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University of Essex
School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering

CE264 Digital Systems Design - Spring Term 2024
CE264 数字系统设计 - 2024 年春季学期

Laboratory Design Work - Stage 3
实验室设计工作 - 第 3 阶段

This document outlines the final stage of design work that you are required to do as the main coursework component of CE264. In this part, you will design a system to create a dynamic and programmable video test pattern. Test patterns or 'cards' have been used since the advent of TV/video for checking the performance of displays. For background on test patterns, see here.
本文档概述了您作为 CE264 主要课程组成部分需要完成的设计工作的最终阶段。在这一部分中,您将设计一个系统,用于创建动态和可编程的视频测试图案。自电视/视频问世以来,测试图案或“卡片”一直用于检查显示器的性能。有关测试图案的背景,请参见此处。
The pattern you are required to create is a colored, movable rectangle displayed over a black background. The design should support the following features:
  • The displayed rectangle should have Width W and Height H pixels. W and H depend on your Essex ID registration number. The registration number is a 7-digit number, i.e. it has the form . The pixel dimensions of your rectangle should be calculated as:
    显示的矩形应具有宽度 W 和高度 H 像素。 W 和 H 取决于您的埃塞克斯 ID 注册号。 注册号是一个 7 位数字,即它的形式为 。您的矩形的像素尺寸应计算如下:
For example, if your Essex ID is 2107327 , then the rectangle should be pixels wide and pixels tall. Rectangle dimensions that deviate substantially from this rule without justification will be regarded as evidence of plagiarism. Make sure you explicitly include the computation of your pattern's dimensions in your report.
例如,如果您的埃塞克斯 ID 是 2107327,则矩形应为 像素宽, 像素高。未经理由大幅偏离此规则的矩形尺寸将被视为剽窃证据。确保在报告中明确包含您的图案尺寸计算。
  • The user should be able to move the rectangle left/right and up/down within the screen by means of the Basys 3 platform's corresponding buttons (left, right, up and down button, respectively; note that the up/down buttons decrease/increase the Vcount, respectively, which may seem counterintuitive at first).
    用户应能够通过 Basys 3 平台的相应按钮(左、右、上和下按钮,分别)在屏幕内左右移动矩形和上下移动矩形。请注意,上/下按钮分别减少/增加 Vcount,这一点起初可能有些反直觉。
  • At initialization, the top-left corner of the rectangle should be on pixel , i.e. the rectangle's top-left corner coincides with the monitor's top-left corner.
    在初始化时,矩形的左上角应该位于像素 处,即矩形的左上角与显示器的左上角重合。
  • There should be a no-out-of-bounds feature. In other words, when the rectangle reaches the screen limits along any for the four directions it should not be able to move further along that dimension. For example, when the rectangle's top-left corner is at , as at initialization, it cannot move neither up nor left (it can only move right and down).
    应该有一个不越界的功能。换句话说,当矩形沿着任何四个方向到达屏幕限制时,它不应该能够沿着该维度进一步移动。例如,当矩形的左上角位于 处时,就像在初始化时一样,它既不能向上也不能向左移动(只能向右和向下移动)。
  • The screen coordinates of the rectangle's top-left corner should be displayed on the Basys 3 board. Specifically, the horizontal position should be displayed as a decimal number at the board's 4-digit 7-segment LED display (use as many decimal digits as are needed for the resolution used here). The vertical position should be shown as a binary number using the board's first 9 LED outputs (LED0-LED8), where LED0 represents the LSB digit. The number representation should follow an active-high logic, i.e., a lit LEDx digit represents a binary value of 1 at position , while a dark LEDx represents a 0 for position .
    矩形的左上角的屏幕坐标应该显示在 Basys 3 板上。具体来说,水平位置应该显示为十进制数在板的 4 位 7 段 LED 显示器上(在这里使用的 分辨率需要多少位十进制数字)。垂直位置应该显示为二进制数,使用板的前 9 个 LED 输出(LED0-LED8),其中 LED0 代表最低位数字。数字表示应该遵循主动高电平逻辑,即,点亮的 LEDx 数字表示在位置 处的二进制值为 1,而暗淡的 LEDx 表示在位置 处的值为 0。
  • Your system should be able to store and use two different colours. Since the Basys 3 board uses 12 bits for RGB colour, that is how the colour of the rectangle will be generated. The actual colours displayed are to be programmable, by inputting a 12-bit value using the Basys 3 switches SW0-SW11, where SW0-SW3 are the 4 digits for Red (SW0 represents LSB R0), SW4-SW7 are the 4 digits for Green and SW8-SW11 are the 4 digits for Blue. The colour currently represented with the switches is stored in memory by pressing the central button btnC of the Basys 3 platform. In order to store the colour in the first memory place (i.e., as "Colour 1"), the switch SW13 should be ON (HIGH). Accordingly, when the switch SW14 is ON the color is stored in the second memory place (as "Colour 2"). You should be conscious that if both switches SW13 and SW14 are at the time when button (entral) is pressed the same colour will be stored in both memory places, a situation which is not desirable. Optionally, implement a circuit that prevents this situation or warns the user (e.g., use one of the free LED outputs to draw attention to the fact that both control switches are currently ON, much like in the tutorial). Note that due to the black background of this design, none of the two active colours should be black.
    您的系统应该能够存储和使用两种不同的颜色。由于 Basys 3 板使用 12 位 RGB 颜色,因此矩形的颜色将由此生成。显示的实际颜色可通过使用 Basys 3 开关 SW0-SW11 输入 12 位值进行编程,其中 SW0-SW3 是红色的 4 位数字(SW0 代表 LSB R0),SW4-SW7 是绿色的 4 位数字,SW8-SW11 是蓝色的 4 位数字。通过按下 Basys 3 平台的中心按钮 btnC,将当前用开关表示的颜色存储在内存中。为了将颜色存储在第一个存储位置(即“颜色 1”),开关 SW13 应该打开(高电平)。相应地,当开关 SW14 打开时,颜色将存储在第二个存储位置(作为“颜色 2”)。请注意,如果在按下按钮 1(中心)时,开关 SW13 和 SW14 同时为 0,相同的颜色将存储在两个存储位置,这种情况是不可取的。可选择实现一个电路来防止这种情况或警告用户(例如)。,使用其中一个免费的 LED 输出来吸引注意力,以表明两个控制开关当前都处于打开状态,就像在教程中一样)。请注意,由于此设计的黑色背景,两种活动颜色都不应为黑色。
  • There should be two rectangle colouring modes. In Mode 1, which is active when SW15 is OFF (LOW), pressing button C toggles the rectangle's colour between Colour 1 and 2.
    应该有两种矩形着色模式。在模式 1 中,当 SW15 处于关闭状态(低电平)时处于活动状态,按下按钮 C 可以在颜色 1 和 2 之间切换矩形的颜色。
  • In colouring Mode 2, the rectangle's colour changes between Colour 1 and Colour 2 (flickers/flashes) automatically at a slow rate around (i.e., use the slow clock you have created in Stage 1 with the clock dividers). Colouring Mode 2 is enabled by switching SW15 ON (HIGH).
    在着色模式 2 中,矩形的颜色会以缓慢的速度在 周围自动变换为颜色 1 和颜色 2(闪烁/闪烁)(即,使用您在阶段 1 中创建的慢速时钟和时钟分频器)。通过将 SW15 切换到打开状态(高电平)来启用着色模式 2。
  • The assignment is open-ended: you can implement additional features of your own liking which can offer additional marks (see report assignment brief for detailed marking criteria). Of note, any additional features should be sought only after the essential, required features as described above have been accomplished. Some ideas: i) pong-like feature where the rectangle moves automatically at constant speed along the direction indicated by a single button press and is reflected by the screen's walls ii) a third couloring mode where the foreground and background colours are exchanged iii) display of more complex shapes iv) rotation of the rectangle. These are only some indicative ideas, you should feel free to implement any other feature as you see fit.
    任务是开放式的:您可以实现自己喜欢的其他功能,这些功能可以提供额外的分数(详细的评分标准请参阅报告任务简介)。值得注意的是,在完成上述所述的基本必需功能之后,应仅寻求任何其他功能。一些想法:i)类似乒乓球的功能,其中矩形以恒定速度沿着单个按钮按下的方向移动,并被屏幕的墙壁反射 ii)第三种颜色模式,其中前景色和背景色交换 iii)显示更复杂的形状 iv)矩形的旋转。这只是一些指示性的想法,您可以随意实现任何其他功能,只要您认为合适。
Figure 1 below shows some of the features of this design (see also a video example in the module's Moodle page regarding this design's colouring modes).
下图显示了此设计的一些特点(还可以在该设计的着色模式模块的 Moodle 页面中查看视频示例)。
This is an ambitious design, and you may not get all of it to work correctly. If you are running out of time, concentrate on one part, such as showing a rectangle of any colour (e.g., according to the current state of the switches) with no movement capabilities, position information or colouring modes. Add the specified features incrementally, starting from the simpler ones and moving on to the more complex ones progressively. Don't try to do it all at once, make sure you test each new feature immediately after implementing it. DO spend time thinking about your design outside labs and classes. DON'T try to do your thinking only while seated at the computer in the lab, as it is highly likely that the available time wont suffice.
Pay particular attention to hierarchical design: in case you end up with a final schematic including several tens or hundreds of components, and especially in case you find yourself in the

position of reimplementing the same logic again and again for different parts of the circuit, reflect about whether you have sufficiently and effectively incorporated hierarchy and unit testing in your design.
As the circuits grow bigger and more complex, the amount of connections increases substantially even if effective hierarchical design keeps the number of components/hierarchical blocks low. Take some time to think about optimal spatial planning of components/blocks, connections, inputs and outputs and make sure you leave enough space in-between components to fit a large amount of connections.
Dr Serafeim Perdikis 塞拉菲姆·佩尔迪基斯博士
CE264 Module Supervisor CE264 模块主管
Top Row: Rectangle with pixels and pixels with Colour 1 (yellow) close to the initial top-left position (horizontal 79 and vertical 30 as, shown in the 7 -segment LED display and the LED outputs, respectively). Bottom Row: Rectangle with Colour 2 (blue) at the bottomand right-most position (horizontal 403 and vertical 30 as, shown in the 7 -segment LED display and the LED outputs, respectively)
顶部行:矩形,宽 像素,高 像素,颜色 1(黄色)靠近初始左上角位置(水平 79 和垂直 30,如 7 段 LED 显示器和 LED 输出所示)。底部行:矩形,颜色 2(蓝色)位于底部和最右侧位置(水平 403 和垂直 30,如 7 段 LED 显示器和 LED 输出所示)。