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Slide Show

A Peek Into Vivian Maier’s Family Album

Credit Vivian Maier/Collection of Stephen Bulger Gallery

Slide Show

A Peek Into Vivian Maier’s Family Album

Credit Vivian Maier/Collection of Stephen Bulger Gallery

A Peek Into Vivian
Maier’s Family Album

This is the second of two articles about research on Vivian Maier. The first was published on Lens on Tuesday.

In the 1950s, when she was in her 20s, Vivian Maier visited a photo studio run by women in Union City, N.J. She had known one of them — Jeanne Bertrand — since she was a child.
20 世纪 50 年代,20 多岁的薇薇安-迈尔参观了新泽西州联合城一家由妇女经营的照相馆。

When Maier’s maternal grandmother moved to New York from France in 1901, she met a cousin of Bertrand’s. By the time Maier took Bertrand’s portrait at the studio in 1954, the older photographer had been working in the field for more than half a century. Pictured in her hands: Vivian Maier negatives (Slides 2 and 3).
1901 年,当迈尔的外祖母从法国搬到纽约时,她遇到了伯特兰的一位表亲。1954 年,迈尔在工作室为贝特朗拍摄肖像时,这位年长的摄影师已经在摄影领域工作了半个多世纪。图为她手中的照片:薇薇安-迈尔的底片(幻灯片 2 和 3)。

This portrait and others suggest much about the artistic development of Maier, a street photographer who doesn’t appear to have made an effort to show her work before she died in 2009 at the age of 83. Not only did Maier know Bertrand, she also went more than once to meet with — and likely to learn from — her and her colleagues, who made careers using their cameras.
这位街头摄影师在 2009 年去世(享年 83 岁)之前,似乎并没有努力展示过自己的作品。迈尔不仅认识伯特兰,还不止一次地与她和她的同事们见面,并很可能向他们学习,这些人都是用他们的相机成就了自己的事业。

These insights come from Ann Marks, a retired business executive who has been researching clues about Maier’s family history. Ms. Marks has had access to Maier’s photos with the help of two of the early champions of Maier’s work, John Maloof and Jeffrey Goldstein.
这些见解来自安-马克斯(Ann Marks),她是一位退休的企业高管,一直在研究有关迈尔家族历史的线索。马克斯女士在马耶尔作品的两位早期拥护者约翰-马鲁夫(John Maloof)和杰弗里-戈尔茨坦(Jeffrey Goldstein)的帮助下,接触到了马耶尔的照片。

Among Ms. Marks’s findings, which she has published online in two parts, are insights into Maier’s turbulent family history. She was born into an unhappy marriage. Her brother, a drug addict who was given different names by the two sides of his family, ultimately received a diagnosis of schizophrenia. By the time Maier was on her own, working as a nanny, it does not appear that she was in touch with her family.

The story of Vivian Maier’s family is significant given a lawsuit about the proper heir to her archive. Some have questioned whether Mr. Maloof and Mr. Goldstein, who have worked separately on their collections, took advantage of Maier’s work. Both have maintained their belief in the importance of sharing Maier’s images.
薇薇安-迈尔家族的故事意义重大,因为她的档案正面临着继承人的诉讼。一些人质疑马鲁夫先生和戈尔茨坦先生是否利用了迈尔的作品。两人都坚持认为,分享 Maier 的图片非常重要。

Among the bigger questions that have been asked of Maier’s work: Why did she keep it a secret? And how did she, a nanny, take such good photographs?

When Maier’s grandmother Eugenie Jaussaud moved to New York, she left her daughter, Marie, who was born out of wedlock, in a convent in France. Jaussaud, who was Roman Catholic, worked as a cook in high-society households. Eventually, her daughter joined her.
当迈尔的祖母尤金妮-尧索(Eugenie Jaussaud)搬到纽约时,她把非婚生的女儿玛丽留在了法国的一家修道院。身为罗马天主教徒的 Jaussaud 在上流社会家庭中担任厨师。最后,她的女儿也加入了她的行列。

In New York, Marie married Charles Maier, who worked at the National Biscuit Company. According to documents, one of the witnesses at their wedding was a church janitor; the other was the pastor’s wife. Their first child, a boy, was born in 1920, baptized Charles in a Catholic church.
在纽约,玛丽嫁给了在国家饼干公司工作的查尔斯-迈尔。文件显示,他们婚礼的证婚人之一是教堂看门人,另一位是牧师的妻子。他们的第一个孩子是个男孩,出生于 1920 年,在天主教堂接受了查尔斯的洗礼。

Ms. Marks made note of the words “filius naturalis,” which are written on the baptismal record. “Before the eyes of God,” she writes, “Marie declared Charles Jr. illegitimate.” The same baby was baptized a few months later in a Protestant church, under a different name: Karl William Maier Jr.
马克斯女士注意到洗礼记录上写着 "filius naturalis "字样。"她写道:"在上帝面前,玛丽宣布小查尔斯为私生子"。几个月后,同一个婴儿在一个新教教堂接受了洗礼,用的是另一个名字:小卡尔-威廉-迈尔(Karl William Maier Jr.

These pieces of information were hints, in Ms. Marks’s view, that Maier’s parents’ marriage was unhappy early on. By the time Karl was 5, he was placed in the Heckscher Foundation Children’s Home, and later in his grandparents’ custody.
在马克斯女士看来,这些信息都暗示着迈尔父母的婚姻很早就不幸福。在卡尔 5 岁时,他被安置在赫克歇尔基金会儿童之家,后来又由祖父母监护。

In 1926, Vivian Dorothy Maier was born and baptized Catholic. The following year, her parents separated. At 4, Vivian moved to the Bronx with her mother and Jeanne Bertrand, the photographer. It wasn’t long before Jaussaud took young Vivian to France with Bertrand, leaving Karl behind with his grandparents.
1926 年,薇薇安-多萝西-迈尔出生并接受了天主教洗礼。第二年,她的父母分居。4 岁时,薇薇安随母亲和摄影师让娜-贝特朗(Jeanne Bertrand)搬到了布朗克斯区。不久,琼索带着小薇薇安和贝特朗一起去了法国,留下卡尔和祖父母相依为命。

Vivian spent six years of her childhood in France and returned twice as an adult. Richard Cahan wrote about her time there for Lens in 2012, before the publication of his book “Vivian Maier: Out of the Shadows,” which we excerpted that year.
薇薇安的童年在法国度过了六年,成年后又两次回到法国。理查德-卡汉(Richard Cahan)在 2012 年为 Lens 撰写了关于她在那里的生活的文章,当时他的新书《薇薇安-迈尔:走出阴影》还未出版,我们摘录了当年的文章。

Meanwhile, Maier’s parents divorced and her paternal grandfather, William, died. Ms. Marks found a New York Times obituary from Jan. 30, 1936, that called William the “grandfather of Charles von Maier Jr.” The next day, another obituary said he had two grandchildren, “Charles von Maier Jr. and Dorothea Vivian von Maier.”
与此同时,迈尔的父母离异,她的祖父威廉去世。马克斯女士找到了 1936 年 1 月 30 日的《纽约时报》讣告,讣告称威廉是 "小查尔斯-冯-迈尔的祖父"。第二天,另一份讣告说他有两个孙子,"小查尔斯-冯-迈尔和多萝西娅-维维安-冯-迈尔"。

Vivian Maier’s brother, Karl, who went by different names throughout his life. These photos were taken in 1936 at the New York Vocational School at Coxsackie.
薇薇安-迈尔的弟弟卡尔,一生中用过不同的名字。这些照片拍摄于 1936 年,地点是位于考克萨基的纽约职业学校。
Credit New York State Archives

Karl started getting into trouble after his grandfather died: He was transferred first to a probationary school and later spent three years in the New York Vocational School at Coxsackie. Ms. Marks dug through records at the New York State Archives, which included a number of letters between Karl and his family, as well as letters to and from the staff at the facility.

In letters, Vivian and Karl’s paternal grandmother said that her son was an alcoholic with a gambling problem. Their maternal grandmother spoke disparagingly of her daughter in letters she wrote from the Vanderbilt estate in Florida, where she was working.

“In all of the records from these years, there is virtually no mention of Vivian except by Eugenie,” Ms. Marks said. “Everyone else seemed to treat her like wallpaper.”

Maier spent some time in Queens in the care of a family that fostered children. Later on, her mother moved out of their apartment and a Frenchwoman named Emilie Haugmard became her unofficial guardian. Maier took a series of photos at the beach with Ms. Haugmard, including one in which they stand smiling, side-by-side, in bathing suits (Slide 1).
迈尔在皇后区的一个寄养家庭中度过了一段时间。后来,她的母亲搬出了他们的公寓,一位名叫 Emilie Haugmard 的法国女士成为了她的非正式监护人。Maier 与 Haugmard 女士在海滩拍摄了一系列照片,其中一张照片中,她们穿着泳衣并肩站立,面带微笑(幻灯片 1)。

Emilie Haugmard. 埃米莉-豪格玛德Credit Vivian Maier/Collection of Stephen Bulger Gallery

There are, presumably, dozens of images in Maier’s archives featuring people she cared for — people who had an impact on her as a photographer and as a person. So far, with Ms. Marks’s help, Mr. Goldstein and Mr. Maloof have found only one series of three portraits of the woman they believe to be Maier’s mother. A print of one of those portraits was in the possession of relatives in France.

In her work, one of Maier’s preoccupations was taking photos of older women of the working class — women like her mother and grandmother, “the maternal figures of her youth,” Ms. Marks writes.

Ms. Marks has yet to find records indicating that Maier attended school in the United States. But it’s clear that she fared better than her brother. When he tried to join the Army in 1941, Ms. Marks found, he was rejected because of a criminal record, according to his military record. The next year, he was drafted and discharged dishonorably because of his morphine addiction.
马克斯女士尚未找到麦尔在美国上学的记录。但很明显,她比她的哥哥过得要好。马克斯女士发现,1941 年,当他试图参军时,根据他的参军记录,他因有犯罪记录而被拒之门外。第二年,他被征召入伍,并因吗啡成瘾以不光彩的方式退伍。

In the years to come, both of Maier’s grandmothers died. Eugenie’s estate was split among Vivian, Carl and Marie, who was then living in a boardinghouse. “Eugenie stipulated that her grandchildren receive payment outright, but that Marie receive a bond with regular, lifetime payments,” Ms. Marks writes, “an official acknowledgment that she didn’t trust her daughter.”

That year, Maier purchased her first camera. She soon returned to the family home in France, where she photographed endlessly: landscapes, local residents and animals. She sold the ancestral home, which had been bequeathed to her by an aunt.

“One of Maier’s preoccupations was taking photos of older women of the working class — women like her mother and her grandmother.”

Ann Marks - 安-马克斯

When Maier went back to France for the last time in 1959 — at the end of an adventurous world tour that included a stop in Shanghai — she learned there had been a rift between her relatives and her parents, which was described to Ms. Marks by relatives in France. It appears that a rift developed within her immediate family, too.
1959 年,当迈尔最后一次回到法国时--在包括上海在内的冒险世界巡回演出结束时--她得知她的亲戚和她的父母之间出现了裂痕,这是她在法国的亲戚向马克斯女士描述的。她的直系亲属之间似乎也出现了裂痕。

In his will, Charles Maier disinherited his children when he died nearly a decade later. Likewise, when Marie died in New York in 1975 — at which point she had been living in a less-than-reputable hotel — her two children went unmentioned.
近十年后,查尔斯-迈尔去世时在遗嘱中取消了子女的继承权。同样,1975 年玛丽在纽约去世时--当时她一直住在一家名声不太好的酒店里--她的两个孩子也没有被提及。

Karl had admitted himself to a psychiatric hospital in New Jersey in 1955 under the name John William Henry Jaussaud (Karl Maier) and given a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. He died in 1977 after spending his final years in a rest home.
1955 年,卡尔以约翰-威廉-亨利-尧索(卡尔-迈尔)的名字住进了新泽西州的一家精神病院,并被诊断为偏执型精神分裂症。1977 年,他在一家疗养院度过晚年后去世。

To Ms. Marks, this information helps clarify why Maier may have been so secretive in her later years. “How many upper middle class families … want to hire a nanny with a violent alcoholic father, unstable mother and drug-addicted brother who had a record and lived in psychiatric institutions?” she writes.

And yet, perhaps Maier simply wasn’t one to mix life and work.

Ms. Marks is not the only person studying the life and history of Vivian Maier. Pamela Bannos, a professor at Northwestern University who teaches photography in the department of art theory and practice, has been working on Maier’s biography for about three years. Ms. Bannos, whose project is called “Vivian Maier’s Fractured Archive,” is also exploring the posthumous story of the work, which has many layers.
研究薇薇安-迈尔生平和历史的不止马克斯女士一人。帕梅拉-班诺斯(Pamela Bannos)是美国西北大学艺术理论与实践系教授,教授摄影课程。班诺斯女士的项目名为 "薇薇安-迈尔支离破碎的档案",她也在探索作品的后世故事,其中有许多层次。

There is much more to be discovered about Maier’s past. As more details are revealed, the photography community will gain a better understanding of the perspective behind thousands and thousands of images.

The first part of this two-part series was published Tuesday. To see all of Ann Marks’s research on the family history of Vivian Maier, which was also shared in two parts, visit her website. Ms. Marks worked closely with Francoise Perron, who is from Maier’s family’s hometown in France. Work by Maier is showing at the Merry Karnowsky Gallery in Los Angeles.
本两部分系列报道的第一部分已于周二发表。要查看安-马克斯对薇薇安-迈尔家族史的全部研究成果,请访问她的网站。马克斯女士与 Francoise Perron 密切合作,后者来自迈尔家族在法国的故乡。迈尔的作品正在洛杉矶的 Merry Karnowsky 画廊展出。

Follow @kerrimac and @nytimesphoto on Twitter. Lens is also on Facebook and Instagram.
在 Twitter 上关注 @kerrimac 和 @nytimesphoto。镜头也在 Facebook 和 Instagram 上。

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