides its much more general scope and bearing, demonstrate implicitly the principles on which-as even its title indicates-the organisation is based. This will permit the reader to understand how, in spite of its external nature, the organisation has a genuinely initiatic character that guarantees its members at least a potential participation in the Taoist tradition. In fact, to be more specific, the role assigned to man as the third term of the Triad is, at one level, that of 'true man' (chen jen) and, at another level, that of 'transcendent man' (chïn jen), thus indicating the goals of the 'lesser mysteries' and the 'greater mysteries' respectively-in short, the goals of all initiation. Doubtless this organisation, taken in isolation, is not to be numbered among those that effectively allow these goals to be attained. None the less it is at least capable of preparing for the final stages those who are so 'qualified', however far they may stand from the goal; and this makes of it one of the 'forecourts' that are able to provide access for these individuals to the Taoist hierarchy-the degrees of which are none other than the degrees of initiatic realisation itself.
我们不会明确地回到 'ien 的主题,除非在处理某些特定问题时必要,因为这不是我们计划的一部分。然而,在这个研究过程中,我们将隐含地展示出其基于的原则,除了其更广泛的范围和影响力之外。这将使读者能够理解,尽管它具有外在的特性,但这个组织具有真正的启蒙性特征,至少保证了其成员在道教传统中具有潜在的参与。事实上,更具体地说,作为三元组的第三个术语,人的角色在某个层面上是“真人”(chen jen),在另一个层面上是“超越人”(chïn jen),从而指示了“小秘密”和“大秘密”的目标,简而言之,所有启蒙的目标。毫无疑问,单独看这个组织,并不能算作那些真正能够实现这些目标的组织之一。 尽管如此,它至少能够为那些“合格”的人做好准备,无论他们离目标有多远;这使它成为能够为这些个体提供通往道教等级制度的“前庭院”之一-这些等级本身就是启蒙实现的等级。
I4. It is well known that the formation of these two separate branches of the Far-Eastern tradition dates from the 6th century B.C., this being the time of Lao Tzu and Confucius.
这两个远东传统的分支形成于公元前 6 世纪,即老子和孔子的时代,这是众所周知的。

I Ternary and Trinity
我喜欢三元和三位一体

BEFORE we commence our study of the Far-Eastern Triad, it will be just as well if we take the trouble to put ourselves on guard against the general confusion and false comparisons and identifications that are prevalent in the West. These are chiefly the result of people's desire to discover, quite indiscriminately, in any and every traditional ternary a more or less exact equivalent of the Christian Trinity. This error is not only due to theologians, who after all have some excuse for wishing to make everything conform to their own particular point of view. What is most remarkable is that it is even made by people who do not belong to-or are actually hostile to-all religions, Christianity included. Owing to the environment in which these people live, they are more conversant with Christianity than with any other formal tradition (which is not to say that their understanding of it is basically much greater than their understanding of any other tradition) and as a result they have more or less unconsciously made it a kind of basis for comparison to which they attempt to relate everything else. Of all the numerous examples one could give of these misguided comparisons, one of those most frequently encountered is the case of the Hindu Trimurti, which it has even become common practice simply to refer to by the name of 'Trinity'. Yet, if misunderstandings are to be avoided, it is essential that this latter term be reserved exclusively for the Christian concept which it has always specifically been intended to designate. Undeniably in both examples we have cases of a grouping of three aspects of divinity; but in reality, that is where the resemblance ends. The aspects are not the same in the two cases; in no way can it be said that their differentiation reflects the same point of view; and it is therefore quite impossible to bring the three terms of the one ternary into conformity with the three terms of the other.
在我们开始研究远东三位一体之前,最好我们先警惕西方普遍存在的混淆和错误比较和等同的情况。这主要是因为人们希望在任何传统的三元组中,不加区分地发现与基督教三位一体更或多或少相等的东西。这个错误不仅仅是神学家的错,他们毕竟有一些希望使一切都符合他们自己特定观点的借口。最令人注目的是,即使是那些不属于或实际上敌视所有宗教,包括基督教在内的人们,也会犯这个错误。由于这些人生活的环境,他们对基督教比对任何其他正式传统更熟悉(这并不意味着他们对基督教的理解基本上比对其他传统的理解更深入),因此他们或多或少地无意识地将其作为一种比较的基础,试图将其他一切与之联系起来。 所有这些错误的比较中,一个最常见的例子是印度教的三神合一(Trimurti),甚至已经成为常见做法直接称之为“三位一体”。然而,为了避免误解,必须将后一术语专门保留给基督教的概念,因为它一直被特别用来指代基督教的三位一体。毫无疑问,在这两个例子中,我们都有三个神性方面的组合;但实际上,相似之处就止于此。这两种情况下的方面并不相同;无论如何都不能说它们的区别反映了相同的观点;因此,将一个三元组的三个术语与另一个三元组的三个术语调和在一起是完全不可能的。
I. Of the various different ternaries envisaged in Hindu tradition, perhaps the
在印度教传统中,有许多不同的三元组被设想出来,也许其中最重要的是
If one were to consider comparing in a serious way two ternaries belonging to different traditions, the first prerequisite would be the possibility of being able to establish a valid correspondence between the ternaries, term by term. In other words, it would be necessary for there to exist a genuine relationship either of equivalence or of similarity between the two sets of terms. Even so, however, the fulfilment of this precondition would not in itself be suf ficient to permit of a pure and simple identification of the two ternaries. It is quite possible for a correspondence to exist between two ternaries which, although consequently being of the same type, so to speak, might none the less belong to different levels either in the scale of principles or in the scale of manifestation, or even in both at once.
如果要认真比较属于不同传统的两个三元组,首要条件是能够逐项建立有效的对应关系。换句话说,两组术语之间必须存在真正的等价或相似关系。然而,即使满足了这个前提条件,也不能简单地将两个三元组进行纯粹的等同。两个三元组之间可能存在对应关系,但它们可能属于不同的原则层次或表现层次,甚至同时属于两者。
Admittedly these remarks apply just as much to ternaries postulated within one and the same tradition. However, in this case it is easier to be on one's guard against a mistaken identification, for it will be quite obvious that the ternaries in question are not just duplicating each other or merely performing interchangeable functions. On the other hand, when it is a question of different traditions the temptation is then all the greater to establish correspondences-which may have no justification in reality-as soon as appearances seem to lend themselves to such an assumption.
诚然,这些评论同样适用于同一传统中假设的三元组。然而,在这种情况下,更容易警惕错误的认同,因为很明显,所讨论的三元组并非仅仅是互相复制或者互换功能。另一方面,当涉及不同传统时,一旦表面上似乎可以支持这种假设,就更容易产生建立对应关系的诱惑-尽管这种假设可能在现实中没有正当理由。
Be that as it may, there is no error more serious than the mistake of identifying ternaries with each other when they have nothing whatever in common outside of the fact of their both being ternaries; that is, they are both of them sets of three terms, and yet the relationship between the three terms is completely different in both cases. To get to the truth of the matter therefore requires from the very outset a correct assessment of the type of ternary one is dealing with in each case-and this before even starting to look into the question of what order of reality it belongs to. If two ternaries are of the same type, then a correspondence
尽管如此,没有比将毫无共同之处的三元组彼此混淆更严重的错误了;也就是说,它们都是由三个术语组成的集合,但是两种情况下三个术语之间的关系完全不同。因此,要找到事实的真相,首先需要正确评估每种情况下所处理的三元组类型,甚至在开始研究它所属的现实秩序之前。如果两个三元组属于相同类型,那么就会存在一种对应关系。
one that could in certain respects most valuably be compared with the Christian Trinity (although naturally the point of view will still be very different) is the ternary Sat-Chit-Ananda. See Man and his Becoming according to the Vedanta, translated by Richard C. Nicholson (London, I 945), chapter I 4.
一个在某些方面最有价值与基督教三位一体相比较的是三元 Sat-Chit-Ananda。(尽管观点自然会有很大不同)请参阅《根据吠陀教的人及其成为》,由理查德·C·尼科尔森(伦敦,1945 年)翻译,第 14 章。

will exist between them. If in addition they both belong to the same order-or, to be more precise, the same level-of reality, it may then be a case of identity (provided they are formulated from the same point of view) or at the very least a case of equivalence (if the standpoint is different).
它们之间将存在联系。如果它们都属于同一秩序,或者更准确地说,同一层次的现实,那么这可能是一个同一性的情况(前提是它们从同一观点出发),或者至少是一个等价的情况(如果观点不同)。
It is first and foremost due to the failure to draw the essential distinctions between different types of ternary that the situation has arisen of people making all sorts of fanciful comparisons which have not the slightest bearing on reality. This is especially the case with the comparisons that occultists delight in making: they have only to come across a group of three terms-no matter where, no matter what-and they can hardly wait to bring it into correspondence with all the other groupings containing the same number of terms which they happen to have found elsewhere. Their works are filled with tables drawn up in this way-some of them veritable prodigies of incoherence and confusion.
首先,由于未能区分不同类型的三元组,才导致了人们进行各种奇思妙想的比较,这些比较与现实毫无关系。这在神秘主义者喜欢进行的比较中尤为明显:他们只要遇到一个由三个术语组成的群体-不管在哪里,不管是什么-他们几乎迫不及待地将其与其他包含相同数量术语的群体进行对应,而这些群体可能是他们在其他地方找到的。他们的作品中充满了以这种方式绘制的表格-其中一些真正令人费解和混乱的奇迹。
As we shall see more fully in due course, the Far-Eastern Triad belongs to the type of ternary composed of two complementary terms plus a third term resulting from the union-or, if it be preferred, the reciprocal action and reaction-of the first two. Using as symbols images taken from the human sphere, the three constituents of a ternary of this kind can as a generalisation be described as Father, Mother and Son. Now it is clearly impossible to make these three terms correspond to the three terms of the Christian Trinity. In the latter, the first two terms are not complementary in the least, nor are they in any way symmetrical; on the contrary, the second derives from the first alone. As for the
正如我们将在适当的时候更详细地看到的那样,远东三位一体属于由两个互补的术语加上第三个术语组成的三元组类型,这是由前两个术语的结合(或者如果更喜欢的话,是相互作用和反应)产生的。以人类领域的形象作为符号,这种三元组的三个组成部分可以概括地描述为父亲、母亲和儿子。现在很明显,这三个术语不可能与基督教三位一体的三个术语相对应。在基督教三位一体中,前两个术语一点也不互补,也没有任何对称性;相反,第二个术语仅仅源自第一个术语。至于
  1. What we are saying here with reference to groups of three terms applies just as much to groupings containing other numbers of terms. These are just as frequently brought into association with each other in the same arbitrary way, merely because the number of terms they consist of happens to be the same; the true nature of the terms is simply not taken into consideration. There are even those who, for the sake of discovering imaginary correspondences, will go so far as to fabricate artificially groupings that traditionally have no meaning whatever. A typical example of this is the case of Malf atti of Montereggio, who gathered together in his Mathesis the names of ten completely heterogeneous principles taken from here and there in the Hindu tradition and thought he had found in them an equivalent to the ten Sephiroth of the Hebrew Kabbalah.
    我们在这里所说的关于三个术语组的内容同样适用于包含其他数量术语的组合。它们同样经常以同样的任意方式相互关联,仅仅因为它们所包含的术语数量恰好相同;术语的真正本质根本没有被考虑进去。甚至有些人为了发现想象中的对应关系,会制造出传统上毫无意义的人为组合。一个典型的例子是蒙特雷吉奥的马尔法蒂(Malf atti)在他的《数学》中聚集了从印度教传统中随意选取的十个完全异质的原则的名称,并认为在它们中找到了与希伯来犹太教卡巴拉的十个塞菲罗斯等同的东西。
  2. The ancient Egyptian triads — of which the most famous is that of Osiris, Isis and Horus-also fall within this class of ternary.
    古埃及的三位一体——其中最著名的是奥西里斯、伊西斯和荷鲁斯的三位一体,也属于这类三元组。

    third term, although it does indeed proceed from the two others, this derivation is most certainly not conceived of as an act of generation or filiation. However one might choose to try and define it-a matter which there is no need for us to go into here in any greater detail-it is a question of another relationship of an essentially different kind.
    第三个术语,虽然确实是从前两个术语中衍生出来的,但这种衍生绝对不是被构想为一种生成或血缘关系的行为。无论我们如何选择去定义它(这是我们无需在此详细讨论的问题),它是另一种本质上不同的关系。
What could give rise to some uncertainty is the fact that, in the Christian Trinity as well, two of the terms are referred to as Father and Son. Firstly, however, the Son is the second term and not the third. And secondly, there is no conceivable way that the third term could be made to correspond to the Mother: even if there were no other reasons to fall back on, the fact that it comes after the Son, not before, would alone be sufficient to make this identification impossible. It is true that certain more or less heterodox Christian sects have made the Holy Spirit out to be feminine-often with the specific intention of providing it with characteristics comparable to those of the Mother. Yet it is highly probable that in this they were influenced by a spurious assimilation of the Trinity to some ternary of the type we have been discussing, which would show that errors of this kind are not confined to people of today. Furthermore, and still restricting ourselves to the subject under consideration, the feminine character ascribed in this way to the Holy Spirit is not in the slightest accord with the completely contrary role-fundamentally masculine and 'paternal'-which it incontestably plays in the 'generation' of Christ. This observation is of particular significance for us because it is precisely here, in the begetting of Christ, and not in the Trinity concept at all, that we are able to discover something in Christianity that corresponds (in a certain respect, and with all the reservations demanded, as always, by the difference in points of view) to ternaries of the same type as the Far-Eastern Triad.
可能会引起一些不确定性的是,基督教三位一体中,有两个术语被称为父亲和儿子。然而,首先,儿子是第二个术语,而不是第三个。其次,无论如何,第三个术语都不可能对应母亲:即使没有其他理由可以依靠,仅仅因为它在儿子之后而不是之前,就足以使这种认同变得不可能。的确,某些异端的基督教教派将圣灵描绘成女性,通常是为了赋予它与母亲相似的特征。然而,很有可能他们受到了将三位一体虚假归类为我们讨论的某种三元组的影响,这表明这种错误并不仅限于今天的人们。 此外,仍然限制在我们所考虑的主题范围内,将圣灵赋予女性特质的做法与其在基督的“生成”中所扮演的完全相反的角色-基本上是男性和“父性”的角色-完全不符。这一观察对我们来说尤为重要,因为正是在基督的产生中,而不是在三位一体的概念中,我们能够发现与远东三位一体相同类型的三元组相对应的基督教中的某些东西(在某种程度上,并且始终要求保留不同观点的差异)。
In fact the 'working of the Holy Spirit' in the generation of Christ corresponds precisely to the 'actionless' activity of Purusha
事实上,圣灵在基督的产生中的“运作”与普鲁什的“无为”活动完全相对应
  1. Let it be mentioned in passing that there is no truth in the apparently generally held belief that the Christian tradition has no conceptions of any ternary apart from the Trinity. In fact many other ternaries could be cited to give the lie to this belief, and here we actually have one of the prime examples.
    顺便提一下,显然普遍认为基督教传统除了三位一体没有其他三元概念的观点是不正确的。事实上,还有许多其他三元组可以被引用来驳斥这种观点,而这里我们实际上就有一个主要的例子。

    or, to use the language of Far-Eastern tradition, of 'Heaven'. The Virgin, on the other hand, is a perfect image of Prakriti, which the same tradition calls 'Earth'. 5 As for Christ himself, his identity with 'Universal Man' is even more obvious.
    或者,用远东传统的语言来说,是指“天”。另一方面,圣母则是完美的原初形象,这个传统称之为“地”。至于基督自己,他与“普世人”身份的一致更加明显。
Should we wish therefore to find a correspondence here, it will be necessary to say-using the terms of Christian theology-that the Triad bears no relation whatever to the generation of the Word ad intra (which is implicit in the concept of the Trinity), but is closely related to the generation of the Word ad extra-or as Hindu tradition would say, to the birth of the Avatar in the manifested world. Nor is this difficult to understand for, taking as it does its point of departure from Purusha and Prakriti (or their equivalents), the Triad must inevitably situate itself on the side of manifestation - the two poles of which are identical with its first two terms. We could in fact say that the Triad embraces manifestation in its entirety for, as we shall see later, Man figures in it as the veritable synthesis of the 'ten thousand beings'-that is, as the synthesis of everything contained in the totality of universal Existence.
如果我们希望在这里找到对应的话,就需要使用基督教神学的术语来说,三位一体与内在的道成肉身没有任何关系(这在三位一体的概念中是隐含的),但与外在的道成肉身或者印度教传统所说的化身在显现世界中的诞生密切相关。这并不难理解,因为三位一体以普鲁什和普拉克里提(或其等同物)为出发点,必然将自己定位于显现的一侧,而显现的两极恰好与其前两个术语相同。实际上,我们可以说三位一体完全包含了显现,因为正如我们后面将看到的,人在其中被看作是“万物”的真正综合体,也就是包含在整个宇宙存在的总体中的一切的综合体。
  1. This is particularly evident in symbolic representations of the 'Black Virgin' - the colour in this case symbolising the total absence of differentiation in the materia prima.
    这在“黑色圣母”这一象征性的表达中尤为明显 - 在这种情况下,颜色象征着原始物质中完全没有差异化。
  2. In this connection we will repeat once again that we have not the slightest intention of disputing the 'historicity' of certain particular events. On the contrary, we view the historical events as themselves symbols of a reality of a higher order, and on this basis alone do they possess any significance for us.
    在这方面,我们再次重申,我们绝对没有争议某些特定事件的“历史性”的意图。相反,我们将历史事件视为更高层次现实的象征,仅基于这一点,它们对我们才具有任何意义。
  3. The mother of the Avatar is Maya, which is the same thing as Prakriti. We shall not press the connection that certain people have wished to establish between the two names Maya and Maria, but mention it merely as a curiosity.
    阿凡达的母亲是玛雅,与普拉克里蒂是同一事物。我们不会强调某些人希望建立的玛雅和玛丽亚之间的联系,只是将其作为一种好奇提及。
  4. See Man and his Becoming according to the Vedanta, chapter 4.
    见《吠陀哲学中的人与其成为》,第 4 章。

2 | Different Types of Ternary
2 | 三元化的不同类型

WhAT we have just said has in fact already established how the Triad is to be understood, and at the same time it has also demonstrated how necessary it is to make a clear distinction between ternaries of different types. These various types of ternary could certainly be multiplied almost indefinitely, because it is obvious that three terms can be grouped together in all kinds of different relationships.
我们刚刚所说的实际上已经建立了三元组的理解方式,并同时展示了清晰区分不同类型三元组的必要性。这些不同类型的三元组可以无限地增加,因为显然三个术语可以以各种不同的关系组合在一起。
However that may be, we shall be focussing in what follows only on the two principal types of ternary. This is not just because these are the ones that present the most general features, but also because among all the different types of ternary they have the most direct bearing on the particular subject of this study. And furthermore, the observations they give rise to will in addition allow us to rule out of court once and for all the crass error committed by those who have claimed to discover a 'dualism' in the Far-Eastern tradition.
无论如何,我们在接下来的内容中只关注两种主要类型的三元组。这不仅是因为它们呈现了最一般的特征,而且还因为在所有不同类型的三元组中,它们与本研究的特定主题有最直接的关系。此外,它们引发的观察还将使我们彻底排除那些声称在远东传统中发现了“二元论”的愚蠢错误。
Of the two types of ternary we are ref erring to, one consists of a first principle-that is, first in at least a relative sense-which gives rise to two opposite or mutually opposing terms. To be more
在我们所指的两种三元论中,一种由第一原则组成,至少在相对意义上是第一的,它产生了两个相反或相互对立的术语。为了更加
Figure I correct it would be better to say 'complementary' rather than 'opposite', because wherever appearances present us with an opposition-which will be valid at a certain level or in a certain domain-there we always find that complementarity corresponds to a point of view which is more profound and consequently more truly in accord with the real
我认为更好的说法是“互补”而不是“相反”,因为无论在哪里,当表象呈现出对立时-这在某个层面或某个领域是有效的-我们总是发现互补对应着一个更深刻、更真实地符合实际的观点

nature of the phenomenon in question. A ternary of this type can be depicted in the form of a triangle with its apex situated at the top (figure ).
所讨论现象的性质。这种三元性可以用一个顶点位于顶部的三角形来描述(图 )。
The other type of ternary, as mentioned earlier, consists of two complementary terms plus their product or resultant. It is to this type of ternary that the FarEastern Triad belongs. In direct contrast to the first type, it can be depicted in the form of a triangle with its base at the top (figure 2).'
另一种三元组,如前所述,由两个互补的术语及其乘积或结果组成。远东三合会就属于这种类型的三元组。与第一种类型形成鲜明对比的是,它可以用一个底部朝上的三角形来表示(图 2)。
If we compare these two triangles it becomes apparent that the second is as it were a reflection of the first. This points to the existence
如果我们比较这两个三角形,就会发现第二个三角形就像是第一个三角形的倒影。这表明存在
Figure 2 between the two ternaries of an analogy in the true sense of the word-that is, one that has to be applied inversely. And indeed if we start off with the two complementary terms-which are necessarily in a symmetrical relationship to each other-we see that in the first case the ternary is brought to completion by their originating principle and in the second case it is brought to completion by their resultant. This means that the two complementary terms occur respectively after and before this other term which, being of an altogether different order, stands as it were in isolation from them. At any rate it is quite clear that this third term is the factor that gives the ternary its meaning and significance.
图 2 在真正意义上是一个类比的两个三元组之间的关系,也就是说,必须反向应用。事实上,如果我们从两个互补的术语开始,这两个术语必然处于对称关系,我们可以看到,在第一种情况下,三元组通过它们的起源原则得以完成,而在第二种情况下,三元组通过它们的结果得以完成。这意味着这两个互补的术语分别发生在这个与它们完全不同的秩序之后和之前,这个秩序似乎与它们隔离开来。无论如何,很明显,这第三个术语是赋予三元组意义和重要性的因素。
Now there is one fact that we need to have a clear grasp of before we can proceed any further. This is that there can be no
在我们继续之前,有一个事实我们需要清楚地掌握。这就是在我们继续之前,有一个事实我们需要清楚地掌握。
I. It will soon become clear why in the second diagram we number the three terms 2-3-4 instead of as in the first diagram.
很快就会明白为什么在第二个图表中我们将三个术语编号为 2-3-4,而不是像第一个图表中那样编号为
  1. This is made even clearer in the two diagrams by the direction of the arrows: in the first diagram these point downwards from the apex at the top to the base, and in the second diagram they point downwards from the base to the apex at the bottom. One could also view the number ( 3 ) of the terms as breakingdown into in the first case and in the second, which makes it very clear that if these two configurations are equivalent to each other from a quantitative point of view, from a qualitative viewpoint they most certainly are not.
    这在两个图表中由箭头的方向更加清晰:在第一个图表中,箭头从顶部的顶点指向底部,而在第二个图表中,箭头从底部指向底部的顶点。从定量的角度来看,可以将这三个术语分解为 在第一种情况下和 在第二种情况下,这使得非常清楚,如果这两种配置在定量上是等价的,从定性的角度来看,它们绝对不是等价的。

    question of 'dualism' in any doctrine unless two opposed or complementary terms (and they would naturally tend to be conceived of as opposed rather than complementary) are posited at the very outset, and are regarded as ultimate, irreducible and not capable in any way of being derived from a common principle. Clearly this excludes any ternary of the first type, which means that only ternaries of the second type could be found in such a doctrine. Yet, as we have already pointed out, ternaries of this second type never have any application outside of the domain of manifestation, and this makes it immediately evident that any 'dualism' is of necessity also a 'naturalism'.
    除非在任何教义中提出两个相对或互补的术语(它们自然倾向于被看作相对而不是互补),并被视为终极、不可简化,并且无法从一个共同原则中推导出来,否则就不存在“二元论”的问题。显然,这排除了第一类三元组,这意味着只能在这样的教义中找到第二类的三元组。然而,正如我们已经指出的,这种第二类的三元组在表象领域之外从未有过任何应用,这立即表明任何“二元论”必然也是一种“自然主义”。
However, the mere fact of acknowledging the existence of a duality and situating it where it truly belongs is in no way tantamount to 'dualism', so long as the two terms of this duality derive from a single principle belonging as such to a higher order of reality. And this is precisely the case with, first and foremost, the primary duality of all, namely that of Essence and universal Substance. These derive from a polarisation of Being, or original Unity, and through their interaction all manifestation is produced. In Hindu tradition the two terms of this primary duality are called Purusha and Prakriti; in Far-Eastern tradition, Heaven (T'ien) and Earth (Ti). And yet in using these terms neither of these traditions, any more than any other orthodox tradition, ever loses sight of the higher principle from which they both derive.
然而,仅仅承认二元性的存在并将其定位在其真正所属的位置,并不等同于“二元论”,只要这个二元性的两个术语源自一个属于更高层次现实的单一原则。这正是所有事物的首要二元性的情况,即本质和普遍物质的二元性。它们源自存在的极化,或原始的统一,通过它们的相互作用产生了所有的表现。在印度教传统中,这个首要二元性的两个术语被称为普鲁沙和普拉克里蒂;在远东传统中,被称为天和地。然而,在使用这些术语时,这些传统,就像任何其他正统传统一样,从未忽视它们共同源自的更高原则。
We have on other occasions fully explained the facts as far as the Hindu tradition is concerned. As for the Far-Eastern tradition, it is no less explicit in its postulate of a common origin of Heaven and Earth, which it calls the 'Great Extreme' (T'ai Chi). In it Heaven and Earth are indissolubly united in the state of 'non-separation' and 'non-distinction'4 prior to all differentiation. It is pure Being, and as such is identical to the 'Great
我们在其他场合已经充分解释了有关印度教传统的事实。至于远东传统,它在宇宙起源的假设上同样明确,它称之为“太极”。在其中,天地在“非分离”和“非区别”的状态下不可分割地结合在一起。它是纯粹的存在,因此与“大同”是相同的。
  1. And also, needless to say, of all other dualities of a more particular nature. In the last resort these are merely specific versions or instances of the duality Heaven-Earth, and consequently they all ultimately derive from the same principle, whether directly or indirectly.
    而且,不用说,还有其他更具特殊性质的二元对立。归根结底,这些只是天地二元对立的具体版本或实例,因此它们最终都源自同一原则,无论是直接还是间接。
  2. This principial non-distinction is not to be confused with the potential nondistinction which is the unique property of Substance, or materia prima.
    这个原则性的非区分不应与潜在的非区分混淆,后者是物质或原始物质的独特属性。
  3. It should be understood that there is no question at all of priority in time, or of succession in a sense involving duration.
    应该理解的是,这里根本没有时间上的优先性问题,也没有涉及持续时间的连续性。
Unity' (T'ai I). And this is not the end of the matter: T'ai Chi, transcendental Being or Unity, itself presupposes another principle- Chi, Non-Being or the metaphysical Nought. But it is impossible for this principle to enter into relationship with anything besides itself in such a way as to become the first term of a ternary, for no relationship of this sort could possibly exist prior to the affirmation of Being or Unity.
统一(太极)。这还不是问题的终结:太极,超越性的存在或统一,本身预设了另一个原则-无,非存在或形而上的零。但是,这个原则不可能以这样的方式与除了自身以外的任何事物建立关系,以成为三元组的第一个术语,因为在存在或统一被肯定之前,这种关系根本不可能存在。
To sum up: we have first of all a ternary of the first type, consisting of T'ai Chi, T'ien and , and only then do we have a ternary of the second type, consisting of and . It is this second ternary that people have become accustomed to refer to as the 'Great Triad'. These being the facts of the matter, one is completely at a loss to understand how certain people could possibly believe themselves justified in ascribing a 'dualistic' nature to the Far-Eastern tradition.
总结一下:首先,我们有第一类三元组,由太极、天和 组成,然后才有第二类三元组,由 组成。正是这个第二类三元组,人们习惯称之为“大三元”。鉴于这些事实,人们完全无法理解为什么有些人竟然认为远东传统具有“二元论”的性质。
Consideration of two ternaries such as the ones we have just been discussing, both of them sharing in common the same two complementary principles, leads us on to several other important observations.
考虑到我们刚刚讨论的两个三元组,它们共同具有相同的两个互补原则,这引导我们得出几个其他重要的观察。
The two inverted triangles that represent the two ternaries can be regarded as having the same base. Now if we imagine them joined together by this common base we perceive two things. Firstly, the combination of the two ternaries creates a quaternary, for two of the terms are the same in both ternaries and this means that in fact we are only dealing with four distinct terms. Secondly, the final term of the quaternary is located on the vertical descending from the first term, and as it occupies a position exactly symmetrical to this first term from the point of view of the base, it
代表两个三元数的两个倒置的三角形可以被视为具有相同的底部。现在,如果我们想象它们通过这个共同的底部连接在一起,我们会发现两件事。首先,两个三元数的组合创建了一个四元数,因为两个三元数中有两个相同的项,这意味着实际上我们只处理四个不同的项。其次,四元数的最后一项位于从第一项下降的垂直线上,并且由于它在底部的观点上与第一项完全对称,它占据了与第一项完全对称的位置。
  1. The character chi is the one used to designate the 'roof-top' or 'pinnacle' of a building. As for T'ai , it is symbolically located in the pole star which is in fact the 'pinnacle' of the visible heavens and as such is naturally qualified to represent the 'pinnacle' of the entire Cosmos.
    汉字“尺”用来指代建筑物的“屋顶”或“顶峰”。至于“太”,它象征性地位于北极星,实际上是可见天空的“顶峰”,因此自然有资格代表整个宇宙的“顶峰”。
  2. Wu Chi corresponds to the neuter, supreme Brahma of Hindu tradition (ParaBrahma), and T'ai Chi to Ishwara or the 'non-supreme' Brahma (Apara-Brahma).
    无极对应于印度教传统中的中性至高梵天(ParaBrahma),太极对应于伊舍瓦拉或“非至高”梵天(Apara-Brahma)。
  3. Above all other principles there still remains the Tao. In its most universal significance is simultaneously Non-Being and Being, while at the same time not really being anything a part from Non-Being. ForNon-Being contains Being which, as the first principle of all manifestation, polarises into Essence and Substance (or Hea venand Earth) so as actually to produce this manifestation.
    最重要的原则是道。在其最普遍的意义上,它同时是非存在和存在,同时又不是真正的任何非存在之外的东西。因为非存在包含存在,作为一切显现的第一原则,它极化为本质和物质(或天和地),从而实际上产生了这种显现。

    can therefore be regarded as a reflection of the first term. The plane of this reflection is the base itself, which is simply the
    可以因此被视为第一个术语的反映。这个反映的平面就是基底本身,它只是
Figure 3 median plane connecting the two complementary terms that originate from the first term and in turn produce the last (figure 3). 9
图 3 中位面连接两个互补的术语,这些术语起源于第一个术语,并反过来产生最后一个术语(图 3)。9
This is basically quite easy to understand. On the one hand the two complementary terms are contained within the first term qua their principle; accordingly their different natures, even when seemingly opposed to each other, are really just the result of a differentiation of the nature of that principle. On the other hand the final term, qua product of the two complementary terms, participates in the nature of both. This amounts to saying that in a sense it combines within itself the nature of both of them and is consequently, at its own particular level, a kind of mirror image of the first term.
这基本上很容易理解。一方面,两个互补的术语以其原则的形式包含在第一个术语中;因此,它们的不同性质,即使看似相互对立,实际上只是该原则性质的差异化结果。另一方面,最终术语作为两个互补术语的产物,参与了两者的性质。这意味着在某种意义上,它在自身内部结合了两者的性质,并且因此,在其自身特定的层面上,是第一个术语的一种镜像。
  1. The configuration produced in this way possesses certain rather remarkable geometrical properties which may be mentioned in passing. The two equilateral triangles, facing each other across their shared base, are inscribed in two equal-sized circumferences each of which passes through the centre of the other. The chord joining the points of intersection of the circumference is of course the shared base of the two triangles; the two arcs subtended by this chord, and marking off the area common to the two circles, create the figure called mandorla (almond) or vesica piscis, which is well known in the architectural and sigillary symbolism of the Middle Ages.
    以这种方式产生的配置具有一些相当显著的几何特性,可以顺便提一下。两个等边三角形相互对峙,通过它们共享的底边内切于两个相等大小的圆周,每个圆周都通过另一个圆周的中心。连接圆周交点的弦当然是两个三角形的共享底边;由这条弦所围成的两个弧,标记出两个圆的共同区域,形成了被称为杏仁形或鱼膀形的图形,这在中世纪的建筑和印章象征中是众所周知的。
In ancient English Operative Freemasonry, the total number of degrees of these two circumferences supplied the answer to the question concerning the length of the 'cable-tow', a peculiar word which by virtue of its phonetics possesses a double meaning: by assimilation to the Arabic qabiltu it is suggestive of the initiatory commitment, and consequently could be said to convey the idea of a 'bond' in every sense of the word.
在古代英国操作性共济会中,这两个圆周的总度数 回答了关于“缆绳”的长度的问题,这个特殊的词语在音韵上具有双重含义:通过与阿拉伯语 qabiltu 的同化,它暗示了入会的承诺,并因此可以说传达了“束缚”的概念,从各个方面来说。
On the basis of these considerations we can proceed to an even more exact formulation of the relationship existing between the different terms. We have just seen how the two terms of the quaternary that are furthest apart from each other are the first term of the first ternary and the last term of the second, and we have also seen how both of these terms by their very nature play a fundamentally mediatory role between the two others. This they do for opposite reasons in each case: both of them combine and reconcile within themselves the elements of the complementarity, but one does this qua principle, the other qua resultant.
基于这些考虑,我们可以进一步准确地阐述不同术语之间的关系。我们刚刚看到,四元组中相距最远的两个术语是第一个三元组的第一个术语和第二个三元组的最后一个术语,我们还看到,这两个术语本质上在两个其他术语之间起到了基本的调解作用。它们之所以这样做,是因为每种情况下都有相反的原因:它们都在自身内部结合和调和互补的元素,但一个是作为原则,另一个是作为结果。
To make this intermediary role more tangible we can arrange the terms of each ternary in a linear form. In the first case, the first term now occupies the central place on the line joining the two other terms, and from here gives rise to those other terms simultaneously through a centrifugal movement that proceeds in both directions. This can be called its polarisation (figure 4). In the second case the two complementary terms are sources of a
为了使这个中介角色更加具体,我们可以将每个三元组的术语排列成线性形式。在第一种情况下,第一个术语现在占据连接另外两个术语的线的中心位置,并且通过一个同时向两个方向进行的离心运动同时产生这些其他术语。这可以称为它的极化(图 4)。在第二种情况下,这两个互补的术语是一个来源
Figure 4 图 4
Figure 5 图 5
centripetal movement which originates from them both simultaneously to produce a resultant-the final term; and this too occupies the middle of the line uniting the complementaries (figure 5). So principle and resultant both occupy a central position in relation to the two complementary terms, and this fact is especially worth bearing in mind in view of the observations we shall be making later.
由两者同时产生的向心运动,形成一个结果-最终术语;而这个结果也占据了连接互补性的线的中间位置(图 5)。因此,原则和结果都在与两个互补术语的关系中占据了中心位置,考虑到我们稍后将要进行的观察,这个事实尤其值得记住。
  1. This schema can be considered as resulting from the projection of each of the earlier triangles onto a plane perpendicul ar to its own, and passing through its base.
    这个模式可以被视为每个早期三角形在垂直于自身且通过其底部的平面上的投影的结果。
One other thing needs mentioning here. As we have already explained elsewhere, two opposed or complementary terms (and they will always be found at bottom to be complementary in their essential reality rather than opposed) can, as the case may be, stand in opposition to each other either horizontally (opposition between right and left) or vertically (opposition between higher
另外还有一件事需要在这里提到。正如我们在其他地方已经解释过的那样,两个相对或互补的术语(它们在本质上总是互补而不是相对的)可以在水平方向(右和左之间的对立)或垂直方向(更高和更低之间的对立)相互对立。

Figure 6 and lower). Horizontal opposition occurs between two terms which share the same degree of reality and are, so to speak, symmetrical in every respect. Vertical opposition indicates, on the contrary, a hierarchical relationship between the two terms. Although still symmetrical in the sense of being complementary, they are related in such a way that one of them must be considered to be higher, or superior, and the other lower, or inferior.
图 6 及以下)。水平对立发生在两个具有相同现实程度的术语之间,可以说,在各个方面都是对称的。垂直对立则表示两个术语之间存在等级关系。虽然在某种意义上仍然是互补的对称关系,但它们以一种使其中一个被认为是更高或更优越,另一个更低或更次的方式相关联。
It is important to notice that in a vertical opposition the first term of a ternary of the first type cannot be placed between the two complementaries or in the middle of the line that joins them: this can only be done with the third term of a ternary of the second type. The reason is that a principle can never be situated at a lower level than one of the two terms that derive from it; it is necessarily higher than, or superior to, them both. The resultant, on the other hand, is a true intermediary in this respect as well. As this is the case with the FarEastern Triad, we can re-arrange it in the form of a vertical line (figure 6). It is indeed a fact that Essence and universal Substance are, respectively, the upper and the lower pole of manifestation, and to describe the former as being above all existence and the other as below all existence
重要的是要注意,在垂直对立中,第一类三元组的第一个术语不能放置在两个互补术语之间或连接它们的线的中间:这只能用于第二类三元组的第三个术语。原因是原则永远不能位于低于其派生出的两个术语之一的水平上;它必然比它们两个都更高或更优越。另一方面,结果在这方面确实是一个真正的中间者。由于这在远东三元组中是这样的情况,我们可以将其重新排列成垂直线的形式(图 6)。事实上,本质和普遍物质分别是表现的上极和下极,可以将前者描述为高于一切存在,后者描述为低于一切存在。
I I. TheReign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times, translated by Lord Northbourne (London, I953), chapter 30.
我我。《数量的统治与时代的迹象》,由诺森伯恩勋爵翻译(伦敦,1953 年),第 30 章。
  1. In this diagram we use a circle to represent the upper term (Heaven) and a square to represent the lower (Earth) - a practice that is in conformity with the Far-Eastern tradition, as we shall see. To depict the median term (Man) we use a cross, which, as we have explained elsewhere, is the symbol of 'Universal Man'. (See The Symbolism of the Cross.)
    在这个图表中,我们用一个圆圈代表上位词(天),用一个正方形代表下位词(地)- 这是符合远东传统的做法,正如我们将要看到的。为了描绘中间词(人),我们使用一个十字架,正如我们在其他地方解释过的那样,这是“普世人”的象征。(参见《十字架的象征意义》)

    is quite accurate. Further, when we call them by their names Heaven and Earth, this even translates itself with the greatest of precision into the sensory appearances that serve as their symbols.
    非常准确。此外,当我们用天和地这两个名字称呼它们时,这甚至在作为它们象征的感官表象中以最高的精确度进行了翻译。
All manifestation, then, occurs between these two poles; and naturally the same applies to Man. For not only is he a part of this manifestation: symbolically he represents its very centre, which means that he is a synthesis of all that it contains. So, situated as he is between Heaven and Earth, Man must in the first instance be viewed as the product or resultant of their reciprocal influences. But then, by virtue of the dual nature he inherits from both, he becomes the median term or 'mediator' which unites them: using a symbolism we shall return to later, he is as it were the 'bridge' passing from the one to the other.
所有的表现都发生在这两个极点之间;自然地,这也适用于人类。因为他不仅是这种表现的一部分:象征性地,他代表着它的中心,这意味着他是其中包含的一切的综合体。所以,由于他处于天地之间,首先必须将人类视为彼此相互影响的产物或结果。然后,由于他从两者那里继承的双重本质,他成为将它们统一起来的中间术语或“调解者”:使用我们稍后将回到的象征,他就像是从一个到另一个的“桥梁”。
These two different viewpoints can be expressed by simply modifying the sequence in which the terms of the Triad are enumerated. If we present the Triad in the sequence 'Heaven, Earth, Man', Man assumes the guise of Son of Heaven and Earth. But if we present it in the sequence 'Heaven, Man, Earth', he assumes the role of Mediator between Heaven on the one hand and Earth on the other.
这两种不同的观点可以通过简单地修改三才的术语顺序来表达。如果我们按照“天、地、人”的顺序呈现三才,人就扮演了天地之子的角色。但如果我们按照“天、人、地”的顺序呈现,他就扮演了天地之间的调解者的角色。
I 3. Hence the reason why the 'pinnacle of Heaven' (T'ien ) is also, as pointed out in a n earlier note, the pinnacle of the Cosmosin its entirety.
因此,“天之巅峰”(天)也是整个宇宙的巅峰。

3 | Heaven and Earth
3 | 天地

'HeAven covers, Earth supports.' So runs the traditional formula that defines with the greatest of precision the roles of these two complementary principles and symbolically demarcates their positions, respectively above and below, in relation to the 'ten thousand beings' - that is, the totality of universal manifestation. Here we find postulated on one hand the 'actionless' quality of the activity of Heaven, or Purusha; 2 and on the other hand the passivity of Earth, or Prakriti, which strictly speaking is a 'ground' or 'support' for manifestation, and consequently also a plane of resistance and halting for the celestial forces and influences acting downwards from above. Furthermore, this is applicable at any level of existence, for essence and substance can always be envisaged as principles that in a relative sense-that is, in relation to each particular state of manifestation-correspond to universal Essence and universal Substance in their relation to the totality of manifested existence.
'天覆地载'。这是传统的公式,以最精确的方式定义了这两个互补原则的角色,并在象征性地划定了它们的位置,分别在上方和下方,与“万物” - 即宇宙表现的总体 - 相关。在这里,我们发现一方面是天或普鲁什的“无为”品质的假设行动,另一方面是地或普拉克里蒂的被动性,严格来说,它是一种表现的“基础”或“支持”,因此也是天上的力量和影响向下作用的阻力和停顿的平面。此外,这适用于任何存在的层次,因为本质和物质总是可以被视为相对意义上的原则,即与每个特定的表现状态相对应的宇宙本质和宇宙物质与表现存在的总体之间的关系。
Within the Universal, and viewed from the side of their common principle, Heaven is 'active perfection' (Ch'ien) and
在宇宙中,从它们共同原则的角度来看,天是“积极完美”(乾)的,
I. We have explained elsewhere the reason for the choice of the number 'ten thousand' as a symbolic representation of the indefinite (Les Principes du Calcul infinitésimal, chapter 9). As for Heaven's 'covering', we will recall that an identical symbolism is contained both in the Greek word Ouranos, which is equivalent to the Sanskrit Varuna and derives from the root var, 'to cover', and also in the Latin Caelum, which comes from caelare, 'to conceal' or 'cover': see The Lord of the World, translated by various hands (Ellingstring, Yorks., I983), chapter 7.
我。我们已经在其他地方解释了选择“万”这个数字作为无限的象征性表示的原因(《无穷小计算原理》第 9 章)。至于天空的“覆盖”,我们将回忆起,同样的象征意义也包含在希腊词 Ouranos 中,它等同于梵文 Varuna,源自 var 这个词根,意为“覆盖”,还有拉丁词 Caelum,来自 caelare,意为“隐藏”或“覆盖”:参见《世界之主》(由多位译者翻译,Ellingstring,约克郡,1983 年),第 7 章。
  1. In theological language the 'working of the Holy Spirit' which we mentioned earlier is sometimes given the name obumbratio ('overshadowing'), and this is funda mentally a expression of the sa me idea.
    在神学语言中,我们之前提到的“圣灵的工作”有时被称为 obumbratio(“遮蔽”),这基本上是同样概念的表达。
  2. Compare the etymological meaning of the word 'substance': literally 'that which stands beneath'.
    比较词语“substance”的词源意义:字面上是“位于下方的东西”。
  3. This will help us in particular to understand later on how the role of 'mediator' can in fact be ascribed to 'true man' as well as to 'transcendent man'. Otherwise, without this observation one might ha ve assumed that it should be applied to the latter alone.
    这将帮助我们特别理解后来如何将“调解者”的角色归属于“真人”和“超越人”。否则,没有这个观察,人们可能会认为它只适用于后者。
Earth is 'passive perfection' (K'un). Neither of these is Perfection in the absolute sense: a distinction already exists, and distinction inevitably implies a limitation. Viewed from the side of manifestation, they are merely Essence and Substance, which necessarily possess a lesser degree of universality because they only appear as such precisely in relation to manif estation. But whatever the viewpoint, and regardless of the level from which they are observed in their correlation with each other, Heaven is always an active principle and Earth always a passive principle. Alternatively, to use one of the symbolic contrasts most frequently employed in this context, they are a masculine principle and a feminine principle; and here we have the most classic of all examples of complementarity.
地球是“被动的完美”(坤)。这两者都不是绝对意义上的完美:已经存在了一个区别,而区别必然意味着限制。从表现的角度来看,它们只是本质和物质,它们必然具有较低的普遍性,因为它们只是在与表现相关的情况下才出现为这样。但无论从哪个观点来看,无论从哪个层面来观察它们彼此之间的关系,天始终是一种积极的原则,而地始终是一种被动的原则。或者,用这个背景下最常用的象征性对比之一来说,它们是一种男性原则和一种女性原则;在这里,我们有了最经典的互补性例子。
Generally speaking it is from this basic polarity that all the other characteristics of Heaven and Earth derive, these being in one way or another secondary to it. However, it is advisable to be on the alert here for certain exchanges of attributes which could give rise to misunderstandings, and which in fact can occur fairly frequently in traditional symbolism wherever relationships between complementary principles are involved. This is a point we will later have to come back to when we deal with the numerical symbols attributed to Heaven and to Earth.
一般来说,所有天地的其他特征都源自这种基本的极性,这些特征在某种程度上都是次要的。然而,在这里需要注意某些属性的交换可能会导致误解,实际上在传统象征中,无论涉及哪些互补原则的关系,这种情况经常发生。当我们处理与天和地有关的数字符号时,我们将在以后回到这一点。
It is common knowledge that in the case of a complementary relationship between two terms where one is viewed as active and the other as passive, the active term will generally be represented symbolically by a vertical line and the passive term by a horizontal line. At times Heaven and Earth are also depicted symbolically in this way; but in this particular case the two lines do not cross each other to form a cross as they usually would, because it is obviously appropriate that the whole of the symbol of Heaven should be placed above the symbol of Earth. This gives us a perpendicular
众所周知,在两个术语之间存在互补关系的情况下,其中一个被视为主动,另一个被视为被动,通常用垂直线来表示主动术语,用水平线来表示被动术语。有时,天和地也以这种方式象征性地描绘出来;但在这种特殊情况下,两条线不会交叉形成十字,因为显然将整个天的象征放在地的象征上方是合适的。这给我们一个垂直的
  1. See The Symbolism of the Cross, chapter 23. The first of the two viewpoints indicated here is strictly speaking metaphysical, while the second is more of a cosmological order-or to be more precise, it actually represents the 'point of departure' for every traditional cosmology.
    请参阅《十字架的象征意义》第 23 章。这里所指的两种观点中,第一种严格来说是形而上学的,而第二种更多地属于宇宙秩序,或者更准确地说,它实际上代表了每个传统宇宙观的“出发点”。
  2. See The Symbolism of the Cross, chapter 6.
    请参阅《十字架的象征意义》第 6 章。

    with the horizontal at its foot, 7 and these two lines can be viewed as the altitude and base of a triangle, the sides of which descend from the 'pinnacle of Heaven' to determine the real extent of the surf ace of the Earth - that is, to mark off the 'ground' that serves as the support for manifestation (figure 7).
    与水平线相交,7 和这两条线可以看作是一个三角形的高度和底边,其边从“天堂的顶点”下降,确定地球表面的真实范围 - 也就是划定作为表现支撑的“地面”(图 7)。
Be this as it may, the kind of geometric representation most frequently encountered in the Far-Eastern tradition is one that
无论如何,远东传统中最常见的几何表达方式是一种
Figure 7 associates circular shapes with Heaven and square shapes with Earth, for reasons we have already explained elsewhere. 9 Suffice it here to say that if we consider the cycle of manifestation-and by this we ref er to any cycle that can be conceived of, ranging from the most extensive in size to the smallest-the descending movement in the cycle proceeds from the upper pole, Heaven, to the lower pole, Earth; if only a specific cycle is being considered, it will naturally be a question of whatever else happens to represent these poles from a relative point of view. This descending movement can be regarded as taking its point of departure from the least 'specific' of all shapes-the sphere-in order to arrive finally at the shape which is by contrast the most 'fixed' of all-the cube. shapes has an eminently 'dynamic' property, while the second is
图 7 将圆形与天相联系,将方形与地相联系,原因我们在其他地方已经解释过。在这里只需说,如果我们考虑表现的循环-通过这个词我们指的是任何可以构想的循环,从最大的到最小的-循环中的下降运动从上极天到下极地进行;如果只考虑一个特定的循环,那自然是从相对角度来表示这些极点的任何其他事物。这种下降运动可以被看作是从所有形状中最不“特定”的形状-球体-出发,最终到达所有形状中最“固定”的形状-立方体。第一个形状具有极具“动态”特性,而第二个形状则具有极具“固定”特性。
  1. We shall see later that this perpendicular has other meanings as well, each of them corresponding to a different point of view. For the moment, however, we are only considering the geometrical representation of the complementary relationship between Heaven and Earth.
    我们将在后面看到,这个垂直线还有其他意义,每个意义对应着不同的观点。然而,目前我们只考虑天地之间互补关系的几何表示。
  2. The figure produced by arranging the vertical and horizontal in this way is also a well-known symbol even today in Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry, although it is not among those retained by the so-called 'Latin' Freemasonry. In building symbolism in general, the vertical is represented by the perpendicular, or plumb-line, and the horizontal by the level. A similar arrangement of the two letters alif and in the Arabic alphabet also corresponds to the same symbolism.
    通过这种方式排列的图形,即使在今天的盎格鲁-撒克逊共济会中,也是一个众所周知的象征,尽管它不属于所谓的“拉丁”共济会所保留的那些象征。在建筑象征中,垂直由垂直线或铅垂线表示,水平由水平线表示。阿拉伯字母表中字母阿里夫和 的类似排列也对应着相同的象征意义。
  3. The Reign of Quantity and the Signs of the Times, chapter 20.
    《数量的统治与时代的迹象》第 20 章。
ro. The sphere is of course the equivalent in three-dimensional geometry of the circle, and the cube of the square.
球当然是三维几何中圆的等价物,而立方体则是正方形的等价物。

eminently 'static'-which corresponds once again to the polarity of active and passive. Also, there is a sense in which this representation can be linked to the preceding one by viewing the horizontal line in the first figure as the trace of a plane surface, the 'measured' area of which will be a square, and by viewing the vertical line as the radius of a hemispherical surf ace that meets the terrestrial plane along the line of the horizon. And in fact, according to sensible appearances Heaven and Earth meet at their periphery or their outermost borders-namely on the horizon. It should be noted, however, that the reality of which these appearances are symbols must be viewed the other way around, for in terms of that reality they are united not at the periphery but at the centre;