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第一节 历史地理

Please make a brief introduction of the Silk Road. P44

The Silk Road was a trade route in ancient China, which started from the ancient capital Chang’an, the center of politics, economy and culture in ancient China. It stretched all the way to Central Asia, North Africa and Europe, and extended as far as countries like India and Rome. The Silk Road was initially opened up during the Han dynasty and reached its peak in the Tang Dynasty. As silk comprised a large proportion of commodities transported along this road, some experts call the trade routes between China and the West as "the Silk Road". It is not only an important ancient international trade route, but also a cultural bridge linking Asia with Africa and Europe. Along this road, many Chinese great inventions were spread to the Western world and Buddhism was also introduced to China.

Please make a brief introduction of the West Lake. P48

West Lake is a famous fresh water lake located in the historic area of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province in eastern China. It evolved from a shallow bay through which the Qiantang River flowed into the East China Sea. The name was fixed as early as the Tang Dynasty. Lying in the west of Hangzhou, it is usually called West Lake. It was appreciated by the renowned Song Dynasty poet Su Dongpo, who compared it to Xizi, a Chinese legendary beauty. Since then, the West Lake has another elegant name Xizi Lake. West Lake covers an area of 6.39 square kilometers. The average depth is about 2.27 meters with the deepest being 5 meters. Surrounded by verdant mountains on three sides and prosperous city on one side, the lake is divided into 5 parts by the causeways of Su Di, Bai Di, and Yanggong Di. Within the lake, there are numerous temples, pagodas, gardens and artificial islands .

第二节 文化符号

Please make a brief introduction of the Great Wall. P52
请简单介绍一下长城。第 52 页

As one of the symbols of China, the Great Wall is a wonder not only to China but also to the whole world. It was first built in the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods. After the unification of China, the first Emperor of Qin linked up different sections of the walls to prevent the invasion of the enemies. The present preserved Great Wall of China is the major parts built in the 14th century, called Ming Great Wall. Nowadays, the remains of the Great Wall scatter in the provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Henan, Shandong, Hubei and Hunan, the autonomous regions of Xinjiang, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia, and the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin in China. With a long history of more than 2,000 years, the Great Wall of China was listed as World Heritage by UNESCO in 1987. Until now, the Great Wall is still one of the most popular attractions in the world.

Please make a brief introduction of Chinese Kung Fu/ martial art? P53&P56
请简单介绍一下中国功夫/武术? P53&P56

Chinese martial arts enjoy a long history and great popularity in China. Influenced by ancient Chinese aesthetics which advocated a balance between hardness and softness, Chinese martial arts have formed their own aesthetic standards. Today, many people practice it to pursue health, entertainment and competition. In order to inherit the ancient art, many martial arts clubs and associations have been established across China. It is a traditional Chinese sport which applies the art of attack and defense in combat and the motions engaged with a series of skill and tricks. The core idea of Chinese Kung Fu is derived from the Confucian theory of neutralization about cultivating qi, which was known as nourishing one's spirit. Meanwhile, it also includes thoughts of Taoism and Buddhism.

Chinese Kung fu, or Chinese martial arts, carries traditional Chinese culture in abundance. It is a traditional Chinese sport which applies the art of attack and defense in combat and the motions engaged with a series of skill and tricks, The core idea of Chinese Kung fu is derived from the Confucian theory of both the mean and harmony and cultivating qi (otherwise known as nourishing one's spirit). Meanwhile, it also includes thoughts of Taoism and Buddhism. Chinese kung fu has a long history, with multi-various sects and many different boxing styles, and it emphasizes coupling hardness with softness and internal and external training. It contains the ancient great thinkers' pondering of life and the universe. The skills in wielding the 18 kinds of weapons named by the later generations mainly involve the skills of bare-handed boxing, such as shadow boxing (Tajiquan), form and will boxing (Xingyiquan), eight trigram palm (Baguazhang), and the skills of kung fu weaponry, such as the skill of using swords, spears, two-edged swords and halberds, axes, tomahawks, hooks, prongs and so on.
中国功夫或中国武术承载着丰富的中国传统文化。这是一项传统的中国运动,在战斗中应用攻击和防御的艺术,以及一系列技巧和技巧的动作,中国功夫的核心思想源自儒家的理论——中庸和和——练气(也称为滋养精神)。同时,它还包括道教和佛教的思想。中国功夫历史悠久,门派多样,拳风多样,强调硬与软、内外训练相结合。它包含了古代伟大思想家对生命和宇宙的思考。后世命名的18种兵器的运用技巧主要涉及徒手拳法,如影拳(太极拳)、形意拳(形意拳)、八卦掌(八卦掌),以及功夫武器的功法,如剑、矛、双刃剑戟、斧头、战斧等的技巧, 钩子、叉子等。

Please make a brief introduction of the Traditional Chinese Medicine. P53
请简单介绍一下中医。第 53 页

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is an integral part of Chinese culture. It is defined as a medical science governing the traditional Chinese medical theory and practice, including Chinese therapies, herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage and Qigong. TCM has made great contributions to the prosperity of China, and today both western medicine and TCM are being used in providing healthcare services in China. TCM, with its unique diagnostic methods, systematic treatment, abundant historical literature and materials, has attracted a lot of attention from the international community. National policies, laws and regulations governing TCM are now in place to guide and promote the research and development in this promising industry.

Please make a brief introduction of the Four Treasures of the Study in ancient China? P54

The writing brush, ink stick, paper and ink stone were requisite treasures in the study of the scholars of ancient China, and they are often referred to as the “four treasures of the study”. The use of writing brush and ink stick can be traced back to 5,000 years ago. In the Qin Dynasty, people already used feathers of different hardness and bamboo trunks to make brushes. During the Han Dynasty, man-made ink was used instead of natural ink. After paper was invented by the Chinese, bamboo slips, wooden tablets, brocade and silk, which originally functioned as writing surfaces, gradually faded out. The ink stone was first developed with the use of writing brushes and ink. After the Song Dynasty, the "Four Treasures of the Study" particularly referred to hub, the writing brush produced in Huzhou, Zhejiang province; huimo, the ink stick produced in Huizhou, Anhui province; xuan paper, a kind of paper produced in Xuanzhou, Anhui province; and duanyan, the ink stone made in Zhaoqing, Guangdong province (Zhaoqing was earlier called Duanzhou). Indeed, the "Four Treasures of the Study" have written the whole Chinese civilization.

Please make a brief introduction of the 24 solar terms. P55

The 24 solar terms is a general term for the system that consists of 12 major solar terms and 12 minor solar terms associated with each other. It can reflect the climate change, guide agricultural arrangements, affect people's lives. In the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods, people began to use solar terms as the supplementary calendar. It was in 104 B.C. that the 24 solar terms were finally established. As we know, China is a country with a long history of agriculture, and agricultural production is largely influenced by the laws of nature. In ancient times, farmers arranged agricultural activities according to the movement of the sun, which was the influential factor of the 24 solar terms.
24 节气是该系统的总称,由 12 个主要节气和 12 个相互关联的小节气组成。它可以反映气候变化,指导农业安排,影响人们的生活。春秋战国时期,人们开始使用节气作为补充历法。公元前 104 年,24 个节气终于确立。众所周知,中国是一个历史悠久的农业国家,农业生产很大程度上受自然规律的影响。在古代,农民根据太阳的运动来安排农业活动,这是二十四节气的影响因素。

第三节 名胜古迹

Please make a brief introduction of Imperial Palace/the Forbidden City. P63
请简单介绍一下故宫/紫禁城。第 63 页

The Imperial Palace, also called the Forbidden City, was the palace where the 24 emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties ruled China for roughly 500 years. The Imperial Palace is located in the center of Beijing, on the northern side of Tian'anmen Square, rectangular in shape, 961 meters from north to south and 753 meters wide from east to west. With an area of 720,000 square meters and a total floor space of 150,000 square meters, it's the world's largest and most integral palace made of wood in existence. The Forbidden City is divided into two parts: the outer court and the inner court. The outer court was the place where the emperors handled state affairs, while the inner court was the living quarters for the emperors and their families. The Palace was converted into a museum in 1925 and has been open to the public after the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty was driven out of the Palace in 1924.
皇宫,也被称为紫禁城,是明清 24 位皇帝统治中国约 500 年的宫殿。故宫位于北京市中心,天安门广场北侧,呈长方形,南北长961米,东西宽753米。面积72万平方米,总建筑面积15万平方米,是现存世界上最大、最完整的木制宫殿。紫禁城分为外院和内院两部分。外院是皇帝处理国家事务的地方,而内院是皇帝及其家人的住所。皇宫于1925年改建为博物馆,1924年清朝末代皇帝被赶出皇宫后一直向公众开放。

Please make a brief introduction of Mount Tai. P63
请简单介绍一下泰山。第 63 页

Mount Tai, which is also called "East Yue", has a great reputation for the most important mountain of the Five Holy Mountains. Each season in Mount Tai has its own beauty: bright flowers in full bloom covering the green slopes in spring, spectacular summer thunderstorms which are rarely seen elsewhere, blue rivers running across the mountains overlaid with red maple leaves in fall, and snow-capped mountains and frosted pine trees in winter that stage a quiet solemn spectacle of particular interest. On a clear day one can see the peaks rising one after another. When the sky is overcast, the horizon disappears into a sea of clouds. Mount Tai is most famous for its spectacular sunrise and sunset. Its landscape and numerous historical site shave inspired many great classics of ancient writers, scholars and calligraphers. Mount Tai has long been the preferred gathering place of artists and poets. Mount Tai was included in UNESCO World Heritage List in 1987.

Please make a brief introduction of the Summer Palace. P64

Situated in the western suburbs of Beijing, the Summer Palace, originally constructed in the Qing Dynasty, is one of the largest and best-preserved imperial gardens in China. It was badly damaged during the war in 1860 and the restoration based on its original site began in 1886. Since Qing Dynasty collapsed in 1911, the Summer Palace has been open to the public. Mainly composed of Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake, the Summer Palace is honored as the "Imperial Garden Museum", with more than 100 classical architectures of ethnic features inside the garden, such as palaces, temples, long corridors and stone bridges. The artificial landscape inside the Summer Palace is harmoniously combined with natural hills and peaceful lakes, displaying a beautiful picture of landscape to tourists.
颐和园位于北京西郊,始建于清代,是中国最大、保存最完好的皇家园林之一。它在 1860 年的战争中遭到严重破坏,并于 1886 年开始根据原址进行修复。自1911年清朝灭亡以来,颐和园一直向公众开放。颐和园主要由万寿山和昆明湖组成,被誉为“御园博物馆”,园内有宫殿、寺庙、长廊、石桥等100多座具有民族特色的古典建筑。颐和园内的人工景观与天然山丘和宁静的湖泊和谐结合,向游客展示一幅美丽的风景画卷。

Please make a brief introduction of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. P72

The Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal was dug in the Spring and Autumn Period, built massively in Sui Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty. It extends from Hangzhou in the south to Beijing in the north with a length of 1,794 kilometers. As the longest man-made waterway in the world, the Canal and the Great Wall are known as the two great projects of ancient China. In 2004, the Canal Museum was built up to display its ancient history. The Grand Canal has made important contribution to the development of China's economy, national unity, social progress and cultural prosperity. Now it has become a new fashion to travel in its surrounding areas. The protection of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal has extremely vital significance in inheriting human civilization and promoting harmonious development of the society.


第一节 哲学宗教

Please introduce Confucius and Confucianism. P.78

Confucianism is sometimes termed as a religion, but it is more of an ethical system. Confucius was the founder of Confucianism. Mencius and Xunzi were the representatives of Confucianism in the early Qin period, both of whom had made great contribution to the development of Confucianism. The core of Confucianism is benevolence, which maintains that the effective way to harmonize interpersonal relationship is a benevolent heart. Mencius advocated that rulers should love people and guarantee people's rights. Xunzi laid emphasis on social order and individual effort. As the main school of the traditional Chinese thinking in ancient times, Confucianism has an extremely far-reaching influence on Chinese ideology, values in particular.

Please introduce Laozi and Daoism. P.79

Taoism, founded by Laozi, is one of the most important schools of thought during the Spring and Autumn Period of ancient China. The "Tao”,as the core of Taoism, was applied by Laozi to explain the origin and evolution of universe. Laozi maintained that the law of the “Tao” should be applied to guide people's thinking as well as behavior, and everything should be in accordance with the nature. Zhuangzi, a philosopher after Laozi, inherited and developed Taoism. He laid emphasis on self-improvement and pursued spiritual freedom. Taoism, which advocates the pursuit of naturalness and harmony as well as humanistic spirit of critical thinking, is the precious and peculiar spiritual wealth of the traditional Chinese culture.

Please introduce Buddhism. P.80

As one of the three major religions in the world, Buddhism was born in Ancient India in the 6th century B.C. And Sakyamuni was regarded as the founder of Buddhism. Buddhism was first introduced into China in the Eastern Han Dynasty and reached its peak during the Sui and the Tang Dynasties. Buddhism is one of the chief beliefs of Chinese people. And it believes in samsara, which means that living beings are always circling around the six spheres. The doctrine of Buddhism contains abundant dialectical thoughts in thinking mode, and it brings us


Please explain the phenomenon of buzzword. P.86

The Chinese phrase Nihao is familiar to foreigners greeting Chinese; a new buzzword. “Tuhao” is now becoming known to many Westerners. A BBC online news magazine loosely translated Tuhao to Nouveau Riche. The word “Tuhao" dates back to ancient times in China, when it referred to the wealthy or landholders who would bully those beneath them from 1920s to early 1950s. This new usage took off in September 2013 and is commonly used in the phrase: Tuhao, let’s be friends!” It is reported that there have been more than 100 million uses of the word on social media since 2013. As a matter of fact, Chinese buzzwords have made it into major English dictionaries in the past, such as Guanxi and Taikonaut”.
中文短语“Nihao”是外国人问候中国人所熟悉的;一个新的流行语。“Tuhao”现在被许多西方人所熟知。英国广播公司(BBC)的一本在线新闻杂志将“Tuhao”粗略地翻译为“Nouveau Riche”。“土豪”一词可以追溯到中国古代,当时它指的是从 1920 年代到 1950 年代初欺负他们下面的富人或地主。这种新用法于 2013 年 9 月开始流行,通常用于短语:“Tuhao,让我们成为朋友!据报道,自 2013 年以来,该词在社交媒体上的使用量已超过 1 亿次。事实上,中国流行语过去曾进入主要的英语词典,如“Guanxi”和“Taikonaut”。

Please introduce Oracle Bone Script. P.87
请介绍一下 Oracle Bone Script。 P.87

Oracle Bone Script, a form of ancient Chinese writing, is considered an early form of modern Chinese characters. It emerged in the late Shang Dynasty or the early Western Zhou Dynasty. At that time, royal families carved words on turtle shells or animal bones to keep a record of divination and events. The content recorded on these tortoise shells and animal bones is extremely abundant, involving many aspects of the social life in Shang Dynasty such as politics, military affairs, culture, social customs, astronomy, calendar and medicine. This was Chinas earliest form of systematic writing and regarded as a crucial stage in the development of Chinese language. It was from the Oracle Bone Script that modem Chinese characters evolved.

What’s the influence of Chinese language? P.88

There are roughly 70,000 Chinese characters and phonetic sounds. A person has to know about 3,000 characters to be able to read the newspaper. In secondary schools the number of characters taught is 5,000.
大约有 70,000 个汉字和语音。一个人必须知道大约 3,000 个字符才能阅读报纸。在中学,教授的字符数量为5,000个。

As the dominant language of East Asia, Chinese has greatly influenced the writing systems and vocabularies of neighboring languages to which are not related by origin, such as Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. It has been estimated that until the 18th century more than half of the worlds printed books were Chinese.

Among more than 1.3 billion Chinese people, approximately 95 percent speak Chinese. Chinese is also spoken by large emigrant communities in Southeast Asia, North and South America, and in the Hawaiian Islands. More people, in fact, speak Chinese than any other language in the world; English ranks second in number of speakers and Spanish third.

第三节 文学艺术

Please introduce The Book of Songs. P.95

The history of Chinese literature begins with the The Book of Songs, also named Shi Jing compiled in 600 B. C. It is the earliest anthology of poetry in Chinese history. Shi Jing contains three hundred and five poetical compositions, including odes, hymns and love songs of greatly differing dates from the 11th to the 6th centuries B.C.. Most of them are set to music and sung on official and public occasions. The poems in Shi Jing are of considerable poetical value and can be compared with anthems in Bible and the Homeric poems in beauty. Love is the popular theme in Shi Jing. Repetition, refrain, rhythm, and assonance are the common characteristics of the three hundred poems in Shi Jing. Nowadays, it is considered as the artistic treasures in Chinese literature.

Please introduce Kunqu. P.96

Kunqu was the dominant dramatic form in the late Yuan Dynasty in Kunshan area, Jiangsu province. It has its unique system and style and is most characterized by its rich emotion and skillful combination of singing and dancing. Talented dramatists produced enduring plays throughout its development. One of the most famous writers was Tang Xianzu, who wrote four plays. His masterpiece is The Peony Pavilion. Playwright Kong Shangren wrote Peach Blossom Fan. The play is a story of love and separation. These plays are classic Kunqu performances.

Please introduce the idea of Yin and Yang. P.97

Chinese folk art and Chinese philosophy are unified in the belief that yin-yang produces all living things in the world. Originated in Chinese primitive society, this was the philosophical explanation of human’s perception of life. Chinese ancestors philosophical conclusion was to “Look at oneself up close and other creatures from afar”, which is essential to understand the primitive art of the Chinese folk art. To live and to continue life through propagation are the two instinctive desires of human. From birth, a persons first instinct is to survive, and then to live a long life. From primitive society to the present day, the view of yin-yang and perpetual life has permeated in all aspects of social life and the national culture of Chinese society. Chinese folk art reflects all of the basic philosophical concepts.

Please introduce Peking Opera. P.98

Peking Opera is praised as “Oriental Opera”. Peking Opera is a genuine national quintessence of China. It originated from many kinds of ancient local operas, especially Huiban in southern China. At the end of the 19th Century, Peking Opera evolved and took shape, becoming the greatest kind of opera in China. Peking Opera is a blend of performing artssong, speech, performance, acrobatic fighting and dance. Beijing Opera portrays and narrates the plot and characters through stylized acting. The main types of roles in Beijing Opera are Sheng (male), Dan (young female), Jing (painted face, male) and Chou (clown, male or female).

Please introduce Chinese Calligraphy. P.98

The four ancient Chinese artistic forms are called Guqin, Chinese chess, penmanship, and painting; and penmanship particularly refers to Chinese calligraphy. Chinese calligraphy is a kind of art using a brush to write seal script, official script, regular script, running script, and cursive script, and other various writing styles of Chinese characters. The writing techniques of Chinese calligraphy are highlighted by the manner of using a brush, the way of using ink, the art of composition, and so on. Its harmonious beauty of art is reflected in between the lines. Chinese calligraphy exhibits its beauty in different poses, such as the uniqueness of the official scripts—with bulky silkworm head and thin swallow tail, the regular scripts requirement to stick to the norm and rules, the typical characteristic of cursive scripts—as lively and vigorous as flying dragon and dancing phoenix, and the distinctive natural grace of the running script. Indeed, Chinese calligraphy reflects the personality of Chinese peoples straightforwardness, dignity, and reticence.

Please introduce Chinese painting. P.99

Guohua, the short form for Zhongguohua (traditional Chinese painting), refers to paintings drawn on silk and paper by writing brush in water, ink or color. With a long history, traditional Chinese painting can be traced back to the cliff painting and colored pottery in Neolithic Age. Its main subjects include human figures, landscapes, flowers and birds. The drawing techniques consists of fine brushwork, freehand brushwork, and so on. It reflects Chinese peoples understanding of nature and human society in a representational way. A good Chinese painting often leaves much room for its viewer to indulge in wonderment and imagination. For example, in a Chinese landscape painting, the mountain top is circled by clouds and most of the sky is in empty void. Yet, these voids are deliberately designed and called blank-leaving. Chinese painters believe if the blank is well-left, the whole painting is alive. The distinctive feature of blank-leaving in the traditional Chinese painting is influenced by the Daoist conception of the non-existent.

第四节 节日民俗

Please introduce one of the traditional Chinese festivals. (任选其一)

24.Spring Festival

The Spring Festival, also known as the Lunar New Year in China, is the grandest traditional holiday. It is usually a time between late January and early February, which means rest and relaxation after a years toil. New Year celebrations run from Chinese New Years Eve to the Lantern Festival. It is a tradition for every household to thoroughly clean the house in order to sweep away ill fortune and to bring in good luck. And doors will be decorated with couplets with themes of health, happiness, wealth and good luck. Setting off firecrackers is an essential part of the festival. Customs and activities about celebrating the Lunar New Year vary regionally. New Years Eve, however, is usually an occasion for Chinese people to gather together with their families for the reunion banquet, and the most popular food is jiaozi.
春节,在中国也被称为农历新年,是最隆重的传统节日。它通常是 1 月下旬到 2 月初之间的时间,这意味着经过一年的辛劳后休息和放松。新年庆祝活动从农历除夕到元宵节。每家每户都要彻底打扫房子,以扫除厄运,带来好运。门上将装饰着以健康、幸福、财富和好运为主题的对联。燃放鞭炮是节日的重要组成部分。庆祝农历新年的习俗和活动因地区而异。然而,除夕夜通常是中国人与家人聚在一起参加团圆饭的场合,最受欢迎的食物是椒子。

On the first morning of Spring Festival, children often follow their parents to pay a New Years visit, greeting relatives and friends in their new clothes. On this occasion, the elders often give the young some “luck money”, blessing them good luck. On the whole, the Spring Festival is a time for family members to gather together. When each member far away from home returns, the whole family can enjoy the bliss and happiness of the family reunion.

24.The Lantern Festival

The Lantern Festival, Yuanxiao Jie in Chinese, is celebrated on January 15th of Chinese lunar calendar. It is the first full moon night in the Chinese lunar year, symbolizing the coming back of the spring. The Lantern Festival may be regarded as the last day of the Spring Festival. In other words, Yuanxiao Jie is an important part of the Spring Festival, and marks the end of Chinas Lunar New Year celebrations. The Lantern Festival is regarded as a good day for family gather-together. According to the folk custom of China, people on that night will lighten up fancy lanterns and go out to appreciate the moon, set off fireworks, guess riddles written on lanterns, and eat traditional food Yuanxiao to celebrate the holiday. Yuanxiao” (rice glue ball) is also commonly called “tangyuan” which means family reunion and happiness. Yuanxiao has its exterior made into a ball shaping like the full moon in the sky with stuffing in it, such as sesame, walnuts, peanuts, fruit jam and even meat, etc.

As time goes by, the Lantern Festival has enjoyed more and more celebrating activities. Some places even add traditional folk-custom performances such as playing dragon lantern, Lion Dancing, stilting, striking land boat, doing the Yangko, and striking Peace Drum. The Lantern Festival, a traditional Chinese festival which has undergone a history of over 2,000 years, is still very popular both at home and abroad, and every place where Chinese people live will witness a jolly occasion on that day.

24.The Tomb Sweeping Day

Qingming, also called the Tomb Sweeping Day, is one of the most important Chinese traditional festivals. It is not only a time for Chinese people to show respects to ancestors, but also a tie for them to recognize their national identity. The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms and the Tomb Sweeping Day is the fifth solar term, which falls on either April 4th or 5th of the Gregorian calendar and indicates the coming of late spring. After the festival, the temperature will rise up and rainfall increases. It is the high time for spring plowing and sowing. The festival therefore has a close relationship with agriculture. However, the Tomb Sweeping Day is not only a seasonal point to guide farm work in China; it is more an occasion of commemoration.

The Tomb Sweeping Day has had a history of more than 2,500 years and there are various activities for it. The most popular ones, including tomb sweeping, spring outings, kite flying, tree planting and putting willow branches on gates, have been an important part of this festival since the beginning. Besides, people often participate in a sport to ward off the cold and in anticipation of the arrival of spring. All in all, the Tomb Sweeping Day, a culture-rich and meaning-deep remembrance day, is an occasion of unique characteristics, integrating both reverence and fun, both sadness and happiness through its customs.

24.The Dragon Boat Festival

The Dragon Boat Festival, called Duanwu jie in Chinese, is one of the national holidays in China celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month (usually in June according to the Gregorian calendar). Dragon Boat Festival has had a history of more than 2,000 years. There are many legends about its evolution, the most popular of which is in commemoration of Qu Yuan, a patriotic poet and minister in the State of Chu during 340B.C.278B.C. Qu Yuan was charged with faulty acquisitions and exiled by his king. Before his country was concurred by state of Qin, Qu Yuan committed suicide by jumping into the Miluo River. After his death, one of his townsmen had a dream. He dreamed that Qu Yuan was thinner than before. So he and his villagers made Zongzi by wrapping glutinous rice with reed or bamboo leaves and with the stuffing of date, or pork, chicken, beans pastes and many more. Then they loaded the Zongzi on dragon boat and dropped them into the river. Because dragon was in charge of all the animals in the sea, so they didnt dare to eat Zongzi, And people figured that Qu Yuan could eat Zongzi and get healthier. Since then Zhongzi has been the special food for Duanwu Festival.
端午节,中文称为端午节,是中国的国定假日之一,在农历五月初五(根据公历通常在六月)庆祝。端午节已有2000多年的历史。关于它的演变有很多传说,其中最受欢迎的是为了纪念公元前 340 年至公元前 278 年间在楚国的爱国诗人和大臣屈原,屈原被指控有误收购并被他的国王流放。秦国同意他的国家之前,屈原跳入汨罗河自杀。在他死后,他的一个乡亲做了一个梦。他梦见屈原比以前瘦了。因此,他和他的村民们用芦苇或竹叶包裹糯米,并填上枣、猪肉、鸡肉、豆酱等馅料,制作了粽子。然后他们把粽子装上龙舟,扔进河里。因为龙掌管着海里所有的动物,所以他们不敢吃粽子,而人们又认为屈原可以吃粽子,变得更健康。从那时起,钟子就成了端午节的特色美食。

In addition to the traditions of eating rice dumplings and Dragon Boat Race which are closely related to the commemoration of Qu Yuan, there are also different conventions like drinking realgar wine, making and adorning of a sachet which is surely the most elegant one amongst all the customs about this traditional festival. According to the Chinese Zodiac, the fifth month and fifth day on the lunar calendar marks the emergence of many poisonous insects. In hopes for peace and happiness and less bites from hungry pests, people choose to hang wormwood, drink realgar wine and wear a sachet.

24.The Mid-Autumn Festival

The Mid-Autumn Festival is a harvest festival celebrated by ethnic Chinese people on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month every year which is the exact middle of autumn. That is how Mid-Autumn Festival gets its name. Many also refer to it simply as the “Fifteenth of the Eighth Lunar Month”. In the Gregorian calendar, the day of the festival usually occurs on the night of the full moon between early September and early October of the Gregorian calendar. Under the influence of Chinese culture, the Festival is also very popular in East Asia and some countries in Southeast Asia. Mainland China listed the festival among the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage in 2006 and defined it as a national holiday in 2008.

The Mid-Autumn Festival customs vary from place to place, but some practices are the same. Appreciating the moon is one of the traditional activities of the day, and eating moon cakes is another holiday custom, as the round shape symbolizes unity in the Chinese culture. Therefore, the Mid-Autumn Festival indicates a day of harmonious unions. On the day of festival people tend to return home for a reunion dinner and give thanks to their ancestors for blessings. Also, owing to the timing of osmanthus blossoms, osmanthus-flavoured wine or food is a third traditional choice on the occasion. Throughout the history, Chinese people sentiments of nostalgia and gratitude for a bumper harvest and happiness have been stirred by the moon and embodied in the way the Mid-Autumn Festival is celebrated, which makes the Festival a colorful and precious cultural heritage.

24. The Double Ninth Festival
24. 双九节

The Double Ninth Festival, also called Chongyang Festival, is observed on the ninth day of the 9th lunar month in the Chinese traditional calendar. In the ancient book Yi Ching, nine is regarded as the number of Yang (which means masculine as opposed to Yin which is feminine). The ninth day of the ninth month is the day that has two Yang numbers, and “chong” in Chinese means double. Hence, the name Chongyang was created. In ancient times, people believed that the double ninth day was a lucky day and worth a celebration. As nine is pronounced jiu meaning permanently lasting in Chinese, and it is also the biggest number in the set of numbers from zero to nine, people have endowed the character jiu with the meaning of longevity. Moreover, a sense of joy can often steal over people as the harvest autumn approaches. Naturally people always have a special feeling for the Double Ninth Festival. And a lot of poetic masterpieces from the ancient Tang and Song dynasty were created about the festival, Chongyang cake, chrysanthemums wine or tea form the traditional diet of the festival. Ascending heights, wearing cornel and appreciating chrysanthemums are important customs of that day. These activities not only add to the festive atmosphere, but allegedly help people avoid misfortune and prevent disasters. In the year of 1989, Chongyang Festival was designated as Senior's Day in China Mainland, a day to respect and do favor to the elderly and to let them enjoy themselves. Still, it is a good occasion for hiking and chrysanthemum appreciation. In contemporary times, Double Ninth Festival is a clever combination of tradition with modernity and has been given a new meaning.

24.The Double Seventh Day

In China, the Double Seventh Day falls on the seventh day of the seventh month of Chinese lunar calendar. The festival, originating from a classic love story between the Cowherd, a human being, and the Weaving Girl, a fairy, has been enjoying a widespread popularity among ethnic Chinese community and East Asian countries having been influenced by traditional Chinese culture. According to the legend, the Cowherd and the Weaving Girl fell in love with each other but unfortunately were forced to separate and blocked away by the Milky Way. Out of compassion for them, on the night of the Double-Seventh Day each year, flocks of magpies would fly to form a bridge with their bodies over the Milky Way, allowing the couple to meet each other;

This romantic story, to some extent, reflects Chinese peoples wishes to pursue the freedom of love and marriage. Meanwhile, when they are praying for a happy marriage of their own, girls on the ground also hope to have deft hands and good sense just like the Weaving Girl. Thus, the Double Seventh Day is also called Ingenuity-begging Festival (the festival to plead for skills). What's more, this fairy tale also contains Chinese peoples understanding about nature and star images and reflects a phenomenon of time worship and number worship of ancient China. In this sense, the Double Seventh Day is not merely a Chinese Valentines Day. In 2006, the Double Seventh Day was listed in the first national intangible cultural heritage lists by the Peoples Republic of China.

第五节 民间工艺

Please introduce Paper Cutting. P.118

Paper cutting is one of Chinas most popular traditional folk arts. Chinese paper cutting has a history of more than 1,500 years. It was widespread particularly during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. People often beautify their homes with paper cuttings. During the Spring Festival and wedding celebrations, in particular, paper cuttings are used to decorate doors, windows and rooms in order to enhance the joyous atmosphere. The color most frequently used in paper cutting is red symbolizing health and prosperity. Chinese paper cutting is very popular around the world and it is often given as a present to foreign friends. The vividly-depicted paper-cuttings have different meanings and are endowed with a simple but exaggerated beauty.

Please introduce Embroidery. P.118

Embroidery is a brilliant pearl in Chinese art. From the magnificent dragon robes worn by emperors to todays fashions, embroidery adds a great deal of pleasure to our culture and life. The oldest embroidery recorded in China dates back to the Shang Dynasty. Embroidery in this period symbolized social status. As the national economy developed, embroidery entered the life of the common people. Embroidery was an elegant task for ladies who were forbidden to go out of their homes. Imagine a beautiful young lady embroidering at home: stitch by stitch, she embroiders a pair of mandarin ducks for her love. It is a cold winter day and the room is filled with sweet smell. What a touching and beautiful picture!

Please introduce Chinese knot. P.119

The Chinese knot, made by winding red cord to express blessings, is a unique craftwork of the Chinese nation. The Chinese knot has a long history and its origin can be traced back to prehistorical times when it was not only one of the daily necessities of life but also used as a means of recording history.

In the times of Tang and Song Dynasties, The Chinese knot was widely used as an ornamental art on object and clothes. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the golden era of handicraft art, people started to name the various knots, endowing them with rich implications. For example, a square knot represented peacefulness, the Ruyi knot, auspiciousness and Panchangjie (winding long knot) expressed wishes for the true, the good and the beautiful.

Please introduce Chopsticks.P.120

Chopsticks are an important part of Chinese culture. The widespread use of chopsticks across China has a long and rich history. The Chinese were the first to invent chopsticks thousands of years ago and it is said that chopsticks were used as an extension of the fingers to protect them from extreme heat or cold. Chopsticks began to be used as eating utensils during the Han Dynasty. But it was not until the Ming Dynasty that chopsticks came into normal use for both serving and eating and came to be called Kuaizi.

Chopsticks come in all shapes and forms, ranging from golden chopsticks engraved with colored pictures or calligraphy to disposable bamboo and wood. Regardless of the form they take, chopsticks have evolved into an important icon of Chinese culture and an important part of human history.

第四章 当代社会


Please give a general introduction about Chinese political system. 参考P131

The socialist system is the basic system of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China is the fundamental law of the state.

AIll power in the People’s Republic of China belongs to the people. The organs through which the people exercise state power are the National People’s Congress (NPC) and the local people’s congresses at different levels. All administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs of the state are created by the people's congresses to which they are responsible and under whose supervision they operate.

The state council, or the Central People’s Government, of the People’s Republic of China is the executive body of the highest organ of state power and the highest organ of state administration.

The division of functions and powers between the central and local state organs is guided by the principle of giving full play to the initiative and enthusiasm of the local authorities under the unified leadership of the central authorities.

Communist Party of China (CPC) is the leading party in China. Apart from it, there are eight democratic parties in China. Multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC is the basic political system in China.

The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) is a united front organization under the leadership of the CPC and an organ for various other political parties, mass organizations and personages of various social circles to take part in the running of the state.

What is the nature of Communist Party of China? P132
中国共产党的本质是什么?第 132 页


中国共产党是中国工人阶级的先锋队,同时是中国人民和中华民族的先锋队,是中国特色社会主义事业的领导核心,代表中国先进生产力的发展要求,代表中国先进文化的前进方向,代表中国最广大人民的根本利益。党的最高理想和最终目标是实现共产主义。 中国共产党以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想作为自己的行动指南。

The Communist Party of China is the vanguard of the Chinese working class, the Chinese people, and the Chinese nation. It is the leadership core for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics and represents the developmental demands of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation for China’s advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the greatest possible majority of the Chinese people. The Party’s highest ideal and ultimate goal is the realization of communism.The Communist Party of China uses Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as its guides to action.


Please introduce some achievements that China has made in space. (课本话题扩展,无参考答案)

Please introduce the Imperial Civil Service Examination System. P156
请介绍一下帝国公务员考试制度。第 156 页

The imperial civil examination system was an examination system that the Chinese feudal dynasties used to select officials. The system started in the Sui Dynasty and was terminated in the Qing Dynasty in 1905, lasting for over 1,300 years. It had a profound impact on the post-Sui-Tang China’s social structure, political system, educational system, and humanistic ideologies. There is no doubt that, compared with the hereditary system, the imperial civil examination was a relatively fair and open method to select officials, It improved the system of selecting officials and promoted the development of education. However, the imperial civil examination system also had negative effects. Especially in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the contents of the test were limited to the Four books and Five Classics. All candidates had to write a composition explaining their views on an idea from these books in a rigid form and structure consisting of eight parts, which was called baguwen. To some degree, its rigid content and form of examination bound people’s thinking and limited cultural progress.


What do you think college students can do to protect the environment? (课本话题扩展,无参考答案)


Please introduce the B&R Initiative. P176
请介绍一下“一带一路”倡议。第 176 页

When Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Central Asia and Southeast Asia in 2013, he raised the initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 2Ist-Century Maritime Silk Road (hereinafter referred to as the Belt and Road), which have attracted close attention from all over the world. At the China-ASEAN Expo in 2013, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang emphasized the need to build the Maritime Silk Road oriented toward ASEAN, and to create strategic propellers for hinterland development. Accelerating the building of the Belt and Road can help promote the economic prosperity of the countries along the Belt and Road and regional economic cooperation, strengthen exchanges and mutual learning between different civilizations, and promote world peace and development. It is a great undertaking that will benefit people around the world.

The Belt and Road Initiative is a systematic project, which should be jointly built through consultation to meet the interests of all, and efforts should be made to integrate the development strategies of the countries along the Belt and Road. The Chinese govermment has drafted and published the Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road to promote the implementation of the Initiative, instilling vigor and vitality into the ancient Silk Road.


Which social media do you use most? And why do you like it and what do you use it for?(课本话题扩展,无参考答案)