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Railway Engineering and Operations: Case Study Portfolio

1) Overview 1) 概述

The coursework is made up of 10 mini-assignments. A summary of these mini-assignments is provided in section 3 of this document, with more detailed guidance on undertaking each of the mini-assignments in Appendix 1. All the mini-assignments should be submitted together as a single integrated report.
课程作业由 10 个小作业组成。本文件第 3 节提供了这些小作业的摘要,附录 1 提供了关于完成每项小作业的更详细指导。所有小作业应作为一份综合报告一并提交。
You must base the coursework on your personal case study route, as described on your individual data sheet. If you have not yet received a data sheet then please contact Simon Blainey as soon as possible (S.P.Blainey@soton.ac.uk). You MUST use your own personal data sheet, as each of you has been assigned a different route. If you use someone else's data sheet you will risk failing this module.
您必须根据个人数据表中描述的个人案例研究路线完成课程作业。如果您尚未收到数据表,请尽快联系 Simon Blainey ( S.P.Blainey@soton.ac.uk)。您必须使用自己的个人数据表,因为每个人都被分配了不同的路径。如果使用他人的数据表,将有可能导致本单元不及格。

2) Submission procedure, requirements and mark scheme
2) 提交程序、要求和评分标准

You should submit your report electronically via EAssignments (www.assignments.soton.ac.uk) by 23:00 on Friday May 2024. Your report will be automatically checked for plagiarism using the TurnItIn system, so it is very important that you correctly cite all material you have taken from other sources.
您应在 2024 年 5 月星期五 23:00 之前通过 EAssignments ( www.assignments.soton.ac.uk) 以电子方式提交报告。2024 年 5 月。您的报告将通过 TurnItIn 系统自动检查是否存在抄袭行为,因此,正确引用您从其他来源获取的所有材料非常重要。
Your report should be fully referenced according to the Harvard system. See http://ibrary.soton.ac.uk/citingand-referencing/harvard for more information. Maximum word counts for each section of the assignment are given in the following table, along with the proportion of the total module mark associated with each miniassignment. A full mark scheme is provided in Appendix 2.
您的报告应按照哈佛体系提供完整的参考文献。更多信息请参见 http://ibrary.soton.ac.uk/citingand-referencing/harvard。下表给出了作业各部分的最长字数,以及每个小作业在单元总分中所占的比例。附录 2 提供了完整的评分标准。
1: Route Planning 1: 路线规划 600 9
2: Track 2: 轨道 750 9
3: Earthworks/structures
3: 土方工程/结构
500 9
4: Signalling systems 4: 信号系统 500 9
5: Noise 5: 噪音 750 9
6: Capacity and timetabling
6: 容量和时间安排
500 9
7: Human factors/safety 7: 人为因素/安全 800 9
8: Rolling stock 8: 机车车辆 500 9
9: Organisation, regulation and
9: 组织、监管和
governance 治理
500 9
10: Stations and interchanges
10: 车站和换乘站
600 9
Overall: presentation, standard of
English, and referencing.
n/a 不适用 10
TOTAL 总计 6000 100

3) Mini-Assignments 3) 小型作业

Mini-Assignment 1 - Route Planning:
小作业 1 - 路线规划:

a) Use Digimap Roam to produce one or more maps of a proposed route alignment for your new railway line. Briefly discuss the issues you considered when choosing this alignment, the reasons for your final choice of alignment, and any significant constraints on the proposed alignment.
a) 使用 Digimap Roam 绘制一幅或多幅新铁路线拟议路线的地图。简要讨论您在选择该线路时考虑的问题、最终选择该线路的原因,以及对拟议线路的任何重大限制。
b) Produce a sketch of the longitudinal gradient profile for your proposed alignment, based on the contour and height information in Digimap Roam.
b) 根据 Digimap Roam 中的等高线和高度信息,绘制拟议路线的纵向坡度轮廓草图。
c) Use the Station Demand Forecasting Tool to predict the number of passengers using your new railway station in its year of opening. In your report provide i) the predicted number of passengers, ii) a summary of the input values you used in a table and iii) a screenshot from the tool showing the station location and road access point.
c) 使用 "车站需求预测工具 "预测新火车站开通当年的乘客人数。在报告中提供 i) 预测的乘客人数;ii) 使用表格汇总输入值;iii) 显示车站位置和道路出入口的工具截图。
d) There are expected to be changes in service interval and average fares on the route over the period to 2035. Use the values on your data sheet together with appropriate generalised journey time and fare elasticities to produce an estimate of the number of passengers using your new railway station in 2035. You should assume that all passengers are travelling from the origin of the train service to the destination. You should show your calculations in full.
d) 到 2035 年,该线路的服务间隔和平均票价预计会发生变化。利用数据表中的数值以及适当的一般化旅行时间和票价弹性,估算出 2035 年使用新火车站的乘客人数。您应假设所有乘客都是从火车始发站前往目的地。请完整展示您的计算结果。

Mini- Assignment 2 - Trackbed design:
小作业 2 - 履带设计:

a) Use the information given in the datasheet to estimate the annual number of vehicle passes for your chosen route. Assume that services operate from 0500 to 2300, and that each train is made up of three vehicles. Describe this information in a suitable table and comment on the values (e.g. is this a busy route compared to say the Southampton to London commuter mainline?). Hint: an indicative estimate of the number of vehicle passes on the Southampton to London commuter route may be determined by consulting the timetable - number of trains per day multiplied by an estimate of the number of vehicles in each train - perhaps 8.
a) 利用数据表中提供的信息,估算所选线路的年车辆通行次数 。假设运营时间为 5 时至 23 时,每列火车由三辆车组成。用合适的表格描述这些信息,并对数值进行评论(例如,与南安普顿至伦敦的通勤干线相比,这条线路是否繁忙?)提示:南安普顿至伦敦通勤线路车辆通行次数的指示性估计值可通过查阅时刻表来确定--每天的列车数乘以每列列车的估计车辆数--也许是 8 辆。
b) Read the paper by Li and Selig "Method for railroad track foundation design I Development" which will have been presented / discussed during lectures. This is part one of two papers describing a two part design method. Note that this assignment only implements part 1 of the design method (to prevent subgrade progressive shear failure). When you have read the article turn to the appendix for the detailed guidance on implementing the method.
b) 阅读 Li 和 Selig 的论文 "Method for railroad track foundation design I Development"(铁路轨道地基设计方法 I 开发),该论文已在讲座中介绍/讨论过。这是两篇论文的第一部分,描述了一种两部分设计方法。请注意,本作业仅实施设计方法的第一部分(防止路基渐进剪切破坏)。阅读完文章后,请翻阅附录,了解实施该方法的详细指导。
c) Using Geoindex (http://mapapps2.bgs.ac.uk/geoindex/home.html) explore the soil types present on your chosen route. The most appropriate data to show will be the top 10 to 15 metres of material present along your route. This should be visible using the data filters "Artificial Ground", "Superficial deposits", "Bedrock Geology". For more local data click on some of the Borehole data and view this - note that individual borehole data will be of variable quality.
c) 使用 Geoindex ( http://mapapps2.bgs.ac.uk/geoindex/home.html) 探索所选路线上的土壤类型。最适合显示的数据是沿线 10 米至 15 米的表层物质。使用数据过滤器 "人工地面"、"表层沉积物 "和 "基岩地质 "可以看到这些数据。如需更多本地数据,请点击部分钻孔数据并查看--请注意,单个钻孔数据的质量参差不齐。
Summarise in a short paragraph the general characteristics of the predominant soils present on your route, e.g. is the route largely on clay, silt, sand or something else. Each route will be different and it is possible for some routes to pass over a large range of soils. If this is the case for your route please select a short section where the underlying geology is similar and only characterise this section. Discuss whether the soil characterisation on your route could map to any of the four soil types described within the Li and Selig method.
用一小段文字概括路线上主要土壤的一般特征,例如路线主要是在粘土、淤泥、沙土还是其他土质上。每条路线都不尽相同,有些路线可能会经过多种土壤。如果您的路线属于这种情况,请选择一小段底层地质类似的路段,并只描述该路段的特征。讨论您路线上的土壤特性是否可以映射到 Li 和 Selig 方法中描述的四种土壤类型中的任何一种。
d) Comment on why the method by Li and Selig does not cover granular subgrades (e.g. sands/gravels) or underlying rock. Describe how you might approach designing the trackbed on granular types of subgrade or for underlying rock? (hint - consider maintenance issues).
d) 说明为什么 Li 和 Selig 的方法不包括粒状路基(如砂/砾石)或底层岩石。请说明如何在粒状路基或底层岩石上设计轨道路基(提示--考虑维护问题)。
Note that for this assignment the majority of the submitted work will be in the form of calculations, tables and figures. For each of parts and the text submission (omitting the calculations, tables and figures) should
请注意,本次作业提交的大部分作业将以计算、表格和数字的形式出现。对于 部分中的每一部分,提交的文本(省略计算、表格和数字)应

not be more than half a page (i.e. two sides of text in total as a maximum). The page requirement for calculations, tables and figures will be in addition to this and the space/pages needed for this will depend on your presentation format.

Mini-Assignment 3 - Earthworks and Structures:
小作业 3 - 土方工程和结构:

a) Select a loading gauge for your route. Suggest the implications that this may have for new or existing overhead structures such as overbridges and tunnels on your selected route. (250 words).
a) 为您的线路选择一个装载轨距。说明这对所选线路上新建或现有高架结构(如天桥和隧道)的影响。(250 字)。
b) Choose an earthwork (embankment or cutting) slope from your route. Using the approach/charts described in the appendix and lecture slides, check the stability of an existing earthwork, or determine the stable slope angle for a new earthwork. Discuss briefly potential concerns that you may have with earthworks on your route, whether newly constructed, or of old construction. (250 words)
b) 从路线中选择一个土方工程(堤坝或切削)斜坡。使用附录和幻灯片中描述的方法/图表,检查现有土方工程的稳定性,或确定新土方工程的稳定坡角。简要讨论路线上的土方工程可能存在的潜在问题,无论是新建的还是旧的。(250 字)

Mini-Assignment 4 - Signalling Systems:
小作业 4 - 信号系统:

a) Design a track layout for your new route (e.g. single track, single track with passing loop(s) or double track) sufficient to provide the specified level of service without providing excessive capacity (i.e. an inefficient use of resources - it would be helpful to at least consider the timetabling requirements for the route, as required for Mini-Assignment 6, before finalising your layout). This track layout should include the whole of the new section of route, including the junction with the existing network.
a) 为您的新线路设计轨道布局(如单轨、带通过环路的单轨或双轨),足以提供指定的服务水平,同时又不会提供过多的容量(即资源利用效率低下--在最终确定布局之前,至少应考虑迷你任务 6 所要求的线路时刻表要求)。轨道布局应包括整个新路段,包括与现有网络的交界处。
b) Mark on this track layout the position and type of the signals required for safe and efficient operation of the line. Annotate the diagram to explain why you have placed these signals in these locations.
b) 在轨道布局图上标出线路安全有效运行所需的信号位置和类型。在图中加注释,解释为什么将这些信号灯放在这些位置。
c) Discuss the need for interlocking on your route with reference to specific signals, points and other features shown in your signalling diagram
c) 参考信号图中显示的具体信号、点和其他特征,讨论在您的线路上设置联锁的必要性

Mini-Assignment 5 - Noise:
小作业 5 - 噪音:

a) Calculate the speed profile of the trains on your proposed route departing from your terminus station. You should calculate the speed profile over at least a length of , starting at your terminus station and allowing for gradients.
a) 计算从总站出发的拟议线路上列车的速度曲线。您应计算至少 长度上的速度曲线。长度的速度曲线,以总站为起点,并考虑坡度。
b) Calculate the noise effects of your proposed route by determining the width of various (free field) noise contours
b) 通过确定各种(自由场)噪声等值线的宽度,计算建议路线的噪声影响
i. within the town where your terminus station is located (using the speed profile from (a) - assume that the trains travelling in both directions at a certain location would pass with the same speed);
i. 总站所在城市范围内(使用 (a) 中的速度曲线 - 假设在某一地点双向行驶的列车以相同速度通过);
ii. at sensitive receptors elsewhere along the route (making suitable assumptions about train speed). In addition to the proposed passenger service, assume that one freight train per day runs in each direction, consisting of a diesel locomotive and 20 wagons and running at a constant speed of . Identify the most critical buildings along the route (from both i. and ii. above) and, according to the distance from the alignment, calculate noise levels for these buildings. Discuss the limitations of your calculations.
ii. 沿线其他敏感受体(对列车速度做出适当假设)。除拟议的客运服务外,假设每天双向各运行一列货运列车,由一台柴油机车和 20 节车厢组成, 匀速运行。.确定沿线最重要的建筑物(根据上述 i.和 ii.),并根据与线路的距离计算这些建筑物的噪声级。讨论计算的局限性。
c) Compare the calculated noise levels at these buildings with the requirements specified in the UK Noise Insulation Regulations (NIRR). Identify any buildings requiring noise insulation and recommend suitable noise mitigation as necessary. Justify your choices.
c) 将计算得出的这些建筑物的噪音水平与英国《隔音条例》(NIRR)规定的要求进行比较。确定任何需要隔音的建筑物,并根据需要建议适当的噪音缓解措施。说明选择的理由。

Mini-Assignment 6 - Capacity and timetabling
小作业 6 - 容量和时间安排

Based upon the service interval, route length and maximum line speed for the route, and the track layout developed as part of mini-assignment 6 (Signalling Systems):
根据线路的服务间隔、线路长度和最高线路速度,以及作为小任务 6(信号系统)一部分而制定的轨道布局:
a) Develop an outline timetable for the new route (i.e. between the new station and the location at which the new route is linked to the existing network) for the proposed base year service, consistent with the following timetable planning values: minimum headways, junction margins and platform reoccupation
a) 为新线路(即新车站和新线路与现有网络连接的地点之间)制定拟议基准年服务的大纲时刻表,并与以下时刻表规划值保持一致:最短班次、路口余量和月台重占率

times of five minutes, and minimum turnaround times of 10 minutes. (Note: for a train entering a passing loop, the standard junction margin should be maintained between it and a subsequent train passing in the opposite direction. However, the margin between the other train passing and the first train then leaving the loop can be reduced to a minimum value of one minute. This will be further illustrated and explained in the lectures). The timetable should show two services in each direction, and so the length of time included will depend upon the specified base year service interval. For the calculation of the journey times, ignore the effects of acceleration and deceleration, i.e. assume a constant average speed throughout a train's journey between start and stop. The journey time on the new route should in general reflect the new route's length as a proportion of the total route length covered by the service pattern, i.e.
new route journey time (base year total journey time) (new route length) / (total route length)
新路线行车时间 {{0}(基准年总行程时间) (新路线长度)/(路线总长度)
However, the average speed used for the new route should not exceed of its maximum line speed, to provide an allowance for recovery from delays and variations in train performance during day-to-day operations. You MUST use the base year total journey time from your data sheet. Do not attempt to calculate this based on the maximum line speed. The length of the existing route can be determined in Digimap Roam or by reference to the appropriate Sectional Appendix (see the detailed guidance for MiniAssignment 6, below) or a railway atlas (note, however, that the distances and route lengths in these sources are likely to be expressed in terms of miles and chains: 1 mile chains, 1 chain yards).
但是,新线路使用的平均速度不应超过其最高线路速度的 ,以便为日常运营中列车延误和性能变化的恢复留出余量。您必须使用数据表中的基准年总行程时间。不要试图根据最高线路速度来计算。现有线路的长度可以在 Digimap Roam 中确定,也可以参考相应的分段附录(请参阅下文 "小任务 6 "的详细指导)或铁路地图册(但请注意,这些资料中的距离和线路长度可能以英里和链为单位:1 英里 {{1} 链,1 链 码)。
Present the timetable in the form of a timetable graph (the use of Excel's line drawing facilities is suggested for this purpose, as shown in Appendix A, and an Excel-based template will be made available on Blackboard, but other means of presentation can be used if preferred).
以时间表图表的形式展示时间表(如附录 A 所示,建议使用 Excel 的线条绘制功能,黑板上将提供基于 Excel 的模板,但如果愿意,也可使用其他展示方式)。
b) Based upon the developed timetable and the timetable planning values specified above in a), calculate the capacity utilisation index (CUI) value for the line for the time period including the two services in each direction (and taking account of the additional headway/margin/turnaround time following the last train included in the calculations), rounded up to the nearest whole hour, using the methods described in the lectures. If the line is single track throughout, a single CUI value should be calculated; if it is double track, the CUI value for one track should be calculated; if the line is single track with one or more passing loops, the line should be split at each loop, and a single CUI value calculated for the line section between the new station and the loop closest to it. Your calculations should be shown in full, and the compressed timetable should be presented in a second timetable graph.
b) 根据制定的时刻表和上述 a) 中规定的时刻表规划值,采用讲座中介绍的方法,计算该线路在该时间段内的能力利用指数(CUI)值,包括每个方向的两个班次(并考虑到计算中包括的最后一班列车后的额外班次/间隔/周转时间),四舍五入到最接近的整小时。如果线路全程为单轨,则应计算单个 CUI 值;如果线路为双轨,则应计算单轨的 CUI 值;如果线路为单轨,且有一个或多个通过环路,则应在每个环路处分割线路,并计算新车站与最靠近该车站的环路之间线路段的单个 CUI 值。计算结果应完整显示,压缩后的时刻表应在第二张时刻表图表中展示。
c) Briefly describe the reasons for your choice of timetable and track layout, and comment upon the performance implications of your calculated CUI value.
c) 简要说明选择时间表和轨道布局的原因,并就计算出的 CUI 值对性能的影响发表意见。

Mini-Assignment 7 - Human Factors/Safety
小作业 7 - 人为因素/安全

a) Provide a synopsis for ONE accident case study of your choice. This should include an account of what happened, the key causes and contributory factors and any recommendations made as a result of the accident. You should ensure you distinguish between individual and systemic factors. You can choose from one of the case studies discussed in the lecture, or you can select your own from one of the RAIB's published reports (see www.gov.uk/raib). [400 words]
a) 自选一个事故案例研究的概要。其中应包括事故发生的经过、主要原因和促成因素,以及事故发生后提出的任何建议。您应确保区分个人因素和系统因素。您可以从讲座中讨论的案例研究中选择一个,也可以从 RAIB 公布的报告中选择您自己的案例研究(请参阅 www.gov.uk/raib)。[400字]
b) Use your lecture notes, recommended readings (of all accidents), and what you have learnt from part a), to produce a list of potential or hypothetical Human Factors and Safety-related issues associated with your case study route and suggest mitigation strategies / recommendations to address these (e.g. from the perspective of design, training, equipment, procedures, organisational culture etc.). You may wish to present this section in a table. [400 words]
b) 利用您的讲义、推荐读物(所有事故)和您在 a) 部分中学到的知识,列出与您的案例研究路线相关的潜在或假设的人为因素和安全相关问题,并提出解决这些问题的缓解策略/建议(例如,从设计、培训、设备、程序、组织文化等角度)。您可能希望以表格形式呈现本部分内容。[400 字]

Mini-Assignment 8 - Rolling Stock:
小作业 8 - 机车车辆:

a) Design a train for your route and provide an illustration of your design, using the carriage design template given in Appendix 1. You should choose an appropriate number of carriages to cater for the expected passenger flows on your route, although it is not necessary for each carriage to be different (you may, for example, have two carriage designs and specify a three-carriage train comprising two of one design and
a) 使用附录 1 中的车厢设计模板,为您的线路设计一列火车,并提供设计说明。您应选择适当数量的车厢,以满足您线路上的预期客流量,但不一定每节车厢都要不同(例如,您可以有两种车厢设计,并指定三节车厢列车,其中两节车厢为一种设计,另两节车厢为另一种设计)。

one of the other). You should specify whether the train is a multiple-unit (with a driving cab at each end) or relies entirely on an additional locomotive for propulsion. You should also specify an appropriate propulsion type (diesel, overhead electric, third-rail electric, battery electric, hybrid or alternative fuel source). If your train relies on a separate locomotive, you are allowed to swap the locomotive from one type to another en-route if the station facilities and timetable for the route permit. Similarly, you are allowed to specify a multiple-unit which can be propelled by an additional locomotive for all or part of the route.
Provide a written explanation of and justification for your design, explaining why you have made the choices you have for your given route. It is not necessary for your train to include all possible features, but you should be mindful of the needs of the passengers on your route, paying particular attention to accessibility.

Mini-Assignment 9 - Organisation, regulation and governance
小作业 9 - 组织、监管和治理

How will your new case study route be designed, built, financed and operated? Discuss with respect to ownership (public, private or hybrid), organisation (including the extent of horizontal and vertical integration), the degree of on-track and/or off-track competition and the extent of regulation (including fares, service quality, service quantity and safety). Relate your answer to recent new services in the UK (actual and proposed) and the Williams-Shapps Plan for Rail.

Mini-Assignment 10 - Stations and Interchanges
小作业 10 - 车站和换乘站

a) Based on the site chosen in Mini-Assignment 1 for the new station which forms the terminus of your line, discuss whether or not it would be suitable as the basis for a transit-oriented development. This should include identification of potential opportunities for and constraints on such development. [ 250 words]
a) 根据小任务 1 中为新车站(贵线终点站)所选的地点,讨论该地点是否适合作为公交导向型开发的基础。这应包括确定这种开发的潜在机会和限制因素。[ 250 字]
b) Use Digimap Roam to produce a detailed map of the area around your new station site, and mark on it any opportunities for interchange with other transport modes (e.g. bus, car, bicycle). If no such opportunities currently exist, briefly suggest (with reference to the map) what local transport investments might usefully be made to complement the new railway route. Discuss what facilities should be installed at the station to make the transfer between modes as seamless as possible, with reference to any specific constraints which exist at the site. [ 350 words]
b) 使用 Digimap Roam 绘制新站址周围地区的详细地图,并在地图上标出与其他交通方式(如公共汽车、汽车、自行车)换乘的任何机会。如果目前没有这样的机会,请简要建议(参考地图)当地可以进行哪些交通投资,以配合新的铁路线路。讨论应在车站安装哪些设施,以尽可能实现各种交通方式之间的无缝换乘,同时参考该地点存在的任何具体限制。[ 350 字]

附录 1:详细指南

Mini-Assignment 1: Route Planning
小作业 1:路线规划

How to use Digimap Roam to produce a map of your proposed route alignment:
如何使用 Digimap Roam 绘制拟议路线走向图:

Go to http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/
转至 http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/
Click on 'Ordnance Survey’
点击 "地形测量
Click on 'OS Digimap'
点击 "OS Digimap
Log in using your University of Southampton credentials.
Click on 'Search', enter the name of one of the towns on your case study route, and press the 'Enter' key.
点击 "搜索",输入案例研究路线上某个城镇的名称,然后按 "回车 "键。
Select the appropriate urban area from the list which then appears, and click ' ' to close the search list.
从出现的列表中选择合适的城区,然后点击" "。关闭搜索列表。
Use the 'zoom' and 'pan' controls (on the right hand edge of the map window) to adjust the map view so that you can see the full extent of the area covered by your proposed route
使用 "缩放 "和 "平移 "控制(位于地图窗口的右侧边缘)调整地图视图,以便查看建议路线所覆盖区域的全部范围
Choose a basemap from the range which are available. One of the vector basemaps (such as Vector Map Local or Vector Map District) is recommended, as these allow you to select which features are included in your map.
Use the 'map content' pane (on the left of the map window) to add or remove features from the map using the check boxes.
使用 "地图内容 "窗格(在地图窗口的左侧),使用复选框添加或删除地图上的特征。
Click on the drawing tools pane (on the left of the map window) to display the range of drawing tools which are available.
Use the 'Line' tool to add your proposed route alignment to the map. You can choose from 'line' or 'freehand' options, and can vary the colour, width and style of the line using the 'line settings' options, and you can alter your line once you have drawn it using the 'modify' tool.
使用 "线条 "工具在地图上添加建议的路线走向。您可以选择 "线条 "或 "自由手绘 "选项,还可以使用 "线条设置 "选项来改变线条的颜色、宽度和样式。
Use the 'marker' and 'text' tools to annotate key features of your proposed route.
使用 "标记 "和 "文本 "工具标注拟议路线的主要特征。
Click on the 'MyMaps' pane (on the left of the map window) to save your map so you can return and edit it at a later date. Once your map is finished, use the 'print' button to export and download it.
点击 "我的地图 "窗格(在地图窗口左侧)保存地图,以便日后返回编辑。地图绘制完成后,使用 "打印 "按钮将其导出并下载。
Within the print window, give your map a title, and select a print format (PNG or JPG will be easier to add to your report than PDF). Check in the layout preview whether your map covers all of your case study route. If it doesn't, you will need to change the print scale (in the list of options). Once you are happy, click on 'generate print file'.
在打印窗口中,给地图起一个标题,并选择打印格式(PNG 或 JPG 格式比 PDF 格式更容易添加到报告中)。在布局预览中检查您的地图是否覆盖了所有案例研究路线。如果没有,则需要更改打印比例(在选项列表中)。满意后,点击 "生成打印文件"。
Save the file that is produced by the website in a safe place for you to use in your report.
Depending on the extent and characteristics of your case study route, you may wish to use more than one map to show all relevant features of the route.

How to find height information in Digimap Roam to construct a gradient profile for your route.
如何在 Digimap Roam 中查找高度信息,为路线绘制坡度曲线。

By selecting the 'map content' pane on the left of the map window you can hide all map layers other than the height information, to make it easier to see the contours. You will need to choose a vector basemap option in order to be able to do this.
通过选择地图窗口左侧的 "地图内容 "窗格,您可以隐藏除高度信息以外的所有地图图层,以便于查看等高线。要做到这一点,您需要选择矢量基础地图选项。

How to use the Station Demand Forecasting Tool to calculate the number of passengers using your proposed station:
如何使用 "车站需求预测工具 "计算拟建车站的乘客人数:

Go to trg-apps.soton.ac.uk/sdftgui/ and sign in using your individual user name and password.
访问 trg-apps.soton.ac.uk/sdftgui/,使用个人用户名和密码登录。
This should take you to the main tool interface (see screenshot below).

In the map interface drag the map markers to specify the location of the station (red marker) and the nearest access point to the new station from the existing road network (blue marker),
Use the information on your personal data sheet to complete the fields in the tool interface. For fields where no information is provided on the datasheet use the following values:
Station ID: Any four letter abbreviation of the station name can be used here.
台站 ID:此处可使用任何四个字母的台站名称缩写。
Frequency: This should be the total number of trains serving the new station in one day (in both directions). Calculate this based on the 'base year service interval', assuming that trains operate between 0600 and 0000 (i.e. an 18 hour period).
班次:这应该是一天内为新车站服务的列车总数(双向)。根据 "基准年服务间隔 "计算,假设列车运行时间为 6:00 至 0:00(即 18 小时)。
Station category: E (this indicates a small staffed station)
CCTV: Yes 闭路电视:有
Ticket machine: Yes 售票机:有
Bus interchange: Yes 巴士中转站:有
Terminal station: Yes 终点站:有
Electric services: You will need to decide whether or not your new line will be served by electric trains (you will need to justify this decision as part of mini-assignment 4).
电力服务:您需要决定您的新线路是否将使用电力列车(您需要在小型作业 4 中证明这一决定的合理性)。
Travelcard boundary: No 旅行卡边界:否
Once you have filled in all the fields, click the 'Submit Job' button.
填写完所有字段后,单击 "提交工作 "按钮。
Click the 'tick' button when asked to confirm whether you want to submit this job to the SDFT.
当被要求确认是否要将此任务提交给 SDFT 时,请单击"√"按钮。
Click on the 'Submitted Jobs' tab. This will show you the status of your request in the queue. Once the model run has completed you will receive an email containing a log file and model outputs. The predicted number of trips is the 'forecast uplift' figure in the 'station forecast' spreadsheet.
单击 "已提交任务 "选项卡。这将显示您的请求在队列中的状态。模型运行完成后,您将收到一封电子邮件,其中包含日志文件和模型输出结果。预测的班次数是 "车站预测 "电子表格中的 "预测提升 "数字。

How to estimate demand impacts of changes in service interval and average fares:

Data on base year service interval and mean fare, and on expected service interval and mean fare in 2035 are provided on your data sheet. The base year demand forecast should be obtained from the New Station Demand Forecasting tool.
数据表中提供了基准年服务间隔和平均票价数据,以及 2035 年预期服务间隔和平均票价数据。基准年需求预测应从新车站需求预测工具中获取。
Use these figures along with the formulae included in the lecture material and the demand elasticities given below to estimate the number of passengers using the route in 2035. You should assume that in the base year of passengers are commuters, of passengers are business travellers, and of passengers are leisure travellers.
利用这些数字、教材中的公式和下面给出的需求弹性,估算出 2035 年使用该路线的乘客人数。您应假设在基准年, 的乘客是通勤者, 的乘客是商务旅客, 的乘客是休闲旅客。
Elasticity of rail demand with respect to generalised journey time
Elasticities of rail demand with respect to fare:
Commuters  通勤者 {{0}
Business  业务
Leisure  休闲
When calculating the impact of a change in service interval you should assume that end-to-end journey time remains constant, and that no interchange is required. You should use the service interval penalties given in the following table:
Service interval (minutes)
Time penalty (minutes) 罚时(分钟)
15 14
20 18
30 23
40 27
60 31
90 42
120 47

Mini-Assignment 2: Trackbed Design
小作业 2:履带设计

Follow these guidelines with the paper Li and Selig "Method for railroad track foundation design. I:
请根据 Li 和 Selig 的论文 "铁路轨道地基设计方法 "遵循这些指南。I:
Development". 发展"。
  • Describe with diagrams the two types of soil failure the methodology is designed to prevent.
  • The method may be applied to four categories of cohesive type subgrades. For the purpose of this calculation we will implement the method for one of the soil types and assume that at least some length of your route has a fat clay subgrade present. For this soil type apply the method to obtain minimum trackbed (ballast) thicknesses required to prevent progressive shear failure. For the purpose of these calculations:
    该方法可应用于四类粘性基层。在本计算中,我们将对其中一种土质采用该方法,并假设您的线路至少有部分长度的路基为肥厚粘土 。对于这种土质,采用该方法可获得防止渐进剪切破坏所需的最小轨枕(道碴)厚度。为便于计算
  • To simplify the calculation we will assume only one vehicle type. Use the AREMA calculation for the dynamic design wheel load based on an axle load of 20 tonnes (wheel load of .
    为简化计算,我们假设只有一种车辆类型。使用 AREMA 以 20 吨轴荷载为基础计算的动态设计车轮荷载(车轮荷载为 .
Where DAF = Dynamic Amplification Factor, train speed (use your data sheet for this) Wheel diameter (assume this to be 1.0m) (Hint: multiply 100 by the to obtain the Design wheel load required in Equation 6 used later in the method).
其中 DAF = 动态放大系数, 列车速度 (使用数据表) {{2}车轮直径(假设为 1.0 米)(提示:用 100 乘以 即可得出本方法后面公式 6 所需的设计车轮荷载 )。
  • Use the cohesive strength of the soil given on your data sheet.
  • Carry out the calculation for four values of cumulative load cycles (vehicle passes): (i) 200,000, (ii) (iii) 5,000,000 (iv) .
    对四个累积载荷循环值(车辆通过次数)进行计算:(i) 200,000 次, (ii) (iii) 5,000,000 (iv) .
  • The cumulative surface strain must be limited to .
    累积表面应变必须限制在 内。.
  • Take the Young's modulus of ballast to be (corresponding to Figure 8b).
    取压舱物的杨氏模量为 (对应图 8b)。(对应于图 8b)。
  • Assume that the line marked in Figure 8b applies for the soil type present.
    假设图 8b 中标有 的线适用于当前的土壤类型。
Hints: apply equation 2 using the parameters in Table 1 and construct a version of Figure 7 for a range of stress ratios, read off the stress ratio for surface strain for each number of load cycles (vehicle passes). Use this to infer the allowable deviator stress ( ) using the undrained shear strength ( ) of the soil type. Calculate the dimensionless strain influence factor of equation 6 and scale off the normalised granular layer thicknesses ) from Figure 8b (a larger version of this figure is reproduced below). Multiply by the arbitrary length of (6 inches) to infer the trackbed thickness .
提示:使用表 1 中的参数应用等式 2,并构建一系列应力比的图 7 版本,读出每个荷载循环次数(车辆通过次数)的 表面应变的应力比。利用土壤类型的排水抗剪强度( )推断出允许偏差应力( )。计算等式 6 中的无量纲应变影响因子 并缩减图 8b 中的归一化粒料层厚度 。图 8b 中的 )(下图为该图的放大版)。乘以 的任意长度 (6 英寸(6 英寸),推算出轨床厚度 。.
  • The trackbed will require a full trackbed renewal when the subgrade surface strain reaches . For each of the four trackbed thicknesses use your estimate of annual vehicle passes from (a) to predict when the trackbed would need to be renewed and the subgrade re-profiled. Based on this say which of the design thicknesses you would recommend and why (hint: consider when the ballast would be replaced anyway).
    当路基表面应变达到 时,将需要对轨道路基进行全面更新。.对于四种路基厚度中的每一种,请使用 (a) 中的年车辆通过量估算值来预测何时需要更新路基并重新铺设路基。在此基础上,请说明您建议采用哪种设计厚度以及原因(提示:请考虑何时更换道砟)。
Report any equations used, present any graphs and show your input variables. Tabulate your results. Hint: these calculations are best implemented in a spreadsheet.

Larger version of Figure 8b after and Selig, 1998
图 8b 的放大版, 和 Selig,1998 年

Mini-Assignment 3: Structures/Earthworks
小作业 3:结构/地球工程

For part (b), use the method given below, and taken from Whitlow (2001) [Figure MA3-1]. Also see the examples in the lecture slides. You are looking to obtain a factor of safety, F, of at least 1.25. You will need
对于 (b) 部分,请使用下面给出的方法,该方法摘自 Whitlow (2001)[图 MA3-1]。另请参阅幻灯片中的示例。您希望获得至少 1.25 的安全系数 F。您需要

to consider soil strength parameters ' and c' (units degrees, and ), unit weight of the soil , and groundwater pressures (where is the water pressure in the soil at depth below the ground surface [in ], is the unit weight of soil [as above], and is the depth below ground level [in ]). The final inputs to the Whitlow method relate to the slope geometry (slope angle [degrees], height ] and depth factor [defined on diagram below]).
考虑土壤强度参数 和 c'(单位度,和 )、土壤单位重量 以及地下水压力 (其中 为地表以下深度 处土壤中的水压力[单位为 ], 为土壤单位重量[同上], 为地表以下深度[单位为 ])。惠特洛方法的最后输入与斜坡几何形状有关(斜坡角 [度]、高度 [度]、高度 和深度系数[定义见下图])。
For part (c) of Mini-Assignment 2 (MA2) you will have already been to look at the Geoindex to work out the predominant soil type on your route (or if this is rather variable, at a particular location). You will need to work out whether this is a clay, sand, gravel or chalk soil, or something other. The strength is not being assigned here in the same way as for the Li and Selig method in MA2, as we are now using effective stress soil parameters. Some suggested values of soil strength and unit weight for common soils are given in Table MA31 below. You do not have to stick rigorously to these. Cuttings will be in situ geology; embankments are likely to be of local geological materials, whether old or new.
在完成小作业 2 (MA2) (c) 部分时,您需要查看 Geoindex,以确定路线上的主要土壤类型(如果土壤类型变化较大,则确定特定地点的土壤类型)。您需要确定土壤类型是粘土、沙土、砾石土、白垩土还是其他。这里的强度分配方式与 MA2 中的 Li 和 Selig 方法不同,因为我们现在使用的是有效应力土壤参数。下表 MA31 给出了一些常见土壤强度和单位重量的建议值。您不必严格遵守这些值。掘进将采用原位地质;路堤可能采用当地地质材料,无论是新的还是旧的。
In practice, water pressures in the ground may vary temporally, e.g. with rainfall. You need to use the worst case for your calculation, representing the highest water pressures. Suggested values of for a cut slope, and embankment are given below in Table MA3-2.
实际上,地下水压可能随时间而变化,例如随降雨而变化。您需要使用代表最高水压的最坏情况进行计算。表 MA3-2 给出了切坡和路堤的 建议值。
Whether you are designing a new slope, or investigating an existing, you will need to estimate its height . For an existing slope, there will be some height information available to on Digimap, either as contours, or spot heights, but these will be to the nearest metre at best, so you will likely only have an estimate. For a new slope, you may need to define the height: e.g.: if the railway needs to go over a road, there needs to be sufficient clearance for road traffic to pass underneath, requiring earthworks adjacent to the bridge similar to the height of the bridge itself.
无论是设计新斜坡,还是对现有斜坡进行勘测,都需要估算其高度 。.对于现有斜坡,Digimap 上会有一些高度信息,可以是等高线,也可以是点状高度,但最多只能精确到米,因此您可能只能得到一个估计值。对于新的斜坡,您可能需要定义高度:例如:如果铁路需要跨越公路,则需要为公路交通提供足够的通行间隙,这就需要在桥梁附近进行与桥梁本身高度类似的土方工程。
Table MA3-1: approximate strength and unit weight properties for common soils
表 MA3-1:常见土壤的近似强度和单位重量特性
Effective stress 
friction angle,  
Effective cohesion, 
Unit weight of soil, 
London Clay 伦敦粘土 21 2 20
Other stiff clays: e.g. Atherfield, Gault, 
Kimmeridge, Weald 
26 2 20
Murcia Mudstone 穆尔西亚泥岩 30 5 20
Glacial Till (clayey) 冰川沉积物(粘土质) 30 5 20
Sand  35 2 18
Gravel 砾石 40 2 18
Chalk (intact) 粉笔(完好无损) 35 50 19
Chalk (remoulded - in embankment)  33 2 19
Table MA3-2: values 
Earthwork structure 土方工程结构
Cutting 切割 0.50
Embankment (silt, clay) 路堤(淤泥、粘土) 0.40
Embankment (sand, gravel)
Figure MA3-1: Whitlow (2001) slope stability tables. 

9.11 Effective stress stability coefficients 

A method involving the use of stability coefficients similar to that devised by Taylor, but in terms of effective stress, was suggested by Bishop and Morgenstern (1960). The factor of safety is dependent on five problem variables: 
(a) slope angle  
(b) depth factor (as in Taylor's method -.. Fig. 9.18) 
(c) angle of shearing resistance  
(d) a non-dimensional parameter  
(e) pore pressure coefficient  
The factor of safety varies linearly with and is given by 
where and are coefficients related to the variables listed above. In the original work sets of charts were provided for ranges of values: to to to 1.5 and to 0.05 , and were thus suitable for relatively weak soils. O'Connor and Mitchell (1977) extended the range of charts to include and 0.100 , but some stiff soils and soft rocks have higher 
Slope cot :  2:1 3:1
D n 
ALL  20 0. 0.90 0.36 0.73 0.90 1.08 1.21 1.45 1.54 1.84 1.88
25 0.23 1.16 0.47 0.92 0.92 7.16 1.40 1.55 1.86 1.97 2.32 2.41
30 0.29 1.4 0.58 1.15 1.15 1.43 1.72 1.91 2.30 2.44 2.88 2.98
35 0.3 1.7 0.70 1.3 1.3 1.74 2.10 2.32 2.79 2.97 3.48 3.62
40 0.42 2.09 0.83 1.67 1.67 2.09 2.51 2.79 3.34 3.55 4. 18 4.34
Slope :  3:1 2:7 3:1
0 n  n 
1.00 20 0.52 0.72 0.70 0,76 1.11 1 33 4 35 39 37 2.04
25 91 2.59
30 0. 0.88 0 1. 1.60 6 3 36 .41 3.17
3 0. 1.8 1.8 0 38 3.15 4,14 3.83
40 0.86 7. 1.30 1,72 2.18 2.14 87 2,98 3.95 3.16 4.86 4.56
30 1.4 9
35 1.7 1. 1.
40 2.04 2.11 2.23 2.35 2.74 2.75 3.43 3.39 4.14 4.04 4.93 4.7
Stope :  111 3:1
D n  n 
1.00 20 0.69 0.78 0.90 0.83 7.37 1.06 1,38 2.32 1,77 2.77 2.08
25 0.80 0.98 1.05 1.03 1.33 2.18 1.75 2.77 2420 3.33 2.64
30 0.91 1.21 1.21 1.24 1.88 1.62 2.56 3.24 2.68 3.91 3
35 1.02 1.40 1,37 1.46 2.17 1,95 2.99 3.78 2.58 3.25 4.57
40 1.14 1,61 1.55 1.71 2.50 2.32 3.44 3.06 4.40 39.1 5.30 4.64
Slope cot :  1:9 2:1 3:7 5:1
1.25 20 1.16 0.98 1.24 1.07 1.50 1.26 1.82 1.48 2.22 1.79 2.63 2.10
25 1.40 1.23 1.50 7.35 1.81 1.59 2.21 7.89 2.70 2.28 3.19 2.67
30 1.51 1.77 1.66 2.74 1.94 2.63 2.33 3.20 2,81 3.81 3.30
35 1.93 1.82 2.08 2.00 2.53 2.33 3.10 2.84 3.78 3.39 4.48 4.01
40 2.24 2.16 2.42 2.38 2.94 2.78 3.63 3.38 4.41 4.07 5.22 4.78
1.50 20 1.48 1.28 1.55 1.33 1.74 1.49 2,00 1.69 2.33 1.98 2.68 2.27
25 1.82 7.63 1.90 1.70 2.13 1.89 2.46 2.17 2.85 2.52 3.28 2.88
30 2.18 2.01 2.28 2.09 2.56 2.33 2.95 2.69 3.42 3.10 3.95 3.56
35 2.57 2.42 2.68 2.52 3.02 2.82 3.50 3.25 4.05 3.75 4.69 4.31
3.02 2.91 3.76 3.02 3.55 3.37 4.11 3.90 4.77 4.48 5.50 5.12
Stope :  4:1 5:1
0 n
1.00 20 0.85 0.80 1.09 0.84 1.61 110 2.14 1.44 2.66 1.80 3.17 2.13
25 0.95 1.01 1.25 1.05 1.86 1.38 2.50 1.80 3.13 2.26 3.74
30 1.06 1.24 7.42 1.30 2.14 1.69 2.88 .2 .20 3.62 2,76 4.36 3.33
35 1.19 1.49 1.61 1.56 2.44 2.03 3.3. 2,66 4.18 3.33 5.02 4,00
40 1.33 1.76 1.80 1.82 2.77 2.39 3.78 3.15 4.79 3.95 5.78 4.76
1.25 20 1.34 1.02 1.39 1.09 1.69 1.29 2.07 1.54 2.49 1.82 2.95 2.17
25 1.58 1.28 1.66 1.39 2.00 1.64 2,47 1.96 2.97 2.32 3.52 2.73
30 1.83 1.56 1.94 1.70 2.35 2.01 2.89 2.39 3.50 2.86 4.15 3.36
35 2.11 1.87 2.25 2.03 2.73 2.39 3.36 2.87 4.08 3.46 4.83 4.04
40 2.42 2.21 2.58 2.40 3.15 2.84 3.89 3.43 4.73 4.13 5.60 4.83
1.50 20 1.64 1. 1. 1 1,51 2.20 1.73 2.55 1,39 2.93 2.27
25 1.9 1. 1.71 2.31 7.91 2.66 2.20 3.08 2.53 3.55 2.92
30 2.34 2.04 2.43 2.10 2.74 2.36 3.16 2.71 3.66 3.13 4.22 3.59
35 2.74 2.46 2.84 2,54 3.2 2.85 3.71 3.29 4.30 3.79 4.96 4.34
40 3.19 2.93 3.31 3.03 3.74 3.40 4.33 3.93 5.03 4.53 5.79 5.19
values than this. The Author has recalculated the and values over a further extended range of to 0.150 , and these are given in Table 9.1. The calculations were carried out using Bishop's simplified method as a basis and statistical search and fitting methods to establish critical values for and . Similar results have since been published by Chandler and Peiris (1989) which are found to correlate well with the values given here.
值。作者重新计算了 至 0.150 范围内的数值,见表 9.1。计算以 Bishop 的简化方法为基础,采用统计搜索和拟合方法确定了 的临界值。.此后,Chandler 和 Peiris(1989 年)也发表了类似的结果,并认为这些结果与此处给出的值密切相关。
From the soil and slope data, a value is first calculated for . A section of Table 9.1 is now selected for which and just greater than that in the problem. Using linear interpolation, values are obtained for and , corresponding to problem values of and . If is found to be underlined, a more critical (lower ) circle may exist at a greater depth. In this case the table section for (and, if necessary, ) is used until a non-underlined value for is obtained. This procedure is repeated for table sections corresponding to a value just less than that in the problem. Using eqn 99.17 , two factor of safety values and ) are calculated for values respectively above and below that in the problem. The value of is then obtained by interpolating linearly between and
根据土壤和坡度数据,首先计算出 的值。.现在选择表 9.1 中 恰好大于问题中 的部分。通过线性插值,可以得到 的值。与问题中的 值相对应。.如果发现 有下划线,则在更深处可能存在一个更临界(更低的 )的圆。在这种情况下, 的表格部分(如有必要, 的表格部分(在这种情况下,将使用 的表格部分(必要时还将使用 ),直到得到 的非下划线值。对于 值小于问题中 值的表段,重复上述步骤。利用公式 99.17,计算出两个安全系数值 。分别计算出高于和低于问题中 值的两个安全系数值 。然后在 之间进行线性插值,得到 值。
Slope cot  坡度小点 {{0} 2:1