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环境工程微生物学课后习题答案(周群英第四版)  Answers to Environmental Engineering Microbiology Exercises (Fourth Edition by Zhou Qunying)

目 录

环境工程微生物学 错误!未定义书签。 Environmental Engineering Microbiology Error! Bookmark not defined.
绪论 ..... 2 Introduction ..... 2
1、何谓原核微生物?它包括哪些微生物? ..... 2
1. What are prokaryotic microorganisms? Which microorganisms does it include? ..... 2.

2、何谓真核微生物?它包括哪些微生物? ..... 2
2. What are eukaryotic microorganisms? Which microorganisms does it include? ..... 2

3、微生物是如何分类的 ..... 2
3. How are microorganisms classified? ..... 2

6、写出大肠埃希氏杆菌和桔草芽孢杆菌的拉丁文全称。 ..... 2
6. Write down the full Latin names of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

7、微生物有哪些特点? ..... 2 7. What are the characteristics of microorganisms? ..... 2
第一章 病毒 ..... 2
Chapter One Virus ..... 2

第二章 原核微生物 ..... 7
Chapter 2 Prokaryotic Microorganisms ..... 7

1、细菌有哪几种形态?各举一种细菌为代表。 ..... 7
What are the different forms of bacteria? Give an example of each. ..... 7

2、细菌有哪些一般结构和特殊结构? 它们各有哪些生理功能? ..... 7
2. What are the general and special structures of bacteria? What are their respective physiological functions? ..... 7

3、荚膜、粘液层、菌胶团和衣鞘 ..... 7 3. Pod membrane, mucous layer, bacterial mass, and sheath ..... 7
第三章 真核微生物 ..... 12
Chapter Three Eukaryotic Microorganisms ..... 12

第四章 微生物的生理 ..... 15
Chapter Four Physiology of Microorganisms ..... 15

第五章 微生物的生长繁殖与生存因子 ..... 20
Chapter Five Growth, Reproduction, and Survival Factors of Microorganisms ..... 20

第六章 微生物的遗传与变异 ..... 28
Chapter Six Genetics and Variation of Microorganisms ..... 28

第七章 微生物的生态 ..... 35
Chapter Seven Microbial Ecology ..... 35

第八章 微生物在环境物质循环中的作用 ..... 40
Chapter Eight The Role of Microorganisms in the Cycling of Environmental Substances ..... 40

第九章 水环境污染控制与治理的生态工程及微生物学原理. ..... 44
Chapter Nine Ecological Engineering and Microbiological Principles of Water Environment Pollution Control and Governance. ..... 44

第十章 有机固体废物与废弃的微生物处理及微生物群落 ..... 48
Chapter Ten Organic Solid Waste and Abandoned Microbial Treatment and Microbial Community ..... 48

第十一章 有机固体废物与废气的微生物处理及其微生物群落 ..... 54
Chapter Eleven Microbial Treatment of Organic Solid Waste and Waste Gas and Their Microbial Communities ..... 54

何谓堆肥法,堆肥化和堆肥? ..... 54
What is composting, composting and compost? ..... 54

2 , 叙述好氧堆肥的机理。参与堆肥发酵的微生物有哪些? ..... 54
2. Describe the mechanism of aerobic composting. What microorganisms are involved in compost fermentation? ..... 54

3 ,好氧堆肥的运行条件有哪些? ..... 55
3. What are the operating conditions of aerobic composting? ..... 55

4, 好氧堆肥法有几种工艺?简述各个工艺的过程。 ..... 55
4. How many types of aerobic composting methods are there? Briefly describe the process of each method. ..... 55

第十二章 微生物学新技术在环境工程中的应用 ..... 60
Chapter Twelve Application of New Biotechnology in Environmental Engineering ..... 60
  1. 酶制剂剂型有几种? ..... 60 How many types of enzyme preparations are there? ..... 60
  2. 何谓固定化酶和固定化微生物? ..... 60 What are immobilized enzymes and immobilized microorganisms? ..... 60
  3. 酶和酶菌体固定化方法有哪几种? 各用什么载体? ..... 60
    What are the several methods of enzyme and enzyme cell immobilization? What carriers are used for each? ..... 60
  4. 固定化酶和固定化微生物有什么优点?存在什么问题? ..... 60
    What are the advantages of immobilized enzymes and immobilized microorganisms? What are the problems? ..... 60
  5. 生物膜是固定化微生物吗?为什么? ..... 60
    Is the biofilm immobilized microorganisms? Why? ..... 60
  6. 何谓表面活性剂?生物表面活性剂有哪几类? ..... 60
    What is a surfactant? What are the types of biological surfactants? ..... 60
  7. 絮凝剂有几类? 微生物絮凝剂在污水生物处理中起什么作用? ..... 60
    How many types of flocculants are there? What role does microbial flocculant play in sewage biological treatment? ..... 60
  8. 叙述污水处理中微生物絮凝剂的作用原理? ..... 60
    Describe the principle of microbial flocculants in sewage treatment? ..... 60
  9. 微生物制剂有哪些用途? ..... 60 What are the uses of microbial agents? ..... 60
  10. 有几种产氢微生物? 它们是如何产氢的? ..... 61
    How many kinds of hydrogen-producing microorganisms are there? How do they produce hydrogen? ..... 61
  11. 请叙述微生物产氢电池的工作原理。 ..... 61
    Please describe the working principle of microbial hydrogen fuel cells.


1、何谓原核微生物?它包括哪些微生物? What are prokaryotic microorganisms? Which microorganisms does it include?

答: 原核微生物的核很原始, 发育不全, 只有 DNA 链高度折叠形成的一个核区, 没有核膜, 核质裸露, 与细胞质没有明显界限, 叫拟核或似核。原核微生物没有细胞器, 只有由细胞质膜内陷形成的不规则的泡沫体系, 如间体核光合作用层片及其他内折。也不进行有丝分裂。原核微生物包括古菌(即古细菌)、真细菌、放线菌、蓝细菌、粘细菌、立克次氏体、支原体、衣原体和螺旋体。
Answer: The nucleus of prokaryotic microorganisms is very primitive, underdeveloped, with only a nucleoid formed by highly folded DNA chains, lacking a nuclear membrane, with naked nucleoplasm, and no clear boundary with the cytoplasm, known as a nucleoid or pseudonucleus. Prokaryotic microorganisms do not have organelles, only an irregular vesicular system formed by invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane, such as thylakoid membranes in photosynthetic layers and other internal folds. They also do not undergo mitosis. Prokaryotic microorganisms include archaea (ancient bacteria), bacteria, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, myxobacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes, chlamydiae, and spirilla.

2、何谓真核微生物?它包括哪些微生物? What is eukaryotic microorganisms? Which microorganisms does it include?

答: 真核微生物由发育完好的细胞核, 核内由核仁核染色质。由核膜将细胞核和细胞质分开, 使两者由明显的界限。有高度分化的细胞器, 如线粒体、中心体、高尔基体、内质网、溶酶体和叶绿体等。进行有丝分裂。真核微生物包括除蓝藻以外的藻类、酵母菌、需菌、原生动物、微型后生动物等。
Answer: Eukaryotic microorganisms have well-developed cell nuclei, with nucleoli and chromatin inside the nucleus. The nuclear membrane separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm, giving them distinct boundaries. They have highly differentiated organelles such as mitochondria, centrioles, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and chloroplasts, etc. They undergo mitosis. Eukaryotic microorganisms include algae other than blue-green algae, yeast, fungi, protozoa, and micro-metazoans.

3、微生物是如何分类的? 3. How are microorganisms classified?

答:各种微生物按其客观存在的生物属性(如个体形态及大小、染色反应、菌落特征、细胞结构、生理生化反应、与氧的关系、血清学反应等)及它们的亲缘关系, 由次序地分门别类排列成一个系统, 从大到小, 按界、门、纲、目、科、属、种等分类。种是分类的最小单位, “株” 不是分类单位。
Answer: Various microorganisms are classified into a system based on their objective biological properties (such as individual morphology and size, staining reactions, colony characteristics, cell structure, physiological and biochemical reactions, relationship with oxygen, serological reactions, etc.) and their phylogenetic relationships, arranged in order from large to small, classified by kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, etc. Species is the smallest unit of classification, and "strain" is not a classification unit.

4、生物的分界共有几种分法,他们是如何划分的? 4. How many ways are there to classify living organisms, and how are they classified?

答: 1969 年魏泰克提出生物五界分类系统, 后被 Margulis 修改成为普遍接受的五界分类系统: 原核生物界 (包括细菌、放线菌、蓝绿细菌)、原生生物界 (包括蓝藻以外的藻类及原生动物)、真菌界(包括酵母菌和霉菌)、动物界和植物界。我国王教授提出六界: 病毒界、原核生物界、真核生物界、真菌界、动物界和植物界。
Answer: In 1969, Weitek proposed the biological five-kingdom classification system, which was later modified by Margulis into the widely accepted five-kingdom classification system: Prokaryote Kingdom (including bacteria, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria), Protist Kingdom (including algae other than cyanobacteria and protozoa), Fungi Kingdom (including yeast and mold), Animal Kingdom, and Plant Kingdom. Professor Wang of China proposed six kingdoms: Virus Kingdom, Prokaryote Kingdom, Eukaryote Kingdom, Fungi Kingdom, Animal Kingdom, and Plant Kingdom.

5、微生物是如何命名的?举例说明。 5. How are microorganisms named? Give an example.

答: 微生物的命名是采用生物学中的二名法, 即用两个拉丁字命名一个微生物的种。这个种的名称是由一个属名和一个种名组成, 属名和种名都用斜体字表示,属名在前, 用拉丁文名词表示, 第一个字母大写。种名在后, 用拉丁文的形容词表示,第一个字母小写。如大肠埃希氏杆菌的名称是 Escherichia coli。
Answer: The naming of microorganisms follows the binomial nomenclature in biology, which uses two Latin words to name a species of microorganism. The name of a species consists of a genus name and a species name, both written in italics, with the genus name first in Latin noun form with the first letter capitalized, and the species name following in Latin adjective form with the first letter in lowercase. For example, the name of the bacterium Escherichia coli is written as Escherichia coli.

Write the full Latin names of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

答: 大肠埃希氏杆菌的名称是 Escherichia coli,桔草芽狍杆菌的名称是 Bacillus subtilis。
Answer: The name of Escherichia coli is Escherichia coli, and the name of Bacillus subtilis is Bacillus subtilis.

7、微生物有哪些特点? 7. What are the characteristics of microorganisms?

答: (一) 个体极小: 微生物的个体极小, 有几纳米到几微米, 要通过光学显微镜才能看见, 病毒小于 0.2 微米, 通过电子显微镜才可看见。
Answer: (1) Extremely small individual: The individual of microorganisms is extremely small, ranging from several nanometers to several micrometers, and can only be seen through an optical microscope. Viruses are smaller than 0.2 micrometers and can only be seen through an electron microscope.
(二)分布广, 种类繁多:环境的多样性如极端高温、高盐和极端 使微生物的种类多和数量大。
(2) Widely distributed, diverse species: The diversity of the environment, such as extreme high temperatures, high salinity, and extremes makes the types and numbers of microorganisms abundant.
(三) 繁殖快: 大多数微生物以裂殖的方式繁殖后代,在适宜的环境条件下,十几分钟至二十分钟就可繁殖一代。
(Three) Fast reproduction: Most microorganisms reproduce offspring by fission, and under suitable environmental conditions, a generation can be reproduced in ten to twenty minutes.
(四)易变异:易受外界环境因素影响,引起遗传物质 DNA 的改变而发生变异。或者变异为优良菌种, 或使菌种退化。
(4) Easy to mutate: It is easily influenced by external environmental factors, causing changes in genetic material DNA to occur. The mutation can either produce superior bacterial strains or cause bacterial strains to degenerate.

第一章 病毒 Chapter One: Virus

1. 病毒是一类什么样的微生物? 它有什么特点?
What kind of microorganism is a virus? What are its characteristics?

答: 病毒是没有细胞结构, 专性寄生在活的敏感宿主体内, 可通过细菌过滤器,大小在 0.2 微米一下的超微小微生物。
Answer: Viruses are microorganisms without cellular structure, which parasitize specifically in living sensitive hosts and can pass through bacterial filters, with a size smaller than 0.2 micrometers.
特点: 大小在 0.2 微米以下, 故在光学显微镜下看不见, 你必须在电子显微镜下方可合成蛋白质的机构一一核糖体, 也没有合成细胞物质和繁殖所必备的酶系统, 不具独立的代谢能力, 必须专性寄生在活的敏感宿主细胞内, 依靠宿主细胞合成病毒的化学组成和繁殖新个体。病毒在活的敏感宿主细胞内是具有生命的超微生物, 然而, 在宿主体外却呈现不具生命特征的大分子物质, 但仍保留感染宿主的潜在能力, 一旦重新进入活的宿主细胞内又具有生命特征, 重新感染新的宿主。
Features: The size is below 0.2 micrometers, so it cannot be seen under an optical microscope. You must use an electron microscope to see the structure of the protein synthesis organelle - ribosome. It does not have the necessary enzyme systems for synthesizing cell material and reproduction, lacks independent metabolic capabilities, and must parasitize within living sensitive host cells. It relies on the host cell to synthesize the chemical composition of the virus and reproduce new individuals. The virus is a living ultramicroorganism within the living sensitive host cell. However, outside the host, it appears as a large molecule without life characteristics, but still retains the potential to infect the host. Once it re-enters a living host cell, it exhibits life characteristics again and re-infects a new host.

2. 病毒的分类依据是什么? 分为哪几类病毒? What is the basis for the classification of viruses? Into how many categories are viruses divided?

Answer: Viruses are classified according to the virus host, the resulting disease, the type of nucleic acid, the size of the virus particle, the structure of the virus, and whether or not it is enveloped.
根据专性宿主分类: 有动物病毒、植物病毒、细菌病毒(噬菌体)、放线菌病毒 (㗱放线菌体)、藻类病毒(噬藻体),真菌病毒(噬真菌体)。
According to the classification of specific hosts: there are animal viruses, plant viruses, bacterial viruses (bacteriophages), actinomycete viruses (actinophages), algal viruses (algal phages), and fungal viruses (mycoviruses).
按核酸分类: 有 DNA 病毒 (除细小病毒组的成员是单链 DNA 外, 其余所有的病毒都是双链 DNA) 和 RNA 病毒 (除呼肠孤病毒组的成员是双链 RNA 外, 其余所有的病毒都是单链 RNA)。
Classified by nucleic acid: there are DNA viruses (except for single-stranded DNA in the parvovirus group, all other viruses are double-stranded DNA) and RNA viruses (except for double-stranded RNA in the reovirus group, all other viruses are single-stranded RNA).

3. 病毒具有什么样的化学组成和结构? What is the chemical composition and structure of the virus?

答: 一、病毒的化学组成: 病毒的化学组成有蛋白质和核酸, 个体大的病毒如痘病毒, 除含蛋白质和核酸外, 还含类脂类和多糖。
Answer: 1. Chemical composition of virus: The chemical composition of virus includes proteins and nucleic acids. Large viruses such as poxviruses not only contain proteins and nucleic acids, but also lipids and polysaccharides.
二、病毒的结构: 病毒没有细胞结构, 却有其自身独特的结构。整个病毒分两部分: 蛋白质衣壳和核酸内芯, 两者构成核衣壳。完整的具有感染力的病毒叫病毒粒子。病毒粒子有两种: 一种是不具被膜(亦称囊膜)的裸露病毒粒子; 另一种是在核衣壳外面有被膜所构成的病毒粒子。寄生在植物体内的类病毒和拟病毒结构更简单, 只具 RNA,不具蛋白质。
Virus Structure: Viruses do not have cellular structure, but they have their own unique structure. The entire virus consists of two parts: a protein coat and a nucleic acid core, which together form the nucleocapsid. A complete infectious virus is called a virus particle. There are two types of virus particles: one is a naked virus particle without an envelope (also known as a capsid); the other is a virus particle composed of an envelope outside the nucleocapsid. Plant parasitic viruses and viroid structures are simpler, containing only RNA and no protein.
1)、蛋白质衣壳:是由一定数量的衣壳粒(由一种或几种多肽链折叠而成的蛋白质亚单位) 按一定的排列组合构成的病毒外壳,成为蛋白质衣壳。由于衣壳粒的排列组合不同病毒有三种对称构型: 立体对称型, 螺旋对称型和复合对称型。
1) Protein capsid: It is a virus capsid composed of a certain number of capsomeres (protein subunits folded from one or several polypeptide chains) arranged in a certain combination, forming a protein capsid. Due to different arrangements of capsomeres, viruses have three types of symmetrical configurations: icosahedral symmetry, helical symmetry, and complex symmetry.
2)、蛋白质的功能: 保护病毒使其免受环境因素的影响。决定病毒感染的特异性, 使病毒与敏感细胞表面特定部位有特异亲和力, 病毒可牢固的附着在敏感细胞上。病毒蛋白质还有致病性、毒力和抗原性。动物病毒有的含 DNA, 有的含 RNA。植物病毒大多数含 RNA, 少数含 DNA。噬菌体大多数含 DNA, 少数含 RNA。病毒核酸的功能是: 决定病毒遗传、变异和对敏感宿主细胞的感染力。
2) The function of proteins: Protect viruses from environmental influences. Determine the specificity of virus infection, allowing viruses to have specific affinity for certain sites on the surface of sensitive cells, enabling the virus to firmly attach to sensitive cells. Virus proteins also have pathogenicity, virulence, and antigenicity. Some animal viruses contain DNA, while others contain RNA. Most plant viruses contain RNA, while a few contain DNA. Most bacteriophages contain DNA, while a few contain RNA. The function of viral nucleic acids is to determine the virus's genetics, variation, and infectivity to sensitive host cells.
3)、被膜(囊膜): 痘病毒、腮腺炎病毒及其他病毒具有被膜, 它们除含蛋白质和核酸外, 还含有类脂质, 其中 为磷脂, 其余为胆固醇。痘病毒含糖脂和糖蛋白, 多数病毒不具酶, 少数病毒含核酸多聚酶。
3) Envelope (capsid): Pox viruses, mumps viruses, and other viruses have envelopes. In addition to containing proteins and nucleic acids, they also contain glycolipids, with being phospholipids and the rest being cholesterol. Pox viruses contain glycolipids and glycoproteins. Most viruses do not have enzymes, but a few viruses contain RNA polymerase.

4. 叙述大肠杆菌 T 系噬菌体的繁殖过程。
4. Describe the replication process of Escherichia coli T phage.

答: 大肠杆菌 系噬菌体的繁殖过程可分为四步: 吸附, 侵入, 复制, 聚集与释放。
Answer: The replication process of Escherichia coli bacteriophage can be divided into four steps: adsorption, invasion, replication, aggregation, and release.
1、吸附:首先大肠杆菌 系噬菌体以它的尾部末端吸附到敏感细胞表面上某一特定的化学成分, 或是细胞壁, 或是鞭毛, 或是纤毛。
1. Adsorption: First, the bacteriophage T4 attaches to a specific chemical component on the surface of a sensitive cell with its tail end.
2、侵入: 尾部借尾丝的帮助固着在敏感细胞的细胞壁上, 尾部的酶水解细胞壁的肽聚糖形成小孔, 尾鞘消耗 ATP 获得能量而收缩将尾鞘压入宿主细胞内 (不具尾鞘的丝状大肠杆菌 T 系噬菌体将 DNA 压入宿主细胞内的速度较慢) 尾髓将头部的 DNA 注入宿主细胞内, 蛋白质外壳留在宿主细胞外, 此时, 宿主细胞壁上的小孔被修复。【噬菌体不能繁殖, 这与矬菌体在宿主细胞内增值所引起的裂解不同】。
2. Invasion: With the help of the tail fibers, the tail is anchored to the cell wall of sensitive cells. The tail enzyme hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan of the cell wall to form small holes. The tail sheath consumes ATP to obtain energy and contracts to push the tail sheath into the host cell (bacteriophage T series of Escherichia coli without a tail sheath enters the host cell more slowly). The tail tube injects the DNA from the head into the host cell, while the protein shell remains outside the host cell. At this point, the small holes in the host cell wall are repaired. [Bacteriophages cannot reproduce, which is different from the lysis caused by phages multiplying inside host cells].
3、复制与聚集:噬菌体侵入细胞内后, 立即引起宿主的代谢改变, 宿主细胞胞内的核酸不能按自身的遗传特性复制和合成蛋白质,而有噬菌体核酸所携带的遗传信息控制, 借用宿主细胞的合成机构如核糖体, mRNA、tRNA、ATP 及酶等复制核酸, 进而合成噬菌体的蛋白质, 核酸和蛋白质聚集合成新的唚菌体, 这过程叫装配。大肠杆菌噬菌体 T4 的装配过程如下: 先合成含 DNA 的头部, 然后合成尾部的尾鞘, 尾髓和尾丝。并逐个加上去就装配成一个完整的新的大肠杆菌噬菌体 T4。
3. Replication and Assembly: After the bacteriophage invades the cell, it immediately causes metabolic changes in the host. The host cell's nucleic acids cannot replicate and synthesize proteins according to its own genetic characteristics. Instead, the genetic information carried by the bacteriophage nucleic acid controls the process, utilizing the host cell's synthetic machinery such as ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA, ATP, and enzymes to replicate nucleic acids and synthesize bacteriophage proteins. The nucleic acids and proteins aggregate to form new bacteriophages, a process known as assembly. The assembly process of bacteriophage T4 of Escherichia coli is as follows: first, the head containing DNA is synthesized, followed by the tail sheath, tail tube, and tail fibers. Each component is added sequentially to assemble a complete new bacteriophage T4 of Escherichia coli.
4、宿主细胞裂解和成熟噬菌体粒子的释放:噬菌体粒子成熟后, 噬菌体水解酶水解宿主细胞壁而使宿主细胞裂解, 噬菌体被释放出来重新感染新的宿主细胞,一个宿主细胞课释放 个噬菌体粒子。
4. Lysis of host cells and release of mature bacteriophage particles: After the bacteriophage particles mature, the bacteriophage hydrolase hydrolyzes the host cell wall, causing the host cell to lyse, releasing the bacteriophage to infect new host cells again. One host cell can release bacteriophage particles.

5. 什么叫毒性噬菌体?什么叫温和噬菌体? What is a toxic bacteriophage? What is a temperate bacteriophage?

答: 毒性噬菌体: 就是指侵入宿主细胞后, 随即引起宿主细胞裂解的俰菌体; 是正常表现的噬菌体。
Answer: Toxic bacteriophage: refers to a bacteriophage that invades host cells and immediately causes host cell lysis; it is a normal manifestation of bacteriophage.
温和噬菌体: 就是指侵入细胞后, 其核酸附着并整合在宿主染色体上, 和宿主细胞的核酸同步复制, 宿主细胞不裂解而继续生长, 这种不引起宿主细胞裂解的噬菌体称作温和噬菌体。
Temperate bacteriophage: refers to the bacteriophage that, after invading the cell, attaches its nucleic acid and integrates it into the host chromosome, replicates synchronously with the host cell's nucleic acid, and allows the host cell to continue growing without lysing. This type of bacteriophage that does not cause host cell lysis is called temperate bacteriophage.

6. 什么叫溶原细胞(菌)?什么叫原噬菌体? What is a lysogenic cell (bacterium)? What is a bacteriophage?

答:溶原细胞就是指含有温和噬菌体核酸的宿主细胞。原噬菌体就是指在溶原细胞内的温和噬菌体核酸, 又称为前矬菌体。
Answer: Lysogenic cells refer to host cells containing temperate bacteriophage nucleic acid. The prophage refers to the temperate bacteriophage nucleic acid inside the lysogenic cell, also known as a pro-phage.

7. 解释 Escherichia coil K12( )中的各词的含义。
7. Explain the meanings of the words in Escherichia coli K12 ( ).

答: 溶原性噬菌体的命名是在敏感菌株的名称后面加一个括弧, 在括弧内写上溶原性噬菌体 。大肠杆菌溶原性喠菌体的全称为 Escherichia coil K12 ( ), Escherichia 是大肠杆菌的属名, coil 是大肠杆菌的种名, 是大肠杆菌的株名, 括弧内的 为溶原性噬菌体。
Answer: The nomenclature of lytic phages is to add a parenthesis after the name of the sensitive strain, and write the lytic phage inside the parenthesis . The full name of Escherichia coli K12 lytic phage is Escherichia coli K12 ( ), Escherichia is the genus name of Escherichia coli, coli is the species name of Escherichia coli, is the strain name of Escherichia coli, and inside the parenthesis is the lytic phage.

8. 病毒(噬菌体)在固体培养基上有什么样的培养特征。
8. What are the cultivation characteristics of viruses (bacteriophages) on solid culture media?

答: 将唖菌体的敏感细菌接种在琼脂固体培养基上生长形成许多个菌落, 当接种稀释适度的噬菌体悬液后引起点性感染, 在感染点上进行反复的感染过程, 宿主细菌菌落就一个个被裂解成一个个空斑, 这些空斑就叫噬菌斑。
Answer: Inoculate sensitive bacteria with bacteriophage on solid agar medium to grow many colonies. When inoculated with a diluted suspension of bacteriophage, it causes point infection, and repeated infection processes occur at the infection point. The bacterial colonies of the host are lysed one by one into clear spots, which are called plaques.

9. 噬菌体在液体培养基和固体培养基中各有什么样的培养特征。
9. What are the cultivation characteristics of bacteriophages in liquid and solid culture media?

答: 噬菌体在固体培养基上的培养特征如上; Answer: The cultivation characteristics of bacteriophages on solid culture media are as follows;
噬菌体在液体培养基上的培养特征是:将噬菌体的敏感细菌接种在液体培养基中, 经培养后敏感细菌均匀分布在培养基中而使培养基浑浊。然后接种堡菌体, 敏感细胞被唡菌体感染后发生菌体裂解, 原来浑浊的细菌悬液变成透明的裂解溶液。
The cultivation characteristics of bacteriophages in liquid culture medium are: the sensitive bacteria of bacteriophages are inoculated in liquid culture medium, and after cultivation, the sensitive bacteria are evenly distributed in the culture medium, making the culture medium turbid. Then, bacteriophages are inoculated, and the sensitive cells are infected by the bacteriophages, leading to bacteriophage lysis, transforming the originally turbid bacterial suspension into a transparent lysate solution.

10. 什么叫噬菌斑?什么是 PFU? What is dental plaque? What is PFU?

答: 将噬菌体的敏感细菌接种在琼脂固体培养基上生长形成许多个菌落, 当接种稀释适度的噬菌体悬液后引起点性感染, 在感染点上进行反复的感染过程,宿主细菌菌落就一个个被裂解成一个个空斑, 这些空斑就叫噬菌斑。
Answer: Inoculate sensitive bacteria of bacteriophages on solid agar medium to grow many colonies. When inoculating with a diluted suspension of bacteriophages, it causes point infection. Through repeated infection processes at the infection point, host bacterial colonies are lysed one by one into clear spots, which are called plaques.

11. 破坏病毒的物理因素有哪些? 它们是如何破坏病毒的?
What are the physical factors that destroy viruses? How do they destroy viruses?

答: 共有三类: Answer: There are three types:
Temperature: High temperature damages the nucleic acid and protein coat of the virus. The inactivation of virus protein by high temperature is faster than the inactivation of virus nucleic acid.
蛋白质的变性阻碍了病毒吸附到宿主细胞上, 削弱了病毒的感染力。
The denaturation of proteins hinders the virus from attaching to host cells, weakening the infectivity of the virus.
2、光及其他辐射:(1)紫外辐射:其灭活部位使病毒的核酸, 使核酸中的嘧啶环收到影响, 形成胸腺
2. Light and other radiation: (1) Ultraviolet radiation: Its inactivation site affects the viral nucleic acid, causing an impact on the pyrimidine ring in the nucleic acid, forming a thymus
嘧啶二聚体,尿嘧啶残基的水和作用也会损伤病毒。(2)可见光:在氧气和燃料存在的条件下, 大多数肠道病毒对可见光很敏感而被杀死, 这叫“光灭活作用”;燃料附着在核酸上, 催化光催化作用, 引起病毒灭活。(3)离子辐射: X 射线、 射线也有灭活病毒的作用。
Dimer of pyrimidine, water and action of uracil residues can also damage viruses. (2) Visible light: Under the conditions of oxygen and fuel, most enteroviruses are very sensitive to visible light and are killed, which is called "photodynamic action"; fuel is attached to nucleic acid, catalyzing photocatalysis, causing virus inactivation. (3) Ionizing radiation: X-rays, rays also have the effect of inactivating viruses.
3、干燥: 被灭活的原因是在干燥环境中病毒 RNA 释放出来而随后裂解
3. Drying: The reason for inactivation is that the virus RNA is released in a dry environment and then degraded

12. 紫外线如何破坏病毒? How does ultraviolet light destroy viruses?

答: 紫外线照射到病毒之上, 其灭活部位是病毒的核酸, 是核酸中的嘧啶环到影响,形成胸腺嘧啶二聚
Answer: Ultraviolet light irradiates the virus, and the inactivated site is the virus's nucleic acid, which is the thymine ring in the nucleic acid, forming thymine dimer
The body (that is, forming a covalent bond between adjacent thymine residues). The water and action of uracil residues can also damage the virus.

13. 灭活宿主体外壳的化学物质有哪些? 他们是如何破坏病毒的?
What are the chemical substances that can inactivate the host shell? How do they destroy the virus?

答: 酚: 破坏病毒蛋白质的衣壳。 Answer: Phenol: Destroys the viral protein coat.
低离子强度(低渗缓冲溶液)的环境: 使病毒蛋白质的衣壳发生细微变化, 阻止病毒附着在宿主
Low ionic strength (low permeability buffer solution) environment: causes subtle changes in the viral protein shell, preventing the virus from attaching to the host
细胞上。 On the cell.
附加: 碱性环境课破坏蛋白质衣壳和核酸, 当 大到 11 以上会严重破坏病毒。氯 (次氯酸、二氧化氯、漂白粉) 和臭氧灭活效果极好, 他们对病 毒蛋白质和核酸均有作用。
Addendum: Alkaline environments can damage the protein coat and nucleic acid of viruses. When the pH is above to 11, it will severely damage the virus. Chlorine (hypochlorous acid, chlorine dioxide, bleach) and ozone have excellent inactivation effects, as they act on both virus proteins and nucleic acids.

14. 破坏病毒的蛋白质衣壳、核酸和脂类被膜的化学物质有哪些?
What are the chemical substances that can destroy the protein coat, nucleic acid, and lipid membrane of viruses?

答: 破坏病毒蛋白质衣壳的化学物质有: 酚, 低离子强度; 破坏病毒核酸的化学物质: 甲醛 (破坏核酸, 但不改变病毒的抗原特性), 亚硝酸 (导致嘌呤和嘧啶碱基的脱氨基作用),氨(引起病毒颗粒内 RNA 的裂解); 破坏病毒脂类被膜的化学物质: 醚、十二烷基硫酸钠、氯仿、去氧胆酸钠等。
Answer: Chemical substances that destroy the protein coat of viruses include: phenol, low ionic strength; Chemical substances that destroy viral nucleic acids include: formaldehyde (destroys nucleic acids but does not alter the virus's antigenic properties), nitrite (causes deamination of purine and pyrimidine bases), ammonia (causes the breakdown of RNA inside virus particles); Chemical substances that destroy the lipid membrane of viruses include: ether, sodium dodecyl sulfate, chloroform, sodium deoxycholate, etc.

15. 你怎么判断病毒有、无被膜? 15. How do you determine whether a virus has an envelope or not?

答: 凡对醚类等脂溶剂敏感的病毒为有被膜的病毒; 对脂溶剂不敏感的病毒为不具被膜的病毒。
Answer: Viruses sensitive to lipophilic solvents such as ether are enveloped viruses; viruses insensitive to lipophilic solvents are non-enveloped viruses.

16. 病毒在水体和土壤中的存活时间主要受哪些因素影响
16. What factors mainly affect the survival time of viruses in water and soil?

答: 病毒在各种环境中由于影响因素的不同, 其存活时间也是不同的。
Answer: The survival time of the virus varies in different environments due to different influencing factors.
1、病毒在水体中的存活: 在海水和淡水中, 温度是影响病毒存活的主要因素,也与病毒类型也有关。在水体淤泥中, 病毒吸附在固体颗粒上或被有机物包裹在颗粒中间, 受到保护其存活时间会较长一些。
1. Virus survival in water: In seawater and freshwater, temperature is the main factor affecting virus survival, which is also related to the type of virus. In water sediments, viruses adsorb onto solid particles or are enveloped by organic matter within the particles, providing protection and prolonging their survival time.
2、病毒在土壤中的存活: 主要受土壤温度和湿度的影响最大, 低温时的存活时间比在高温时长; 干燥易使病毒灭活, 其灭活的原因是病毒成分的解离和核酸的降解。
2. Survival of viruses in soil: It is mainly influenced by soil temperature and humidity, with longer survival time at low temperatures than at high temperatures; dry conditions can easily inactivate viruses, the reason for their inactivation being the dissociation of viral components and the degradation of nucleic acids.
【附】:土壤的截留病毒的能力受土壤的类型、渗滤液的流速、土壤孔隙的饱和度、 、渗虑液中的阳离子的价数 (阳离子吸附病毒的能力: 3 价 价)和数量、可溶性有机物和病毒的种类等的影响。
【Attachment】: The ability of soil to retain viruses is influenced by the type of soil, the flow rate of infiltrating liquid, the saturation of soil pores, , the valence of cations in the infiltrating liquid (the ability of cations to adsorb viruses: 3 valence valence valence), as well as the quantity, soluble organic matter, and type of viruses.
3、病毒在空气中的存活: 干燥、相对湿度、太阳光中的紫外辐射、温度和风速等的影响。相对湿度大, 病毒存活时间长; 相对湿度小, 越是干燥, 病毒存活时间短。
3. The survival of the virus in the air: the impact of dryness, relative humidity, ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, temperature, and wind speed. The higher the relative humidity, the longer the virus survives; the lower the relative humidity, the drier it is, the shorter the virus survival time.

17. 病毒有哪些危害? 怎样控制病毒? What are the hazards of viruses? How to control viruses?

危害: 由于它寄生在生物体内, 破坏生物机体, 可引起人类及与人类密切相关的动植物疾病, 甚至死亡。如水痘、天花、非典以及最近的新型冠状病毒肺炎。控制: 清洁环境、喷洒药物消毒器物和环境; 注射疫苗, 使人产生抗体, 增强免疫力。
Harm: Because it parasitizes in the organism, damages the biological organism, can cause diseases in humans and closely related animals and plants, and even death. Such as chickenpox, smallpox, SARS, and the recent novel coronavirus pneumonia. Control: Clean the environment, spray disinfectants on objects and the environment; inject vaccines to produce antibodies in humans and enhance immunity.

18. 噬菌体有哪些方面的应用?如何应用? What are the applications of bacteriophages? How are they applied?

噬菌体的应用领域有医疗、发酵工业、水产养殖、畜牧养殖、农林业和环境保护具体应用: (1)用于细菌鉴定和分型; (2)分子生物学领域的工具和材料; (3)用于预防和治疗传染性疾病; (4)用于检测抗癌物质; (5)检测病原菌
The application fields of bacteriophages include medical, fermentation industry, aquaculture, animal husbandry, agriculture and forestry, and environmental protection. Specific applications include: (1) used for bacterial identification and typing; (2) tools and materials in the field of molecular biology; (3) used for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases; (4) used for detecting anticancer substances; (5) detecting pathogens

第二章 原核微生物 Chapter 2 Prokaryotic Microorganisms

1、细菌有哪几种形态?各举一种细菌为代表。 What are the different forms of bacteria? Give an example of each.

答: 细菌有四种形态: 球状、杆状、螺旋状和丝状。分别叫球菌、杆菌、螺旋菌和丝状菌。
Answer: Bacteria have four morphologies: spherical, rod-shaped, helical, and filamentous. They are respectively called cocci, bacilli, spirilla, and filamentous bacteria.
1、球菌: 有单球菌 (脲微球菌), 双球菌(肺炎链球菌)。排列不规则的金黄色葡萄球菌、四联球菌。八个球菌垒叠成立方体的有甲烷八叠球菌。链状的有乳链球菌。
1. Cocci: includes single cocci (ureaplasma), diplococci (pneumococcus). Irregularly arranged golden staphylococci, streptococci. Eight cocci stacked into a cube form methane-producing cocci. Chain-shaped cocci include streptococci.
2、杆菌: 有单杆菌, 其中有长杆菌和短杆菌(或近似球形)。产芽狍杆菌有枯草芽狍杆菌。梭状的芽狍杆菌有溶纤维梭菌等。还有双杆菌和链杆菌之分。
2. Bacteria: There are single rod-shaped bacteria, including long rod-shaped bacteria and short rod-shaped bacteria (or nearly spherical). Budding rod-shaped bacteria include Bacillus subtilis. Spindle-shaped budding bacteria include Clostridium cellulolyticum, etc. There are also bifid bacteria and chain bacteria.
3、螺旋菌呈螺旋卷曲状, 厌氧污泥中有紫硫螺旋菌、红螺旋菌属和绿螺旋菌属。螺纹不满一周的叫弧菌, 如: 脱硫弧菌。呈逗号型的如: 逗号弧菌, 霍乱弧菌是其中的一直被那个。弧菌可弧线连接成螺旋形。螺纹满一周的叫螺旋菌。
3. Spiral bacteria are spiral and curved, and there are purple sulfur spiral bacteria, red spiral bacteria, and green spiral bacteria in anaerobic sludge. Those with less than one turn are called vibrios, such as desulfurizing vibrios. Those in comma shape, such as comma vibrios, cholera vibrios are among them. Vibrios can be connected in a spiral shape. Those with a full turn are called spiral bacteria.
4、丝状菌: 分布在水生环境, 潮湿土壤和活性污泥中。有铁细菌如: 富有球衣菌、泉发菌属即原铁细菌属及纤发菌属。丝状菌属如: 发硫菌属, 贝日阿托氏菌属、透明颤菌属、亮发菌属等多重丝状菌。丝状体是丝状菌分类的特征。
4. Filamentous bacteria: distributed in aquatic environments, moist soil, and activated sludge. There are iron bacteria such as: Leptothrix, Gallionella, Sphaerotilus, and Leptothrix. Filamentous bacteria genera include: Beggiatoa, Thiothrix, Leucothrix, and Leptothrix. Filamentous body is a characteristic feature of filamentous bacteria classification.
【附】在正常的生长条件下, 细菌的形态是相对稳定的。培养基的化学组成、浓度、培养温度、 、培养时间等的变化, 会引起细菌的形态改变。或死亡, 或细胞破裂, 或出现畸形。有些细菌则是多形态的, 有周期性的生活史, 如粘细菌可形成无细胞壁的营养细胞和子实体。
【Attachment】Under normal growth conditions, the morphology of bacteria is relatively stable. Changes in the chemical composition, concentration, culture temperature, , culture time, etc., of the medium can cause changes in the morphology of bacteria. They may die, cell rupture, or appear deformed. Some bacteria are pleomorphic, with a periodic life cycle, such as myxobacteria, which can form non-cell wall nutritional cells and fruiting bodies.

2、细菌有哪些一般结构和特殊结构? 它们各有哪些生理功能?
What are the general structures and special structures of bacteria? What are their respective physiological functions?

答: 细菌是单细胞的。所有的细菌均有如下结构: 细胞壁、细胞质膜、细胞质及其内含物、细胞核质。部分细菌有特殊结构:芽孢、鞭毛、荚膜、粘液层、菌胶团、衣鞘及光合作用层片。
Answer: Bacteria are single-celled organisms. All bacteria have the following structures: cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm and its contents, nucleoid. Some bacteria have special structures: endospores, flagella, capsule, slime layer, biofilm, sheath, and photosynthetic lamellae.
1、细胞壁 Cell wall
【生理功能】 : a、保护原生质体免受渗透压引起破裂的作用;
【Physiological Function】: a. Protect the protoplast from bursting caused by osmotic pressure
b. Maintain bacterial morphology (it has been proven that the bacteria all appear round after treatment with different bacteriolytic enzymes on the bacterial cell wall)
c、细胞壁是多孔结构的分子篮, 阻挡某些分子进入和保留蛋白质在间质(革兰氏阴性菌细胞壁和细胞质之间的区域);
c. The cell wall is a porous molecular basket that blocks certain molecules from entering and retains proteins in the periplasm (the region between the cell wall and the cytoplasm in Gram-negative bacterial cells)
细胞壁为鞭毛提供支点, 使鞭毛运动。 The cell wall provides a pivot point for the flagella to move.
2、原生质体 2. Protoplast
【生理功能】: a、维持渗透压的梯度和溶质的转移;
【Physiological Functions】: a. Maintaining the gradient of osmotic pressure and the transfer of solutes;
b、细胞质膜上有合成细胞壁和形成横膈膜组分的酶, 故在膜的外表面合成细胞壁;
b. There are enzymes on the cytoplasmic membrane that synthesize cell walls and form septal membrane components, so cell walls are synthesized on the outer surface of the membrane
c、膜内陷形成的中间体 (相当于高等植物的线粒体) 含有细胞色素, 参与呼吸作用。中间体与染色体的分离和细胞分裂有关,还为 DNA 提供附着点。
The intermediate formed by invagination of the membrane (equivalent to the mitochondria of higher plants) contains cytochromes and participates in respiration. The intermediate is related to the separation of chromosomes and cell division, and also provides attachment points for DNA.
d、细胞质膜上有琥珀酸脱氢酶、NADH 脱氢酶、细胞色素氧化酶、电子传递系统、氧化磷酸化酶及腺苷三磷酸酶。在细胞之抹上进行物质代谢和能量代谢。
d. There are succinate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, electron transfer system, oxidative phosphorylation enzyme, and adenosine triphosphatase on the cytoplasmic membrane. They are involved in substance metabolism and energy metabolism on the cell membrane.
e、细胞质膜上有鞭毛基粒, 鞭毛由此长出, 即为鞭毛提供附着点。
On the cytoplasmic membrane, there are basal bodies for cilia, from which cilia grow, providing attachment points for cilia.
3、荚膜、粘液层、菌胶团和衣鞘 3. Pod membrane, mucous layer, bacterial gel mass, and sheath
A 荚膜: A capsule:
【生理功能】: 、具有荚膜的 -型肺炎链球菌毒力强, 有助于肺炎链球菌侵染人体;
【Physiological Function】: , -type pneumococci with capsules are highly virulent, which helps pneumococci infect the human body
b、护致病菌免受宿主吞噬细胞的吞噬, 保护细菌免受干燥的
b. Protect pathogenic bacteria from being engulfed by host phagocytic cells, protecting bacteria from drying out
c 当缺乏营养时, 有的荚膜还可作氮源; When lacking in nutrients, some pod membranes can also serve as a nitrogen source
废水处理中的细胞荚膜有生物吸附作用, 将废水中的有机物、无机物及吸附在细菌体表面上。
The cell capsule membrane in wastewater treatment has a bio-adsorption effect, which adsorbs organic and inorganic substances in wastewater and on the surface of bacterial cells.
粘液层: 在废水生物处理过程中有生物吸附作用, 在曝气池中因曝气搅动和水的冲击力容易把细菌粘液冲刷入水中, 以致增加水中有机物, 它可被其他微生物利用。
Mucous layer: In the process of wastewater biological treatment, there is a biological adsorption effect. In the aeration tank, due to aeration stirring and the impact of water, bacteria mucus is easily washed into the water, thereby increasing the organic matter in the water, which can be utilized by other microorganisms.
菌胶团: Gelatinous mass:
D 衣鞘: D Sheath:
【附】荚膜、粘液层、衣鞘和菌胶团对染料的亲和力极低, 很难着色, 都用衬托法着色。
[Attachment] The pod membrane, mucous layer, sheath, and fungal mass have very low affinity for dyes, making it difficult to color them, so they are all colored by contrast method.
4 芽孢: 抵抗外界不良化境 (原因是大多数酶处于不活动状态, 代谢力极低)。 特点: a, 含水率低:
4 spores: resistant to adverse environments (due to the inactivity of most enzymes, very low metabolism). Characteristics: a, low water content:
B, 壁厚而致密, 分三层:外层为芽孢外壳,为蛋白质性质。中层为皮层,有肽聚糖构成, 含大量 2,6 吡啶二羧酸。内层为狍子壁, 有肽聚糖构成,包围芽孢细胞质和核质。芽孢萌发后孢子壁变为营养细胞的细胞壁。
B, thick and dense, divided into three layers: the outer layer is the spore shell, which is proteinaceous. The middle layer is the cortex, composed of peptidoglycan, containing a large amount of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid. The inner layer is the perisporium, composed of peptidoglycan, surrounding the spore cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. After germination, the spore wall becomes the cell wall of the vegetative cell.
C, 呀包中的 2, 6 吡啶二羧酸 (DPA) 含量高, 为芽孢干重的 。 D, 含有耐热性酶
C, the content of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) in the bag is high, accounting for of the spore dry weight. D, containing thermostable enzymes.
鞭毛: Flagellum:
是细菌运动 (靠细胞质膜上的 ATP 酶水解 ATP 提供能量) 。不同细菌的鞭毛着生的部位不同。有单根鞭毛(正端生和亚极端生),周生鞭毛。
It is the movement of bacteria (powered by the hydrolysis of ATP by ATPase on the cytoplasmic membrane). The flagella of different bacteria are located in different parts. There are single flagella (polar and subpolar), and peritrichous flagella.

3. What are the similarities and differences in the cell wall structure of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria? What are their chemical compositions?

答: 细菌分为革兰氏阳性菌和革兰氏阴性菌两大类, 两者的化学组成和结构不同。格兰仕阳性菌的细胞壁厚, 其厚度为 , 结构较简单, 含肽聚糖 (包括三种成分: D-氨基酸、胞壁酸和二氨基庚二酸)、磷壁酸(质)、少量蛋白质和脂肪。革兰氏阴性菌的细胞壁较薄, 厚度为 , 其结构较复杂, 为外壁层和内壁层, 外壁层又分三层: 最外层是脂多糖, 中间是磷脂层, 内层为脂蛋白。内壁层含肽聚糖, 不含磷壁酸。两者的细胞壁的化学组成也不停: 革兰氏阴性菌含极少肽聚糖, 独含脂多糖, 不含磷壁酸。两者的不同还表现在各种成分的含量不同。尤其是脂肪的含量最明显,革兰氏阳性菌含脂肪量为 ,革兰氏阴性菌含脂肪量为 细胞壁结构。
Answer: Bacteria are divided into two major categories: Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria, with different chemical compositions and structures. The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is thick, with a thickness of , a simpler structure, containing peptidoglycan (including three components: D-amino acids, cell wall acids, and diaminopimelic acid), phospholipids (quality), small amounts of proteins, and fats. The cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is thinner, with a thickness of , a more complex structure, consisting of outer and inner layers, with the outer layer divided into three layers: the outermost layer is lipopolysaccharide, the middle layer is phospholipid layer, and the inner layer is lipoprotein. The inner layer contains peptidoglycan but no phospholipids. The chemical composition of the cell walls of the two also differs: Gram-negative bacteria contain very little peptidoglycan, only lipopolysaccharides, and no phospholipids. The differences between the two are also reflected in the different contents of various components. In particular, the difference in fat content is most obvious, with Gram-positive bacteria containing fat, and Gram-negative bacteria containing fat in the cell wall structure.

4、古菌包括哪几种?它们与细菌有什么不同? What kinds of archaea are there? How are they different from bacteria?

答: 古菌分为五大群: 产甲烷古菌, 古生硫酸盐还原菌, 极端嗜盐菌, 无细胞壁古生菌和极端嗜热硫代谢均。
Answer: Archaea are divided into five major groups: methanogenic archaea, sulfur-reducing archaea, halophilic archaea, cell wall-free archaea, and hyperthermophilic sulfur-metabolizing archaea.
与细菌的不同:大多数古菌生活在极端环境,如盐分高的湖泊水中,极热、极酸和据对厌氧的环境。有特殊的代谢途径, 有的古菌还有热稳定性酶和其他特殊酶。繁殖速度较慢, 进化速度也比细菌慢。
Difference from bacteria: Most archaea live in extreme environments, such as high-salt lakes, extremely hot, extremely acidic, and strictly anaerobic environments. They have special metabolic pathways, some archaea also have heat-stable enzymes and other special enzymes. They reproduce slowly, and their evolution rate is slower than that of bacteria.

5、叙述细菌细胞质膜结构和化学组成, 它有哪些生理功能?
Describe the structure and chemical composition of bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, what are its physiological functions?

答: 细胞质膜是紧贴在细胞壁的内侧而包围细胞的一层柔软而富有弹性的薄膜。
Answer: The cell membrane is a soft and elastic membrane that is tightly attached to the inner side of the cell wall and surrounds the cell.
【结构】由上下两层致密的着色层, 中间夹一个不着色层组成。不着色层是由具有正、负电荷, 有记性的磷脂双分子层组成, 是两性分子。亲水基朝着膜的内、外表面的水相, 疏水基(由脂肪酰基组成)在不着色区域。蛋白质主要结合在膜的表面, 有的位于均匀的双层磷脂中, 疏水键占优势。有的蛋白质有外侧伸入膜的中部, 有的穿透两层磷脂分子, 膜表面的蛋白质还带有多糖。有些蛋白质在膜内的位珞不固定, 能转动和扩散, 使细胞质膜成为一个流动镶嵌的功能区域。细胞质膜可内陷成层状、管状或囊状的膜内折系统,位于细胞质的表面或深部,常见的有中间体。
【Structure】Consists of two dense colored layers, with an uncolored layer sandwiched in between. The uncolored layer is composed of phospholipid bilayers with positive and negative charges, possessing memory, and are amphiphilic molecules. The hydrophilic groups face the aqueous phases on the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane, while the hydrophobic groups (composed of fatty acyl chains) are in the uncolored regions. Proteins mainly bind to the surface of the membrane, some located within the uniform bilayer of phospholipids where hydrophobic interactions predominate. Some proteins extend into the middle of the membrane from the outer side, while others penetrate the two layers of phospholipid molecules. Proteins on the membrane surface also carry polysaccharides. Some proteins within the membrane are not fixed in position, allowing rotation and diffusion, making the cytoplasmic membrane a fluid mosaic functional area. The cytoplasmic membrane can invaginate into layered, tubular, or vesicular intracellular membrane folding systems, located on the surface or deep within the cytoplasm, with the endoplasmic reticulum being common.
【化学组成】 的蛋白质, 的脂类和约 的多糖。蛋白质与膜的透性及酶的活性有关。脂类是磷脂, 有磷酸、甘油和含胆碱组成。
【Chemical composition】 protein, lipids, and approximately polysaccharides. Proteins are related to membrane permeability and enzyme activity. Lipids are phospholipids composed of phosphoric acid, glycerol, and choline.
【生理功能】a 维持渗透压的梯度和溶质的转移; 【Physiological Function】Maintaining the gradient of osmotic pressure and the transfer of solutes;
细胞质膜上有合成细胞壁和形成横膈膜组分的酶, 故在膜的外表面合成细胞壁;
On the cytoplasmic membrane, there are enzymes that synthesize the cell wall and form the components of the septum, so the cell wall is synthesized on the outer surface of the membrane
c 膜内陷形成的中间体(相当于高等植物的线粒体)含有细胞色素, 参与呼吸作用。中间体与染色体的分离和细胞分裂有关, 还为 DNA 提供附着点。
The intermediate formed by the invagination of the c membrane (equivalent to the mitochondria of higher plants) contains cytochromes and is involved in respiration. The intermediate is related to the separation of chromatids and cell division, and also provides attachment points for DNA.
细胞质膜上有琥珀酸脱氢酶、NADH 脱氢酶、细胞色素氧化酶、电子传递系统、氧化磷酸化酶及腺苷三磷酸酶。在细胞之抹上进行物质代谢和能量代谢。
On the cytoplasmic membrane, there are succinate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, electron transfer system, oxidative phosphorylation enzyme, and adenosine triphosphatase. They carry out substance metabolism and energy metabolism on the surface of the cell.
细胞质膜上有鞭毛基粒, 鞭毛由此长出, 即为鞭毛提供附着点。
On the cytoplasmic membrane, there are basal bodies for cilia, from which cilia grow, providing an attachment point for cilia.

6、何谓核糖体?它有哪些生理功能? 6. What is ribosome? What are its physiological functions?

答: 原核微生物的核糖体是分散在细胞质中的亚微颗粒, 是合成蛋白质的部位。 RNA 占 , 蛋白质占 。生理功能: 合成蛋白质。在生长旺盛的细胞中, 每个核糖体和初生态的多肽链连接形成多聚核糖体。逐步将核糖体的蛋白质成分去掉不影响核糖体合成蛋白质的功能, 核糖体的蛋白质成分只起维持形态和稳定功能的作用, 起转录作用的可能是
Answer: The ribosome of prokaryotic microorganisms is dispersed in the cytoplasm as submicron particles, which is the site for protein synthesis. RNA accounts for , and proteins account for . Physiological function: protein synthesis. In rapidly growing cells, each ribosome connects with nascent polypeptide chains to form polyribosomes. Gradually removing the protein components of the ribosome does not affect its function in protein synthesis. The protein components of the ribosome only play a role in maintaining structure and stability, and the transcriptional role is likely .

7、在 为 7 和 为 7.5 的溶液中细菌各带什么电荷? 在 为 1.5 的溶液中细菌带什么电荷 为什么?
In the solution where is is 7 and is 7.5, what charge do the bacteria carry? What charge do the bacteria carry in the solution where is 1.5 and why?

答: 细菌体含有 以上的蛋白质, 蛋白质由 20 种氨基酸按一定的排列顺序有肽腱连接组成。氨基酸是两性电解质, 在碱性溶液中表现出带负电荷, 在酸性溶液中表现出带正电荷, 在某一定 溶液中, 按激素啊所带的正电荷和负电荷相等时的 成为该氨基酸的等电点【由氨基酸构成的蛋白质也是两性电解质,也呈现一定的等电点。细菌细胞壁表面含表面蛋白, 所以, 细菌也具有两性电解质的性质, 它们也有各自的等电点。根据细菌在不同的 中对一定燃料的着染性, 根据细菌对阴、阳离子的亲和性, 根据细菌在不同的 的电场中的泳动方向, 都可用相应的方法侧的细菌的等电点】。当细菌的培养液的 若比细菌的等电点高, 细菌的游离氨基电力受抑制, 游离羧基电离, 细菌则带负电荷; 否则,游离氨基电离, 游离羧基电离受抑制, 细菌则带正电。已知细菌的等电点的 为 7 和 为 7.5 的溶液属于偏碱性、中性和偏酸性, 都高于细菌的等电点。所以细菌表面总是带负电荷。而在 的溶液中细菌则带正电。
Answer: Bacterial cells contain more than proteins, which are composed of 20 amino acids connected by peptide bonds in a certain sequence. Amino acids are amphoteric electrolytes, exhibiting a negative charge in alkaline solutions and a positive charge in acidic solutions. In a certain solution, the pH at which the amino acid carries equal positive and negative charges due to the presence of hormones is called the isoelectric point of the amino acid. Proteins composed of amino acids are also amphoteric electrolytes and have specific isoelectric points. Bacterial cell walls contain surface proteins, giving bacteria amphoteric properties and their own isoelectric points. The isoelectric point of bacteria can be determined based on their affinity for certain fuels in different , their affinity for anions and cations, and their swimming direction in different electric fields. If the pH of the bacterial culture medium is higher than the bacteria's isoelectric point, the free amino groups are suppressed, the free carboxyl groups ionize, and the bacteria carry a negative charge; otherwise, the free amino groups ionize, the free carboxyl groups are suppressed, and the bacteria carry a positive charge. It is known that the isoelectric points of bacteria in solutions with pH values of at , at 7, and at 7.5 are slightly alkaline, neutral, and slightly acidic, all higher than the bacteria's isoelectric points. Therefore, bacterial surfaces always carry a negative charge, while in solutions, bacteria carry a positive charge.

8、叙述革兰氏染色的机制和步骤。 8. Describe the mechanism and steps of Gram staining.

答: 1884 年丹麦细菌学家 Christain Gram 创立了革兰氏染色法。将一大类细菌染上色, 而另一类染不上色, 一边将两大类细菌分开, 作为分类鉴定重要的第一步。
Answer: In 1884, Danish bacteriologist Christain Gram established the Gram staining method. By staining one type of bacteria while leaving another unstained, the two types of bacteria can be separated, serving as an important first step in classification and identification.
其染色步骤如下: The staining steps are as follows:
1 在无菌操作条件下, 用接种环挑取少量细菌于干净的载玻片上涂布均匀, 固定。
Under aseptic conditions, pick a small amount of bacteria with an inoculation loop and spread it evenly on a clean slide, then fix it.
2 用草酸铵结晶紫染色 , 水洗去掉浮色。
2. Stain with ammonium oxalate crystal violet, wash off the excess color with water.
3 用碘一碘化钾溶液媒染 , 倾去多余溶液。
Stain with iodine-potassium iodide solution for 3 minutes, then pour off the excess solution.
4 用中型脱色剂如乙醇或丙酮酸脱色, 革兰氏阳性菌不被裉色而呈紫色。革兰氏阴性菌被褪色而成无色
4. Use a medium decolorizer such as ethanol or acetone to decolorize. Gram-positive bacteria remain purple without decolorization. Gram-negative bacteria are decolorized and become colorless.
5 用蕃红染液复染 , 格兰仕阳性菌仍呈紫色, 革兰氏阴性菌则呈现红色。革兰氏阳性菌和格兰仕阴性菌即被区分开。
5 Stain with safranin dye again , Gram-positive bacteria still appear purple, while Gram-negative bacteria appear red. Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are thus distinguished.

9. 细菌的物理化学特性与污水生物处理有哪些方面的关系?
What are the relationships between the physical and chemical characteristics of bacteria and biological wastewater treatment?

(1), 细胞质的多相胶体性质决定细菌在曝气池中吸收污水中的有机污染物的种类, 数量, 和速度;
(1) The colloidal properties of the cytoplasm determine the types, quantities, and rates at which bacteria absorb organic pollutants in sewage in aeration tanks
(2), 细菌表面解离层的 型或 型决定其悬液的稳定性, 既决定其在沉淀池中的沉淀效果
(2), The type or of the bacterial surface detachment layer determines the stability of its suspension, and thus determines its sedimentation effect in the sedimentation tank
(3), 比表面积的大小决定其吸附, 吸收污染物的能力及与其他微生物的竞争能力
(3), the size of the specific surface area determines its adsorption, absorption capacity for pollutants, and competitive ability with other microorganisms
(4), 细菌的带电性与他的吸附, 吸收污水有机污染物的能力, 与填料载体的结合力有关,还与絮凝,沉淀性能有关
(4) The electronegativity of bacteria is related to their ability to adsorb, absorb organic pollutants in wastewater, their binding force with the filler carrier, and their coagulation and precipitation performance
(5)密度和质量与其沉淀效果有关 (5) Density and quality are related to their sedimentation effect

10. 何谓细菌菌落?细菌有哪些培养特征?这些培养特征有什么实践意义?
What is a bacterial colony? What are the cultivation characteristics of bacteria? What is the practical significance of these cultivation characteristics?

答: 细菌菌落就是由一个细菌繁殖起来的, 有无数细菌组成具有一定形态特征的细菌集团。
Answer: A bacterial colony is formed by the reproduction of bacteria, consisting of countless bacteria with certain morphological characteristics.
【培养特征】 在固体培养基上的培养特征就是菌落特征。
【Cultivation characteristics】 The cultivation characteristics on solid culture medium are the colony characteristics.
The cultivation characteristic on the gelatin medium is to classify bacteria based on the different morphologies of the lysis zones or whether they lyse or not.
在半固体培养集中的培养特征: 呈现出各种生长状态, 根据细菌的生长状态判断细菌的呼吸类型和鞭毛有无, 能否运动。
In the semi-solid culture medium, various growth states are presented, and the respiration type and flagella of bacteria can be judged according to the growth state of bacteria, as well as whether they can move.
在液体培养基中的培养特征: 根据细菌的属和种的特征的不同长成不同的生长状态。
Cultivation characteristics in liquid medium: Different growth states grow according to the characteristics of the genus and species of bacteria.

What techniques can be used to determine the respiration type and motility of bacteria? How to determine?

答: 用穿刺接种技术将细菌接种在含 的琼脂半固体培养基中培养,细菌可呈现出各种生长状态。根据细菌的生长状态判断细菌的呼吸类型和鞭毛有无,能否运动。
Answer: Bacteria can be inoculated in agar semi-solid medium containing using the puncture inoculation technique, and bacteria can exhibit various growth states. Based on the growth status of bacteria, the respiration type and presence of flagella, and motility of bacteria can be determined.
判断细菌呼吸类型: 如果细菌在培养基的表面及穿刺线的上部生长者为好氧菌。沿着穿刺线自上而下生长者为兼性厌氧菌或兼性好氧菌。如果只在穿刺线的下部生长者为厌氧菌。
Determine the type of bacterial respiration: If bacteria grow on the surface of the culture medium and above the stab line, they are aerobic bacteria. If they grow along the stab line from top to bottom, they are facultative anaerobic or facultative aerobic bacteria. If they only grow below the stab line, they are anaerobic bacteria.

判断细菌能否运动: 如果只沿着穿刺线生长者为没有鞭毛, 不运动的细菌;如果不但沿着穿刺线生长而且穿透培养基扩散生长着为有鞭毛运动的细菌。
To determine whether bacteria can move: those that grow only along the puncture line without flagella are non-motile bacteria; those that not only grow along the puncture line but also spread and grow through the medium are motile bacteria with flagella.

12、蓝细菌是一类什么微生物?分几纲, 其中有那几属与水体富营养化有关?
12. What kind of microorganism is cyanobacteria? How many orders are there, and which genera are related to eutrophication of water bodies?

答: 蓝细菌: 有一类细菌细胞结构简单, 只具原始核, 没有核仁和核膜, 只有染色质, 只具叶绿素, 没有叶绿体。故将它隶属于原核生物界的蓝色光合菌门。按蓝细菌的形态和结构的特征, 老的分类为二纲: 色球藻纲和藻殖段纲。
Answer: Cyanobacteria: A type of bacteria with simple cell structure, only primitive nucleus, no nucleolus and nuclear membrane, only chromatin, only chlorophyll, no chloroplast. Therefore, it is classified as Cyanophyta in the prokaryotic kingdom. According to the morphological and structural characteristics of cyanobacteria, the old classification is divided into two orders: Chroococcales and Nostocales.
The order of Cyanophyta can be divided into the genus Microcystis, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Oscillatoria, and Nostoc. The genera Microcystis and Anabaena can cause water blooms in eutrophic water bodies.
The order of algae includes genera such as Dinobryon, Chlorella, Ulothrix, Spirogyra, and Chlamydomonas. Among them, Dinoflagellates form blooms in eutrophic waters.

13、何谓放线菌?革兰氏染色是何种反应? What is actinomycetes? What kind of reaction is Gram staining?

答: 放线菌是在固体培养基上呈辐射状生长而得名的细菌.
Answer: Actinomycetes are bacteria named for their radial growth on solid culture media.
是枝动菌属为革兰氏阴性菌以外, 其余全部放线菌均为革兰氏阳性菌, 而且是 含量的革兰氏阳性菌。
Apart from the genus Nocardia, all other actinomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria, and they are Gram-positive bacteria with a content.

14. 丝状细菌有哪几种? 你如何识别它们? What are the types of filamentous bacteria? How do you identify them?

(1) 铁细菌: 纤发菌属、微丝菌属 Iron bacteria: Leptothrix, Crenothrix
(2) 丝状硫细菌 (2) Filamentous sulfur bacteria
(1)贝日阿托氏菌和粒硫菌属: 前者尾端与菌体一致, 上下均匀; 后者尾端呈锥形
Beijerinckia and Thiobacillus: the former has a tail end that is consistent with the body, uniform in shape; the latter has a conical tail end
(2)发硫菌属和亮发菌属: 前者微量好氧, 后者严格好氧
(2) Thiobacillus and Leptothrix: the former is slightly aerobic, the latter is strictly aerobic

15. 厌氧氨氧化菌是什么样的细菌? 它们与细菌有什么不同?
What kind of bacteria are anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria? How are they different from other bacteria?

厌氧氨氧化菌为自养型细菌, 可在缺氧条件下以氨为电子供体, 亚硝酸盐为电子受体, 产生氮气。对全球氮循环具有重要意义, 也是污水处理中的重要细菌。
Anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are autotrophic bacteria that can use ammonia as an electron donor and nitrite as an electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions to produce nitrogen gas. They are of great significance to the global nitrogen cycle and are also important bacteria in wastewater treatment.
  1. 立克次氏体、支原体、衣原体和螺旋体各是什么样的微生物? 人类咋对它?
    What are the characteristics of Legionella, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Helicobacter? How does the human body respond to them?
1)立克次氏体:细胞结构与细菌相似; 短杆状; 不能通过细菌过滤器, 不具鞭毛不运动; 革兰氏染色阴性反应; 二分裂。传染病媒介, 存在活性污泥中。
1) Rickettsia: cell structure similar to bacteria; short rods; unable to pass through bacterial filters, non-motile without flagella; negative Gram staining reaction; binary fission. Vector for infectious diseases, present in activated sludge.
2)支原体:自由生活最小原核微生物, 无细胞壁, 为多形性体态; 革兰氏染色阴性反应; 二分裂, 也有出芽生殖。多为腐生性的, 也有致病的, 分布在污水、垃圾、脊椎动物和人体
2) Mycoplasma: the smallest free-living prokaryotic microorganism, without a cell wall, exhibiting pleomorphic forms; negative reaction in Gram staining; reproduces by binary fission and budding. Mostly saprophytic, some are pathogenic, found in sewage, garbage, vertebrates, and human bodies.
Chlamydia: spherical; Gram-negative staining reaction; binary fission, mostly parasitic in mammals and birds. Causes diseases such as trachoma in humans.
  1. 螺旋体: 不具鞭毛, 有轴丝, 靠轴丝收缩运动; 纵裂, 腐生或寄生。引起人类患梅毒等疾病
    Spirillum: without flagella, with axial filaments, moves by contracting along the axial filaments; longitudinally divided, saprophytic or parasitic. Causes diseases such as syphilis in humans.

第三章 真核微生物 Chapter Three Eukaryotic Microorganisms

1、何谓原生动物?它有哪些细胞器和营养方式? What are protozoa? What organelles and nutritional modes do they have?

答: 原生动物是动物中最原始、最低等。结构最简单的单细胞动物。
Answer: Protozoa are the most primitive and lowest animals. The simplest single-celled animals in structure.
原生动物为单细胞, 没有细胞壁, 有细胞质膜、细胞质, 有分化的细胞器其细胞核具有核膜(较高级类型有两个和),故属真和微生物。
Primitive animals are single-celled, without cell walls, with cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, differentiated organelles, and their nuclei have nuclear membranes (more advanced types have two), so they belong to true and microorganisms.
营养方式: 全动性营养、植物性营养和腐生性营养三种方式。
Nutritional modes: holozoic nutrition, saprophytic nutrition, and autotrophic nutrition.

2、原生动物分几纲?在废水生物处理中有几纲? 2. How many classes are there in native animals? How many classes are there in wastewater biological treatment?

Answer: Protozoa are divided into four classes: Mastigophora, Sarcodina, Ciliophora (including Suctoria), and Sporozoa.
鞭毛纲、肉足纲和纤毛纲存在水体中, 在废水生物处理中起重要作用。孢子纲中的孢子虫营寄生生活, 几声在人体和动物体内, 可随粪便拍到污水中, 故需要消灭之。
The class of flagella, the class of cilia, and the class of ciliates exist in water bodies and play an important role in wastewater biological treatment. The spores of the class of sporozoa live as parasites, some of them in the human and animal bodies, and can be excreted with feces into sewage, so they need to be eliminated.

3、你如何区分鞭毛纲中的眼虫和杆糞虫? How do you distinguish between eye worms and rod dung worms in the flagellate class?

从形态结构上区分: 眼虫为纺锤形, 前端钝圆, 后端尖杆囊虫呈椭圆形
Distinguish from the morphological structure: eye worms are spindle-shaped, with a blunt round front end and a pointed rod-shaped posterior end

4. Which attached ciliates (peritrichs) are included in the class Peritrichia? How do you distinguish the various stages of attached ciliates?

答: 纤毛纲中的固着型纤毛虫有独缩虫属、聚缩虫属、累枝虫属、盖纤虫属等。这些群体很相像, 单它们的虫体和尾柄还有各自的特征。独缩虫和聚缩虫的虫体很像, 每个虫体的尾柄相连, 但肌丝不相连, 因此一个虫体收缩时不牵动其他虫体, 故名独缩虫。聚缩虫不同, 其尾柄相连, 肌丝也相连。所以当一个虫体收缩时牵动其他虫体一起收缩, 故叫聚缩虫。累枝虫和盖纤虫有相同处, 尾柄都有分支, 尾柄内没有肌丝, 不能收缩, 但在从提的基部有肌原纤维, 当虫体收到刺激时, 其基部收缩, 前端胞口闭锁。其不同点是: 累枝虫的虫体口缘有两圈纤毛环形成的似波动膜, 和钟虫相像, 其柄等分支或不等分支。盖纤虫的口缘有两齐全纤毛形成的盖形物, 能运动, 因有盖而得名。
Answer: The attached ciliated protozoa in the Ciliophora include the genera Vorticella, Epistylis, Zoothamnium, and Opercularia. These groups are very similar, but their bodies and stalks have their own characteristics. Vorticella and Epistylis have similar bodies, with each body connected by a stalk, but the myonemes are not connected, so when one body contracts, it does not pull the others, hence the name Vorticella. In contrast, Epistylis has connected stalks and myonemes. Therefore, when one body contracts, it pulls the others together, hence the name Epistylis. Zoothamnium and Opercularia have similarities, with branched stalks and no myonemes inside the stalks, so they cannot contract. However, there are myoneme fibers at the base of the stalks. When stimulated, the base contracts, closing the anterior cell mouth. The difference is that Zoothamnium has two circles of cilia around the mouth edge, forming a waving membrane similar to a bell animal, with equal or unequal branches. Opercularia has a cover formed by two complete cilia around the mouth edge, which can move, hence the name due to the cover.

5. How do various classes of native animals play an indicative role in self-purification of water and biological treatment of sewage?

答: 原生动物在正常的环境条件下都各自保持自己的形态特征, 但当环境条件变化, 超过其适应能力时, 都可使原生动物不能正常生活而形成胞囊。所以在水体自净和污水生物处理中, 一旦形成胞囊, 就可判断污水处理不正常。
Answer: Protozoa maintain their morphological characteristics under normal environmental conditions, but when the environmental conditions change and exceed their adaptive capacity, protozoa can form cysts that prevent them from living normally. Therefore, in water self-purification and sewage biological treatment, the formation of cysts indicates abnormal sewage treatment.

1 原生动物中各纲在水体自净和污水生物处理中如何其指示作用?
How do various phyla of native animals play a role in self-purification of water and biological treatment of sewage?

答: (1) 鞭毛纲: 在污水生物处理中系统中, 活性污泥培养初期或在处理效果差时鞭毛虫大量出现, 可作污水处理的指示生物。(2)肉足纲: 变形虫喜 -中污带或 -中污带的自然水体中生活。在污水生物处理中系统中, 活性污泥培养中期有出现。(3)纤毛纲:纤毛纲中的游泳型纤毛虫多数是在 -中污带或 -中污带, 少数在寡污带中生活。在污水生物处理中系统中, 活性污泥培养中期或在处理效果差时纤毛虫会出现。
Answer: (1) Flagellate: In the system of sewage biological treatment, a large number of flagellates appear in the early stage of activated sludge cultivation or when the treatment effect is poor, which can serve as indicator organisms for sewage treatment. (2) Ciliate: Protozoa like to live in meso-trophic or eu-trophic natural water bodies. They appear in the mid-term of activated sludge cultivation in sewage biological treatment systems. (3) Ciliate: Most of the swimming ciliates in the Ciliate class live in meso-trophic or eu-trophic water bodies, and a few live in oligo-trophic water bodies. In the system of sewage biological treatment, ciliates will appear in the mid-term of activated sludge cultivation or when the treatment effect is poor.

6、何谓原生动物的胞囊? 它是如何形成的? 6. What is the cyst of protozoa? How is it formed?

答: 在正常的环境条件下, 所有的原生动物都各自保证、吃自己的形态特征。当环境条件变坏, 如水干枯、水温和 过高或过低, 溶解氧不足, 缺乏食物或排泄物积累过多, 废水中的有机物浓度超过它的适应能里等原因, 都可使原生动物不能正常生活而形成胞囊。所以胞囊是抵抗不良环境的一种休眠体。
Answer: Under normal environmental conditions, all protozoa ensure their own morphological characteristics. When environmental conditions deteriorate, such as water drying up, water temperature being too high or too low, insufficient dissolved oxygen, lack of food or excessive accumulation of excreta, organic matter concentration in wastewater exceeding its adaptive capacity, etc., protozoa may not be able to live normally and form cysts. Therefore, cysts are a type of dormant body that resist adverse environments.

胞囊的形成过程: 先是虫体变圆, 鞭毛、纤毛或伪足等细胞器缩入体内或消失,细胞水分陆续有伸缩泡排除, 虫体缩小, 最后伸缩泡消失, 分泌一种胶状物质于体表, 尔后凝固形成胞壳。胞壳有两层, 外层较厚, 表面凸起, 内层薄而透明。胞囊很轻易随灰尘漂浮或被其他动物带至地方, 胞囊遇到适宜环境其胞壳破裂回复虫体原型。
The formation process of cysts: first, the body of the organism becomes round, flagella, cilia, or pseudopods and other organelles shrink into the body or disappear, and the cell water is gradually expelled by contractile vacuoles. The organism shrinks, and finally the contractile vacuoles disappear, secreting a gelatinous substance on the surface of the body, which then solidifies to form a cyst shell. The cyst shell has two layers, the outer layer is thicker and protruding, while the inner layer is thin and transparent. Cysts can easily float with dust or be carried to other places by other animals. When the cyst encounters a suitable environment, its cyst shell ruptures and the organism reverts to its original form.

7、微型后生动物包括哪几种? 7. Which kinds of microorganisms include?

答:轮虫、线虫、寡毛类动物(飘体虫、颤蚓、水丝蚓等)、浮游甲壳动物、苔藓动物(苔藓虫, 羽苔虫)
Answer: Rotifers, nematodes, oligochaetes (such as tubificid worms, earthworms, aquatic oligochaetes), planktonic crustaceans, moss animals (bryozoans, phoronids)

What are the common planktonic crustaceans? How do you use planktonic crustaceans to assess the cleanliness of water?

答: 常见的浮游甲壳动物有剑水蚤和水蚤。 Answer: Common planktonic crustaceans include copepods and water fleas.
水蚤的血液含血红素, 血红素溶于血浆, 肌肉、卵巢和肠壁等细胞中也含血红素。血红素的含量常随环境中溶解氧量的高低而变化。水体中含氧量低, 水蚤的血红素含量高; 水蚤的含氧量高, 水蚤的血红素含量低。由于在污染水体中的溶解氧低, 清水中氧的含量高, 所以, 在污染水体中的水虫颜色比在清水中的红些, 这就是水蚤常呈不同颜色的原因, 是适应环境的表现。可以利用水蚤的这个特点, 判断水体的清洁程度。
The blood of water fleas contains hemoglobin, which is soluble in blood plasma. Hemoglobin is also present in cells such as muscles, ovaries, and intestinal walls. The amount of hemoglobin often varies with the level of dissolved oxygen in the environment. When the oxygen content in the water is low, the hemoglobin content in water fleas is high; when the oxygen content in water fleas is high, the hemoglobin content is low. Due to low dissolved oxygen in polluted water and high oxygen content in clean water, water fleas in polluted water are redder than those in clean water. This is the reason why water fleas often appear in different colors, as an adaptation to the environment. This characteristic of water fleas can be used to assess the cleanliness of water bodies.

9、藻类的分类依据是什么?它分为几门? What is the classification basis of algae? How many phyla is it divided into?

答: 藻类的分类依据是: 光合色素的种类, 个体形态, 细胞机构, 生殖方式和生活史等。
Answer: The classification of algae is based on the types of photosynthetic pigments, individual morphology, cell structure, reproductive methods, and life history, etc.
Classification: Cyanobacteria, Euglenozoa, Chlorophyta, Dinoflagellates, Chrysophyta, Phaeophyta, Bacillariophyta, Pyrrophyta, Rhodophyta, and Phaeophyta.
也有分为 8 门的, 即使、把金藻门、黄藻门和硅藻门合并入金藻门; 黄藻和硅藻列为金藻门的两个纲: 黄藻纲和硅藻纲。分 11 门的是保留上述的 10 门之外另加隐藻门。
There are also 8 divisions, even if the golden algae, yellow algae, and diatoms are merged into the golden algae; yellow algae and diatoms are classified as two classes of the golden algae: yellow algae class and diatom class. The 11 divisions are to retain the above 10 divisions and add another cryptophyte division.

10、裸藻和绿藻有什么相似和不同之处? What are the similarities and differences between naked algae and green algae?

【相同点】具有叶绿体, 内含叶绿色 -胡萝卜素、 3 种叶黄素。上述色素使叶绿体呈现鲜绿色, 与绿藻相同。都有鞭毛, 在叶绿体内都有造粉核。
【Similarities】Have chloroplasts, containing chlorophyll -carotene, and three xanthophylls. The above pigments make the chloroplasts appear bright green, similar to green algae. Both have flagella, and both have pyrenoids in the chloroplasts.
【不同】1、繁殖方式: 裸藻为纵裂, 绿藻为无性生殖和有性生殖。
【Different】1. Reproduction method: Diatoms reproduce by longitudinal division, while green algae reproduce asexually and sexually.
2、生活环境: 裸藻主要生长在有机物丰富的静止水体或才、缓慢的流水中, 大量繁殖时形成绿色、红色或褐色的水花。绿藻在流动和静止的水体、土壤表面和树干都能生长。寄生的绿藻引起植物病害。
2. Living environment: Diatoms mainly grow in stagnant water bodies rich in organic matter or slow-flowing water, forming green, red, or brown water blooms when reproducing in large quantities. Green algae can grow in flowing and stagnant water bodies, soil surfaces, and tree trunks. Parasitic green algae cause plant diseases.
3、裸藻是水体富营养化的指示生物, 而绿藻在水体自净中起净化和指示生物的作用。
3. Diatoms are indicator organisms of eutrophication in water bodies, while green algae play a role in purification and indication in self-purification of water bodies.

What role do green algae play in human life, scientific research, and water self-purification?

答: 绿藻中的小球藻和栅藻富含蛋白质可供人食用和作动物饲料。绿藻是藻类生理生化研究的材料及宇宙航行的供氧体, 有的可制藻胶。绿藻在水体自净中起净化和指示生物的作用。
Answer: Chlorella and Spirulina in green algae are rich in protein for human consumption and animal feed. Green algae are materials for physiological and biochemical research on algae and oxygen suppliers for space travel, some of which can produce alginates. Green algae play a role in purifying and indicating organisms in water self-purification.

12、硅藻和甲藻是什么样的藻类? 水体富氧化与那些藻类有关?
12. What are diatoms and dinoflagellates? How are they related to oxygen-rich water bodies?

答: 多数的甲藻对光照强度 和水温范围要求严格, 在适宜的光照和水温条件下, 甲藻在短期内大量繁殖岛城海洋“赤潮”。
Answer: Most dinoflagellates have strict requirements for light intensity and water temperature range. Under suitable light and water temperature conditions, dinoflagellates can reproduce in large numbers in a short period of time, causing "red tides" in coastal waters.

What microorganisms are included in fungi? What roles do they play in wastewater biological treatment?

答: 真菌属低等植物, 种类繁多, 形态、大小各异, 包括酵母菌、霔菌及各种伞菌。酵母菌处理和有机固体废弃物生物处理中都起积极作用。酵母菌还可用作检测重金属, 霉菌对废水中氰化物的去除率达 以上。有的霉菌还可处理含硝基化合物废水。伞菌: 既处理废水和固体废弃物, 还可获得食用菌。
Answer: Fungi are lower plants with a wide variety of species, diverse in morphology and size, including yeast, mold, and various mushrooms. Yeast plays a positive role in organic solid waste biotreatment. Yeast can also be used to detect heavy metals, and mold can achieve a removal rate of over for cyanides in wastewater. Some molds can also treat wastewater containing nitro compounds. Mushrooms can both treat wastewater and solid waste and be used as edible fungi.

14、酵母菌有哪些细胞结构 有几种类型的酵母菌?
What are the cell structures of yeast? How many types of yeast are there?

Answer: The cell structure of yeast includes cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, and contents. The cell components of yeast include glucan, mannan, proteins, and lipids. Brewer's yeast also contains chitin.

15、雪菌有几种菌丝? 如何区别霝菌和放线菌的菌落?
How many kinds of mycelium does snow fungus have? How to distinguish the colonies of snow fungus and actinomycetes?

答: 霉菌有营养菌丝和气生菌丝。 Answer: Molds have nutrient mycelium and aerial mycelium.
霔菌的菌落呈圆形线毛状、絮状或蜘蛛网状。比其他微生物的菌落都答, 长得很快可蔓延至整个平板。霉菌菌落疏松, 与培养基结合不紧, 用接种环很容易挑取。放线菌的菌落是由一个分生孢子或一段营养菌丝生长繁殖引起许多菌丝互相缠绕而成, 质地紧密, 表面呈线状或紧密干燥多皱。菌丝潜入培养基, 整个菌落像是潜入培养集中, 不易吹挑取。有的菌落成白色粉末状, 质地松散, 易被挑取。
The colonies of fungi are circular, filamentous, flocculent, or spider-web-like. They grow faster and can spread throughout the entire agar plate compared to other microorganisms. Mold colonies are loose and not tightly bound to the medium, making them easy to pick up with an inoculation loop. Actinomycetes colonies are formed by the growth and reproduction of many hyphae intertwined with each other from a single spore or a segment of vegetative mycelium. They have a dense texture, with a surface that appears linear or tightly dry and wrinkled. The hyphae penetrate the medium, making the entire colony seem concentrated and difficult to pick up by blowing. Some colonies are powdery white, loose in texture, and easy to pick up.

第四章 微生物的生理 Chapter Four Physiology of Microorganisms

1、酶是什么? 它有哪些组成? 各有什么生理功能?
What is an enzyme? What are its components? What are their physiological functions?

答: 酶是由细胞产生的, 可在体内体外起催化作用的一类具有活性中心和特殊构象的生物大分子。
Answer: Enzymes are a class of biologically large molecules produced by cells that can catalyze reactions both inside and outside the body, with active centers and special conformations.

组成有两类: Composition has two types:

1、单组分酶, 只含蛋白质。 1. Single-component enzyme, containing only protein.
2、全酶, 有蛋白质和不含氮的小分子有机物组成, 或有蛋白质和不含氮的小分子有机物加上金属离子组成。
2. Enzymes are composed of proteins and nitrogen-free small organic molecules, or proteins and nitrogen-free small organic molecules combined with metal ions.
酶的各组分的功能: 酶蛋白起加速生物化学反应的作用; 辅基和辅酶起传递电子、原子、化学基团的作用; 金属离子除传递电子之外, 还起激活剂的作用。
Functions of various components of enzymes: Enzyme proteins accelerate biochemical reactions; Coenzymes and cofactors transfer electrons, atoms, and chemical groups; In addition to transferring electrons, metal ions also act as activators.
2、什么是辅基? 什么是辅酶?有哪些物质可作辅基或辅酶?
2. What is a coenzyme? What is a cofactor? What substances can act as coenzymes or cofactors?
答: 辅基:与酶蛋白结紧合的 Answer: Cofactor: tightly bound to enzyme protein
辅酶: 与酶蛋白结合不紧的 Cofactor: loosely bound to enzyme protein

3、简述酶蛋白的结构及酶的活性中心. 3. Briefly describe the structure of enzyme proteins and the active center of enzymes.

答: 组成酶的 20 种氨基酸按一定的排列顺序有肽腱连接成多肽链, 两条多肽链之间或一条多肽链卷曲后相邻的基团之间以氢键、盐键、脂键、疏水键、范德华力及金属键等相连接而成。分一、二、三级结构, 少数酶具有四级结构。
Answer: The 20 amino acids that make up enzymes are connected by peptide bonds in a certain sequence to form a polypeptide chain. The adjacent groups between two polypeptide chains or within a polypeptide chain after curling are connected by hydrogen bonds, salt bonds, lipid bonds, hydrophobic bonds, van der Waals forces, and metal bonds. They are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary structures, with a few enzymes having quaternary structures.
酶的活性中心是指酶蛋白分子中与底物结合, 并起催化最用的小部分氨基酸微区。构成活性中心的微区或处在同一条台联的不同部位, 或处在不同肽链上;在多肽链盘曲成一定空间构型时, 它们按一定位珞靠近在一起, 形成特定的酶活性中心。
The active center of an enzyme refers to a small area of amino acids in the enzyme protein molecule that binds to the substrate and catalyzes the most used. The microareas that make up the active center are located in different parts of the same polypeptide chain or on different peptide chains; when the polypeptide chains are folded into a certain spatial configuration, they are brought close together in a certain position to form a specific enzyme active center.
4、按酶所在细胞的不同部位, 酶可分为哪几种?按催化反应类型可分为哪几类? 这两种划分如何联系和统一 ?
4. According to the different parts of the cell where enzymes are located, what are the different types of enzymes? According to the types of catalytic reactions, what are the different categories? How are these two classifications related and unified?
Answer: Enzymes can be divided into extracellular enzymes, intracellular enzymes, and surface enzymes according to their different locations in the cell.
According to the types of catalytic reactions, enzymes can be divided into hydrolytic enzymes, oxidoreductases, isomerases, transferases, lyases, and synthetases.【According to the different substrates of enzyme action, they can be divided into amylases, proteases, lipases, cellulases, and ribonucleases】.
上述三种分类和命名方法可右击低联系和统一起来。如: 淀粉酶、蛋白酶、脂肪酶和纤维素酶均催化水解反应, 属于水解酶类; 而他们均位于细胞外, 属胞外酶。除此之外的大多数酶类, 如氧化还原酶、异构酶、转移酶、裂解酶和合成酶等,均位于细胞内, 属胞内酶。
The above three classification and naming methods can be integrated and unified. For example, amylase, protease, lipase, and cellulase all catalyze hydrolysis reactions, belonging to hydrolase class; and they are all located outside the cell, belonging to extracellular enzymes. Most other enzyme classes, such as oxidoreductases, isomerases, transferases, lyases, and synthetases, are located inside the cell, belonging to intracellular enzymes.

5、酶的催化作用有哪些特征? What are the characteristics of enzyme catalysis?

答: 1、酶积极参与生物化学反应, 加速化学速度, 速度按反应到达平衡的时间,但不改变反应的平衡点。
Answer: 1. Enzymes actively participate in biochemical reactions, accelerating the chemical rate, which is the time it takes for the reaction to reach equilibrium, but does not change the equilibrium point of the reaction.
2、酶的催化作用具有专一性。一种酶只作用与一种物质或一类物质, 或催化一种或一类化学反应, 产生一定的产物。
2. Enzyme catalysis is specific. An enzyme only acts on one substance or a class of substances, or catalyzes one or a class of chemical reactions, producing specific products.
3、酶的催化作用条件温和。 3. Enzymes catalyze reactions under mild conditions.
4、酶对环境条件极为敏感。高温、强酸和强碱都能使酶丧失活性; 重金属离子能针化酶, 使之失活。
4. Enzymes are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions. High temperature, strong acids, and strong alkalis can all cause enzymes to lose their activity; heavy metal ions can denature enzymes, rendering them inactive.
【附】酶催化效率极高的原因是酶能降低反应的能阀, 从而降低反应物所需的活化能】
【Attached】The reason why enzymes have extremely high catalytic efficiency is that enzymes can lower the energy barrier of the reaction, thereby reducing the activation energy required by the reactants
6、影响酶活力(酶促反应速度)的主要因素有哪些? 并加以讨论。
6. What are the main factors that affect enzyme activity (enzyme catalyzed reaction rate)? Discuss them.
答: 酶促反应速度受酶浓度和底物宁都的影响, 也受温度, , 激活剂和抑制
Answer: The rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions is influenced by enzyme concentration and substrate concentration, as well as temperature, pH, activators, and inhibitors

剂的影响。 The impact of the dose.

7、微生物含有哪些化学组成? 各组分占的比例是多少?
7. What are the chemical compositions of microorganisms? What are the proportions of each component?

答:微生物机体质量的 为水分,其余的 为干物质。【有机物占干物质质量的 , 包括蛋白质、核酸、糖类和脂类。无机物占干物质质量的 , 包括 P、S、K、Na、Ca、Mg、Fe、C1 和微量元素 Mo、 等。
Answer: The mass of microbial organisms is water, and the rest is dry matter. Organic matter accounts for of the dry matter mass, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Inorganic matter accounts for of the dry matter mass, including P, S, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, and trace elements such as Mo, .

8、微生物需要哪些营养物质? 供给营养时应注意什么? 为什么?
What nutrients do microorganisms need? What should be paid attention to when providing nutrients? Why?

答: 微生物需要的营养物质有水、碳素营养源、氮素营养源、无机盐及 生长因子。供养时应当把所需物质按一定的比例配制而成。少的话不能正常生长, 多的话就会导致反驯化。
Answer: Microorganisms require nutrients such as water, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, inorganic salts, and growth factors. When feeding, the required substances should be prepared in certain proportions. Insufficient amounts will result in abnormal growth, while excessive amounts will lead to reverse domestication.
9、根据微生物对碳源和能量需要的不同, 可把微生物分为哪几种类型?
According to the different carbon sources and energy requirements of microorganisms, what types of microorganisms can be classified into?
答: 可分为无机营养微生物 (光能自养微生物和化能自养微生物) 、有机营养微生物和混合营养微生物。
Answer: It can be divided into inorganic nutrition microorganisms (photoautotrophic microorganisms and chemoautotrophic microorganisms), organic nutrition microorganisms, and mixotrophic microorganisms.

10、当处理某一工业废水时, 怎样着手和考虑配给营养?
10. When dealing with a certain industrial wastewater, how to start and consider nutrient allocation?

答: 为了保证废水生物处理的效果, 要按碳氮磷比配给营养。但有的工业废水缺某种营养, 当营养量不足时, 应供给或补足。某些工业废水缺氮; 洗涤剂废水磷过剩, 也缺氮。对此可用粪便污水或尿素补充氮若有的废水缺磷, 则可用磷酸氢二钾补充。但如果工业废水不缺营养, 就切勿添加上述物质, 否则会导致反驯化,影响处理效果。
Answer: In order to ensure the effectiveness of wastewater biological treatment, nutrients should be allocated according to the carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus ratio. However, some industrial wastewater lacks certain nutrients. When the nutrient level is insufficient, it should be supplied or supplemented. Some industrial wastewater lacks nitrogen; detergent wastewater has an excess of phosphorus but lacks nitrogen. In this case, nitrogen can be supplemented with fecal sewage or urea. If some wastewater lacks phosphorus, it can be supplemented with potassium dihydrogen phosphate. However, if industrial wastewater does not lack nutrients, do not add the above substances, as it may lead to reverse domestication and affect treatment effectiveness.

11、什么叫培养基?按物质的不同,培养基可分为哪几类?按实验目的和用途的不同, 可分为哪几类?
What is a culture medium? According to different substances, how many types of culture media can be divided into? According to different experimental purposes and uses, how many types can be divided into?

答: 根据各种微生物的营养要求, 将谁、碳源、氮源、无机盐和生长因子等物质按一定的比例配制而成的,用以培养微生物的基质,即培养基。
Answer: According to the nutritional requirements of various microorganisms, a medium for cultivating microorganisms, namely a culture medium, is prepared by formulating substances such as carbon source, nitrogen source, inorganic salts, and growth factors in certain proportions.
根据实验目的和用途不同,培养基可分为: 基础培养基、选择培养基、鉴别培养基和加富(富集)培养基。
According to different experimental purposes and uses, culture media can be divided into: basic culture media, selective culture media, differential culture media, and enrichment culture media.
According to the difference in materials, culture media can be divided into synthetic culture media, natural culture media, and complex culture media

12、什么叫选择培养基? 那些培养基属于选择培养基?
What is meant by selective media? Which media belong to selective media?

答: 选择培养基就是用以抑制非目的微生物的生长并使所要分离的微生物生长繁殖的培养基。麦康盖培养基、乳糖发酵培养基。【配制选择培养基时可加入染料、胆汁盐、金属盐类、酸、碱或抗生素等其中的一种】
Answer: The selective medium is a medium used to inhibit the growth of non-target microorganisms and promote the growth and reproduction of the microorganisms to be isolated. Examples include MacConkey agar medium and lactose fermentation medium. [When preparing selective media, dyes, bile salts, metal salts, acids, bases, or antibiotics can be added as needed.]

13、什么叫鉴别培养基? 哪些培养基属于鉴别培养基?
What is a selective medium? Which media belong to selective media?

答: 当几种细菌由于对培养基中某一成分的分界能力不同, 其菌落通过指示剂先是除不太那个的颜色而被区分开, 这种起鉴别和区分不同细菌作用的培养基叫鉴别培养基。
Answer: When several types of bacteria have different abilities to utilize a component in the culture medium, their colonies are first distinguished by the indicator color, which cannot be removed easily. This type of culture medium that distinguishes and differentiates different bacteria is called a differential medium.
Commonly used differential media include Tinsdale medium, lead acetate zinc medium, and Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) medium.

14. How to identify the four kinds of bacteria in the Escherichia coli group from water samples contaminated with feces?

答: 大肠菌属中的大肠埃希氏菌、枸酸盐杆菌、产气杆菌、副大肠杆菌等均能在远藤氏培养基上生长, 但它们对乳酸的分解能力不同: 前三种能分界乳糖,但分解能力有强有弱, , 大肠埃希氏菌分解能力最强, 菌落呈紫红色带金属光泽;枸 酸盐杆菌次之, 菌落呈紫红或深红色; 产气杆菌第三, 菌落呈淡红色。副大肠杆菌不能分界乳糖, 菌落无色透明。 


答: 检测水样中是否含总大肠菌群 
16、营养物质是如何进入细胞的? How do nutrients enter cells?
答: 微生物的营养物质各种各样, 有水溶性和脂溶性, 有小分子和大分子。不同营养物质进入细胞的方式也不同: 单纯扩散、促进扩散、主动运输和基团转位。 
17、营养物质顺浓度梯度进入细胞的方式有哪些? 是如何进入的? 
答: 有单纯扩散和促进扩散。单纯扩散是利用细胞质膜上的小孔,促进扩散是利用细胞质膜上的特殊蛋白质。 
18、营养物质逆浓度梯度进入细胞的方式有哪些? 是如何进入的? 
答: 有主动运输和基团转位。主动运输需要渗透酶 (单向转运载体、同向转运载体和反向转运载体) 和能量。基团转位有特定的转移酶系统, 是通过单向性的磷酸化作用而实现的, 细胞质膜对大多数磷酸化的化合物有高度的不渗透性。 


答: 主动运输: 当微生物细胞内所积累的营养物质的浓度高于细胞外的浓度时, 营养物质就不能按浓度梯度扩散到细胞内, 而是逆浓度梯度被 “抽” 进细胞内, 这种需要能量和渗透酶的逆浓度梯度积累营养物的过程; 
基团转位: 以糖为例, 在细胞内, 在酶 I 存在下, 先是 被磷酸烯醇丙酮酸 (细胞代谢产物) 磷酸化形成 一磷酸, 并被一道细胞质膜上。在膜的外侧,外界供给的糖有渗透酶携带到细胞质膜上, 在特异性酶 II 的村华夏, 糖被 HPr 一磷酸磷酸化形成糖一磷酸。渗透酶将膜上已被磷酸化的糖携带到细胞内, 随即被代谢。基团转位是通过单向性的磷酸化作用而实现的。 


答: 微生物从外界环境中不断的摄取营养物质, 经过一系列的生物化学反应,转变成细胞的组分, 同时产生出废物并排泄到体外, 这个过程叫新陈代谢。
Answer: Microorganisms continuously take in nutrients from the external environment, undergo a series of biochemical reactions, transform into cellular components, and at the same time produce waste and excrete it outside the body. This process is called metabolism.


答: 微生物呼吸作用的本质是氧化与还原的统一过程, 这过程中有能量的产生和能量的转移。微生物的呼吸类型有三类: 发酵、好氧呼吸和无氧呼吸。最终电子受体不同, 分别为中间代谢产物、氧气、氧气外的无机化合物。另外产能的多少也不同 


答: 在好氧呼吸过程中, 葡萄糖的氧化分解分两阶段: I 葡萄糖经 EMP 途径酵解。这一过程不需要消耗氧, 形成中间产物一一丙酮酸。II 丙酮酸的有氧分解。丙酮酸氧化过程的一系列步骤总称为三羧酸循环 (TCA 循环) 。三羧酸 (TCA)循环、乙醛酸循环和电子传递体系。 

23. What enhances substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, and photosynthetic phosphorylation?

答: 底物水平磷酸化: 厌氧微生物和兼性厌氧微生物在基质氧化过程中, 产生一种含高自由能的中间体, 如发酵中产生含高能键的 1, 3-二磷酸甘油酸。这一中间体将高能键 ( ) 交给 ADP, 使 ADP 磷酸化而生成 ATP。
Answer: Substrate-level phosphorylation: Anaerobic microorganisms and facultative anaerobic microorganisms produce a high-energy intermediate during substrate oxidation, such as 1,3-diphosphoglyceric acid containing high-energy bonds produced during fermentation. This intermediate transfers high-energy bonds to ADP, phosphorylating ADP to generate ATP.
氧化磷酸化: 好氧微生物在呼吸时, 通过电子传递体系产生 ATP 的过程。
Phosphorylation of Oxidative Phosphorylation: The process by which aerobic microorganisms generate ATP through an electron transport system during respiration.

光合磷酸化: 光引起叶绿素、菌绿素或菌紫素逐出电子, 通过电子传递产生 ATP 的过程。
Photosynthetic phosphorylation: The process by which light causes chlorophyll, bacteriochlorophyll, or bacteriopheophytin to release electrons, generating ATP through electron transfer.
24、何谓光合作用, 比较阐扬光合作用和不产氧光合作用的异同。
What is photosynthesis, and compare and explain the similarities and differences between photosynthesis and non-oxygenic photosynthesis.
原核微生物的核很原始,发育不全,只有 dna 链高度折叠形成的一个核区,没有核膜,核质裸露, 与细胞质没有明显界限, 叫拟核或似核。原核微生物没有细胞器, 只有由细胞质膜内陷形成的不规则的泡沫体系, 如间体核光合作用层片及其他内折。也不进行有丝分裂。原核微生物包括古菌(即古细菌)、真细菌、放线菌、蓝细菌、粘细菌、立克次氏体、支原体、衣原体和螺旋体
The nucleus of prokaryotic microorganisms is primitive, underdeveloped, with only a nucleoid formed by highly folded DNA chains, lacking a nuclear membrane, with exposed nucleoplasm, and no clear boundary with the cytoplasm, known as a nucleoid or pseudonucleus. Prokaryotic microorganisms lack organelles, only having an irregular vesicular system formed by invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane, such as thylakoid membranes in photosynthetic layers and other internal folds. They also do not undergo mitosis. Prokaryotic microorganisms include archaea (i.e., archaebacteria), bacteria, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, myxobacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes, chlamydiae, and spirilla.
藻类光合作用 Algal photosynthesis 细菌光合作用 Bacterial photosynthesis
微生物 蓝细菌、真核藻类 Blue-green algae, eukaryotic algae
 Purple sulfur bacteria, green sulfur bacteria, purple non-sulfur bacteria
叶绿素类型 Chlorophyll type
 Chlorophyll a (absorbs red light), b, c, d, e
叶绿素 a(吸收红
 Bacterial chlorophyll (some absorb far-red light)

Light system 1 (cyclic photophosphorylation)
光系统 1 (环式光合

Photosystem 2 (non-cyclic photophosphorylation)
光系统 2 (非环式光

Organic compounds organic photosynthetic bacteria
  1. 酶可以分为哪 6 大类? 写出其反应通式。
    What are the 6 major categories of enzymes? Write down their reaction formulas.
答: 氧化还原酶类:  Answer: oxidoreductases:
(2) 转移酶类:  Transferase:
(3) 水解酶类:  (3) Hydrolase:
裂解酶类:   Hydrolase:
(5)异构酶:葡萄糖 果糖 (5) Heterogeneous enzymes: glucose fructose
(6) 合成酶:  (6) Synthetic enzyme:
  1. 生物氧化的本质是什么? 它可分几种类型? 各有什么特点?
    What is the essence of biological oxidation? How many types can it be divided into? What are their characteristics?

    答: 微生物的生物氧化本质是氧化与还原的统一过程, 是指细胞内一系列产能代谢的总称。可将生物氧化分为三类: 发酵、好氧呼吸和无氧呼吸。
    Answer: The essence of microbial biooxidation is a unified process of oxidation and reduction, which refers to a series of energy metabolism in cells. Biooxidation can be divided into three categories: fermentation, aerobic respiration, and anaerobic respiration.
(1) 发酵: 指在无外在电子受体时, 底物脱氢后所产生的还原力 不经呼吸链传递而直接交给某一内源性中间产物接受, 以实现底物水平磷酸化产能。
(1) Fermentation: refers to the reducing power generated after substrate dehydrogenation in the absence of external electron acceptors, which is directly transferred to a certain endogenous intermediate without passing through the respiratory chain, to achieve substrate-level phosphorylation energy production.
(2) 好氧呼吸: 有外在最终电子受体 存在时, 对底物的氧化过程。
(2) Aerobic respiration: The oxidation process of substrates in the presence of external terminal electron acceptors .
(3) 无氧呼吸: 是电子传递体系末端的受氢体为外源无机氧化物的生物氧化。
(3) Anaerobic respiration: It is the biological oxidation of an exogenous inorganic oxidant by the hydrogen acceptor at the end of the electron transfer system.

27. 什么是乙醛酸循环? 试述它在微生物生命活动中的重要性。
What is the citric acid cycle? Describe its importance in the life activities of microorganisms.

答: 乙醛酸循环是植物细胞内脂肪酸氧化分解后再转化为糖的过程, 有的细菌可以利用乙酸盐进行乙醛酸循环。
Answer: The glyoxylate cycle is the process in plant cells where fatty acids are oxidized and converted into sugars. Some bacteria can utilize acetate to carry out the glyoxylate cycle.
重要性: 是重要的呼吸途径, 可弥补 TCA 循环一些中间产物的不足。
Importance: It is an important respiratory pathway that can compensate for the deficiency of some intermediate products in the TCA cycle.
  1. 简述自养微生物固定二氧化碳的卡尔文循环。 Briefly describe the Calvin cycle of autotrophic microorganisms fixing carbon dioxide.
答:固定 的途径可以分为 3 个阶段:羧化反应( 的固定)、还原反应及 受体的再生。
Answer: The fixation pathway of can be divided into three stages: carboxylation reaction (fixation of ), reduction reaction, and regeneration of receptor.

第五章 微生物的生长繁殖与生存因子 Chapter Five Factors Affecting the Growth, Reproduction, and Survival of Microorganisms

  1. 微生物与温度的关系如何? 高温是如何杀菌的? 高温杀菌力与什
    What is the relationship between microorganisms and temperature? How does high temperature sterilize? What is the sterilization power of high temperature?

么有关系  No problem

答: 温度是微生物的重要生存因子。在适宜的温度范围内, 温度毎升高 10 摄氏度, 酶促反应速度将提高 倍, 微生物的代谢速率和生长速率均可相应提高。适宜的培养温度使微生物以最快的生长速率生长, 过高或过低的温度均会降低代谢速率和生长速率。
Answer: Temperature is an important survival factor for microorganisms. Within the appropriate temperature range, for every 10 degrees Celsius increase in temperature, the enzyme-catalyzed reaction rate will increase by times, and the metabolic rate and growth rate of microorganisms can also increase accordingly. The suitable culture temperature allows microorganisms to grow at the fastest rate, while excessively high or low temperatures will reduce the metabolic rate and growth rate.
高温主要破坏微生物的机体的基本组成物质一一蛋白质, 酶蛋白和脂肪。。蛋白质被高温严重破坏而发生凝固, 为不可逆变性, 微生物经超高温处理后必然死亡。细胞质膜含有受热易溶解的脂类, 当用超高温处理时, 细胞质膜的脂肪受热溶解使膜产生小孔, 引起细胞内含物泄漏而死亡。
High temperature mainly destroys the basic components of microorganisms' bodies - proteins, enzyme proteins, and fats. Proteins are severely damaged by high temperatures, leading to coagulation and irreversible denaturation. Microorganisms will inevitably die after being treated with ultra-high temperatures. The cytoplasmic membrane contains lipids that are easily dissolved by heat. When treated with ultra-high temperatures, the heat dissolves the fats in the cytoplasmic membrane, causing the membrane to form pores, leading to leakage of cell contents and death.
高温的杀菌效果和微生物的种类, 数量, 生理状态, 芽孢有无及 都有关系。
The high temperature sterilization effect is related to the types, quantities, physiological states, and presence of spores of microorganisms.
  1. 什么叫灭菌?灭菌方法有哪几种? 试述其优缺点。 What is sterilization? What are the methods of sterilization? Describe their advantages and disadvantages.
Answer: Sterilization is to kill all the nutritional cells of microorganisms and all spores or spores through ultra-high temperature or other physical and chemical factors.
灭菌的方法有干热灭菌法和湿热灭菌法。 There are two methods of sterilization: dry heat sterilization and moist heat sterilization.
湿热灭菌法比干热灭菌法优越, 因为湿热的穿透力和热传导都比干热的强, 湿热时微生物吸收高温水分, 菌体蛋白易凝固变性, 所以灭菌效果好。
Moist heat sterilization is superior to dry heat sterilization because moist heat has better penetration and heat conduction than dry heat. Microorganisms absorb high-temperature moisture during moist heat treatment, causing denaturation and coagulation of microbial proteins, resulting in better sterilization effects.

3. 什么叫消毒?有哪些方法? What is disinfection? What are the methods?

答: 消毒是用物理、化学因素杀死致病菌, 或是杀死所有微生物的营养细胞或一部分芽孢。
Answer: Disinfection is the use of physical and chemical factors to kill pathogenic bacteria, or to kill the nutritional cells of all microorganisms or some spores.
方法有巴斯德消毒法和煮沸消毒法两种。 There are two methods: Pasteurization and boiling disinfection.
  1. 嗜冷微生物为什么能在低温环境生长繁殖? Why can psychrophilic microorganisms grow and reproduce in low-temperature environments?
答:嗜冷微生物具备更有效的催化反应的酶, 其主动传送物质的功能运转良好, 使之能有效地集中必需的营养物质, 嗜冷微生物的细胞质膜含有大量的不饱和脂肪酸, 在低温下保持半流动性。
Answer: Psychrophilic microorganisms have enzymes that catalyze reactions more effectively, with a well-functioning active transport system for material transfer, allowing them to efficiently concentrate essential nutrients. The cytoplasmic membrane of psychrophilic microorganisms contains a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids, maintaining semi-fluidity at low temperatures.
  1. 高温菌和中温菌在低温环境中的代谢能力为什么减弱?
    Why is the metabolic capacity of thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria weakened in a low-temperature environment?
答: 在低温条件下, 微生物的代谢极微弱, 基本处于休眠状态, 但不致死。嗜中温微生物在低于十摄氏度的温度下不生长, 因为蛋白质合成的启动受阻, 不能合成蛋白质。又由于许多酶对反馈抑制异常敏感,很易和反馈抑制剂紧密结合, 从而影响微生物的生长。处于低温下的微生物一旦获得适宜温度, 即可恢复活性, 以原来的生长速率生长繁殖。
Answer: Under low temperature conditions, the metabolism of microorganisms is extremely weak, basically in a dormant state, but not dead. Mesophilic microorganisms do not grow at temperatures below ten degrees Celsius because the initiation of protein synthesis is blocked, and proteins cannot be synthesized. Furthermore, many enzymes are highly sensitive to feedback inhibition, easily binding tightly with feedback inhibitors, thereby affecting the growth of microorganisms. Once microorganisms at low temperatures reach suitable temperatures, they can regain activity and grow and reproduce at their original growth rate.
  1. 细菌、放线菌、酵母菌、䨣菌、藻类和原生动物等的正常生长繁殖分别要求什么样的
    What kind of is required for the normal growth and reproduction of bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast, fungi, algae, and protozoa?
答: 大多数细菌、藻类和原生动物的最适宜 , 它们的 适应范围在 之间。放线菌为 。酵母菌和䨝菌在 3 6。
Answer: The optimal temperature for most bacteria, algae, and protozoa is , with their optimal adaptation range between . Actinomycetes are . Yeasts and molds are at 36.
  1. 试述 过高或过低对微生物的不良影响。用活性污泥法处理污 (废)水时为什么要保持在 以上?
    Discuss the adverse effects of excessive or insufficient on microorganisms. Why is it necessary to maintain a pH of or above when treating wastewater with activated sludge method?
答: (1) 过低, 会引起微生物体表面由带负电变为带正电, 进而影响微生物对营养物的吸收。(2) 过高或者过低的 还可影响培养基中的有机化合物的离子作用, 从而间接影响微生物。因为细菌表面带负电, 非离子状态化合物比离子状态化合物更容易渗入细胞。(3) 酶只在最适宜的 时才能发挥其最大活性, 极端的 使酶的活性降低, 进而影响微生物细胞内的生物化学过程, 甚至直接破坏微生物细
Answer: (1) If the is too low, it will cause the surface of microbial cells to change from negatively charged to positively charged, thereby affecting the absorption of nutrients by microorganisms. (2) Excessively high or low can also affect the ionization of organic compounds in the culture medium, indirectly affecting microorganisms. Because bacterial surfaces are negatively charged, non-ionic compounds are more easily absorbed into cells than ionic compounds. (3) Enzymes can only exert their maximum activity at the most suitable , extreme reduces enzyme activity, thereby affecting the biochemical processes inside microbial cells, and even directly damaging microbial cells.

胞。(4) 过高或者过低的 均降低微生物对高温的抵抗能力。 8. 在培养微生物过程中, 什么原因使培养基 下降? 什么原因使 上升? 在生产中如何调节控制
(4) Excessive or insufficient both reduce the resistance of microorganisms to high temperatures. 8. What causes the decrease in the culture medium during the cultivation of microorganisms? What causes the increase in ? How to adjust and control in production?
答: 微生物在培养基中分解蒲萄糖, 乳产生有机酸会引起培养基的 下降, 培养基变酸。微生物在含有蛋白质、蛋白胨及氨基酸等中性物质培养基中生长, 这些物质可经微生物分解, 产生 和胺类等碱性物质,使培养基 上升。
Answer: Microorganisms decompose glucose in the culture medium, and the production of organic acids will cause the pH of the culture medium to decrease, making it acidic. Microorganisms grow in neutral substance culture media containing proteins, peptones, amino acids, etc., which can be decomposed by microorganisms to produce amines and other alkaline substances, causing the pH of the culture medium to rise.
在生产过程中, 处理城市生活污水、污泥中含有蛋白质, 可不加缓冲性物质。如果不含蛋白质、氨等物质, 处理前就要投加缓冲物质。缓冲物质有碳酸氢钠、碳酸钠、氢氧化钠、氢氧化铵及氨等。以碳酸氢钠最佳。
In the production process, when dealing with protein-containing urban sewage and sludge, no buffering material needs to be added. If there is no protein, ammonia and other substances, buffering material should be added before treatment. Buffering materials include sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and ammonia. Sodium bicarbonate is the best choice.
霸菌和酵母菌对有机物具有较强的分解能力。 较低的工业废水可用需菌和酵母菌处理, 不需要碱调节 , 可节省费用。
Bacteria and yeast have strong decomposition abilities for organic matter. Lower industrial wastewater can be treated with bacteria and yeast without the need for alkali adjustment, saving costs.
  1. 微生物对氧化还原电位要求如何? 在培养微生物过程中氧化还原电位如何变化? 有什么办法控制?
    How do microorganisms require redox potential? How does the redox potential change during the cultivation of microorganisms? What methods can be used to control it?
答: 各种微生物要求的氧化还原电位不同。一般好氧微生物要求的 以上, 好氧微生物生长。兼性厌氧微生物在 以上进行好氧呼吸, 在 一下时进行无氧呼吸。专性厌氧菌要求