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A COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY AND ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALIEN PLANT INVASION IN MIZORAM, INDIA
印度米佐拉姆外来植物入侵的全面清查和生态评估

Rabishankar Sengupta and Sudhansu S. Dash
Rabishankar Sengupta 和 Sudhansu S. Dash
Botanical Survey of India, CGO Complex, Sector-1, Salt Lake, Kolkata, India
印度植物调查局,印度加尔各答盐湖 1 区 CGO 综合大楼

Received: 21 April 2020, Revised: 10 October 2020, Accepted: 27 October 2020
接收:2020 年 4 月 21 日,修订:2020 年 10 月 10 日,接受:2020 年 10 月 27 日2020 年 4 月 21 日,修订:2020 年 10 月 10 日,接受:2020 年 10 月 27 日

Abstract 摘要

A COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY AND ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF ALIEN PLANT INVASION IN MIZORAM, INDIA. Invasion by alien plants has a detrimental effect on the natural forest plant community, leading to the loss of native species. An inventory of alien plants facilitates in determining the potential threats to the natural plant biodiversity. This present paper evaluates the alien plants in Mizoram (an Indo-Burma hotspot region) and provides the first authentic inventory of alien plants of Mizoram along with their diversity, ecological aspects, origin, and status of invasion. Extensive field surveys were done during July 2018 to September 2019 in different protected areas of Mizoram. We adopted Random Sampling Technique using nested quadrats in a plot size of , within which a quadrate size of was laid for shrubs and was laid for herbs. Plant specimens were collected, dried, poisoned with Mercuric Chloride ; voucher specimens were prepared and deposited in Central National Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India (CAL) after proper identification. The results revealed the occurrence of 163 alien plant species under 135 genera belonging to 51 families in Mizoram. Maximum species were represented by family Asteraceae with 29 species followed by Leguminosae (19 species), Convolvulaceae ( 9 species), Euphorbiaceae ( 7 species) and Amaranthaceae ( 7 species). The of the alien species reported from Mizoram were of American origin followed by from African, from Mexican and from Australian origin. Life form analysis revealed the presence of 58.64 herbs, trees and shrubs. Out of the whole alien plants recorded, 91 species were used for traditional medicines, 43 species as ornamental, 15 species were edibles, nine species used as timber and four species used as green manure. The study also recommends the ten most obnoxious species, five neoinvasive plants, which have the greatest potential threats to the native flora. The process and probable causes of invasion in the state were also discussed briefly, which may be utilized in the preparation of conservation or forest management policies.
印度米佐拉姆外来植物入侵的全面清查和生态评估。外来植物入侵会对自然森林植物群落造成不利影响,导致本地物种的减少。外来植物清单有助于确定对自然植物生物多样性的潜在威胁。本文评估了米佐拉姆(印缅热点地区)的外来植物,并首次提供了米佐拉姆外来植物的真实清单,包括其多样性、生态方面、起源和入侵状况。2018 年 7 月至 2019 年 9 月期间,我们在米佐拉姆的不同保护区进行了广泛的实地调查。我们采用了随机取样技术,在 的小区内使用嵌套四分法,其中灌木的四分法大小为 ,草本植物的四分法大小为 。植物标本经采集、晾干、用 氯化汞毒杀后 ;经适当鉴定后,制作成凭证标本并存放在印度植物调查所(CAL)的中央国家标本室。研究结果表明,米佐拉姆有 51 科 135 属 163 种外来植物。最多的是菊科,有 29 种,其次是豆科(19 种)、旋花科(9 种)、大戟科(7 种)和苋科(7 种)。米佐拉姆报告的外来物种 起源于美洲,其次是 起源于非洲, 起源于墨西哥, 起源于澳大利亚。生命形式分析表明,米佐拉姆有 58.64 草本植物、 乔木和 灌木。在记录的所有外来植物中,91 种被用作传统药物,43 种被用作观赏植物,15 种被用作食用植物,9 种被用作木材,4 种被用作绿肥。研究还推荐了十种最令人讨厌的物种,五种新入侵植物,它们对本地植物区系的潜在威胁最大。研究还简要讨论了该州植物入侵的过程和可能原因,这些信息可用于制定保护或森林管理政策。

Keywords: Alien plants, invasive, neo-invasive, biodiversity, Mizoram
关键词外来植物 入侵 新入侵 生物多样性 米佐拉姆
INVENTARIS ASI KOMPREHENSIF DAN PENIL ALAN EKOLOGI INVASI JENIS-JENIS ASING DIMIZOR AM, INDIA. Invasi oleb tumbuhan asing memiliki efeke yang merugikan pada komunitas tumbuban butan alam, yang menyebabkan bilangnya spesies asli. Inventarisasi tumbuban asing memudabkan untuke menentukan potensi ancaman terbadap keanekaragaman hayati tumbuhan alami. Tulisan ini mengevaluasi tumbuhan asing di Mizoram (wilayah botspot Indo-Burma) dan merupakan inventarisasi otentik, pertama tanaman asing Miæoram bersama dengan keanekaragaman, aspek ekologi, asal-usul dan status invasi mereka. Survei lapangan ekstensif dilakukan dari Juli 2018 bingga September 2019 di berbagai kawasan lindung Mizoram. Pengambilan sampel mengadopsi Teknik. Pengambilan Sampel Acak menggunakan kuadrat bersarang di plot berukuran , di mana ukuran kuadrat diletakekan untuk semak dan untuk tumbuhan. Spesimen tanaman dikumpulkan, dikeringkan, diracun dengan 0,1% Mercuric Cbloride ( ); voucher spesimen disiapkan dan disimpan di Central National Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India (CAL) setelab identiflikasi yang tepat. Hasil penelitian menunjukekan terjadinya invasi 163 spesies tumbuban asing di bawab 135 genera milik 51 famili di Miyoram. Spesies terbesar yang teridentifikasi adalab famili Asteraceae dengan 29 spesies diikuti oleh Leguminosae (19 spesies), Convolvulaceae (9 spesies), Euphorbiaceae ( 7 spesies) & Amaranthaceae (7 spesies). 57,66% spesies asing yang dilaporkan dari Mizoram berasal dari Amerika diikuti oleh 11,65% dari Afrika, 7,36% dari Meksiko &s 5,52% dari Australia. Analisis bentuk. kebidupan menunjukkan keberadaan 58,64% tumbuhan, 15,43% pohon dan 9,87% semak. Dari selurub tumbuhan asing yang tercatat, 91 jenis dimanfaatkan untuk pengobatan tradisional, 43 jenis sebagai tanaman bias, 15 jenis untuk dimakan, sembilan jenis digunakan sebagai kayu dan empat jenis digunakan sebagai pupuk bijau. Studi tersebut juga merekomendasikan sepuluh spesies paling membabayakan, lima tanaman neo-invasif, yang memiliki potensi ancaman terbesar bagi flora asli. Proses dan kemungkinan penyebab invasi di negara bagian juga dibabas secara singkat, yang dapat digunakan dalam penyusunan kebijakan konservasi atau pengelolaan butan.
印度迪米佐阿姆地区外来物种入侵的全面清查和生态评估。外来物种入侵会对自然植物群落造成有害影响,导致本地物种灭绝。外来植物清单可以确定对自然植物生物多样性的潜在威胁。本文评估了米佐拉姆(印缅盆地地区)的外来植物,是第一份关于米佐拉姆外来植物及其多样性、生态方面、起源和入侵状况的真实清单。2018 年 7 月至 2019 年 9 月,在米佐拉姆的多个保护区进行了广泛的实地调查。采用的采样技术包括在 的地块中使用嵌套四分格随机取样,其中灌木的四分格尺寸为 ,植物的四分格尺寸为 。采集植物标本,烘干,用 0.1% 氯化汞( )毒杀;制作标本凭证,经适当鉴定后存放在印度植物调查所中央国家标本室(CAL)。结果显示,米约拉姆有 51 科 135 属 163 种外来植物入侵。已鉴定的最大物种是菊科,有 29 种,其次是豆科(19 种)、旋花科(9 种)、大戟科(7 种)和苋科(7 种)。米佐拉姆报告的外来物种中有 57.66% 来自美洲,其次是 11.65% 来自非洲、7.36% 来自墨西哥和 5.52% 来自澳大利亚。生命形式分析表明,58.64% 的植物为草本,15.43% 为乔木,9.87% 为灌木。在记录的外来植物中,91 种被用作传统药物,43 种被用作偏爱植物,15 种被用作食物,9 种被用作木材,4 种被用作绿肥。研究还推荐了十种危害最大的物种,其中五种是新入侵植物,它们对本地植物区系构成了最大的潜在威胁。研究还简要讨论了该州植物入侵的过程和可能原因,可用于制定保护或丁烷管理政策。
Kata kunci: Tumbuhan asing, invasif, neo-invasif, keanekaragaman bayati, Mizoram

I. INTRODUCTION I.引言

Alien plants, introduced or spread outside their natural habitats, have affected natural biodiversity in almost every ecosystem type on earth and are one of the greatest threats to biodiversity (UN, 2014). These plants not only affect the species composition, spatial distribution of the native flora but also impact directly or indirectly on the resources, structures and functions of natural ecosystems (Downey & Richardson, 2016). Efficient mechanism of seed dispersal, high growth rate, great adaptability to wide ranges of environmental conditions are some of the essential processes for the successful establishment of alien plants (Simberloff, Parker, & Windle, 2005). Species that can withstand a wide range of environmental conditions show a broader physiological niche and are likely to be more invasive (Higgins & Richardson, 2014). Almost of global woody plant species is currently invasive outside their natural range (Rejmánek & Richardson, 2013).
外来植物在其自然栖息地之外引入或传播,影响了地球上几乎所有生态系统类型的自然生物多样性,是生物多样性面临的最大威胁之一(联合国,2014 年)。这些植物不仅会影响本地植物区系的物种组成和空间分布,还会直接或间接影响自然生态系统的资源、结构和功能(Downey & Richardson,2016 年)。高效的种子传播机制、高生长率、对各种环境条件的极强适应性是外来植物成功立足的一些基本过程(Simberloff, Parker, & Windle, 2005)。能承受多种环境条件的物种具有更广泛的生理生态位,可能更具入侵性(Higgins & Richardson, 2014)。目前,全球木本植物物种中几乎有 在其自然分布区之外受到入侵(Rejmánek & Richardson,2013 年)。
Invasive alien species can be recognized as a critical component of global environmental change because, after establishment, they randomly proliferate in all direction; mainly when the environment is conducive as in a rough and sloppy mountain terrains (Rumlerová, Vilà, Pergl, Nentwig, & Pyšek, 2016). The recent global climate change has also catalysed the rate of introduction and spread of alien species into areas where they were previously absent, or increased their performance as compared to native species. Evidence is quite common when many invasive alien species viz. Ageratum conyzoides, Ageratina adenophora, Cbromolaena odorata, Lantana camara, Mikeania micrantha and
外来入侵物种被认为是全球环境变化的一个重要组成部分,因为它们在建立后会随机地向各个方向扩散;主要是在环境有利的情况下,如在崎岖不平的山区(Rumlerová, Vilà, Pergl, Nentwig, & Pyšek, 2016)。最近的全球气候变化也催化了外来物种引入和扩散到它们以前不存在的地区的速度,或提高了它们与本地物种相比的表现。许多外来入侵物种(如:Ageratum conyzoides、Ageratina adenophora、Cbromolaena odorata、Lantana camara、Mikeania micrantha 和 Lantana camara)的引入和扩散都是很常见的证据。

Parthenium bysterophorus have brought about havoc in terrestrial ecosystems, while Eichbornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes in aquatic ecosystems by significantly changing the structure and composition of native vegetation (Raizada, Sharma, & Raghubanshi, 2008).
Parthenium bysterophorus 在陆地生态系统中造成了严重破坏,而 Eichbornia crassipes 和 Pistia stratiotes 则在水生生态系统中极大地改变了本地植被的结构和组成(Raizada、Sharma 和 Raghubanshi,2008 年)。
Taxonomic identity of alien species, their origin, distribution, spread pattern, habitat and mode of introduction are the prerequisite for any management strategy against invasive species. The entire region of Northeast India including Mizoram, Khasia and Jaintia hills (K&J hill), Lushai Hills, Manipur were under Assam province during the colonial era. Mikania micrantha was introduced during World War-II as a ground cover for tea plantations and camouflaged the airfields in this region (Shankar, Yadav, Rai, & Tripathi, 2011). Therefore, the introduction of the alien plants in Mizoram might have followed the path K&J hill- SilcharAizawl-Lushai hills and subsequently spread throughout the state. Report on the collection of Mikania micrantha dated back to 1956, Chromolaena odorata in 1938, Ageratina riparia in 1958 and Ageratina adenophora in 1931 from this region.
外来物种的分类学特征、其起源、分布、传播模式、栖息地和引入方式是任何针对入侵物种的管理策略的先决条件。整个印度东北部地区,包括米佐拉姆、卡西亚和詹蒂亚山(K&J 山)、卢赛山、曼尼普尔,在殖民时代都隶属于阿萨姆省。第二次世界大战期间,薇甘菊被引进作为茶园的地被植物,并伪装了这一地区的机场(Shankar, Yadav, Rai, & Tripathi, 2011)。因此,米佐拉姆邦引进外来植物的路径可能是 K&J 山--西尔查--阿扎瓦--卢赛山,随后扩散到整个邦。关于从该地区采集薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)的报告可追溯到 1956 年,采集 Chromolaena odorata 的报告可追溯到 1938 年,采集 Ageratina riparia 的报告可追溯到 1958 年,采集 Ageratina adenophora 的报告可追溯到 1931 年。
Sporadic information is available on alien species, particularly on Indian Himalayan regions. Ecological studies on invasive plants, mainly on Ageratum conyzoides, Parthenium bysterophorus and Lantana camara were reported from the north-western Himalayan region (Kohli, Batish, Singh, & Dogra, 2006); 571 alien species enumerated from the Kashmir Himalayas (Khuroo, Reshi, Rashid, & Dar, 2011); 190 alien species identified from Indian Himalayan region (Sekar, Manikandan, & Srivastava, 2012); 497 alien species enumerated
关于外来物种,特别是印度喜马拉雅地区的外来物种,目前只有零星资料。据报道,西北喜马拉雅地区对入侵植物进行了生态学研究,主要研究对象是 Ageratum conyzoides、Parthenium bysterophorus 和 Lantana camara(Kohli、Batish、Singh 和 Dogra,2006 年);从克什米尔喜马拉雅山列举了 571 个外来物种(Khuroo、Reshi、Rashid 和 Dar,2011 年);从印度喜马拉雅山地区鉴定了 190 个外来物种(Sekar、Manikandan 和 Srivastava,2012 年);列举了 497 个外来物种。

from Himachal Pradesh (Jaryan, Uniyal, Gupta, Singh, 2013). However, accurate estimation on the spread of invasive species and its potential threats is not available from North-eastern states of India, particularly from Mizoram. A proper estimation of floristic elements or landscapes infested with invasive alien plants is the need of the hour to build appropriate strategies for conservation and management of natural flora. Keeping in mind these problems, the present study was carried out in the state of Mizoram (a) to prepare a comprehensive inventory of alien plant species in Mizoram and (b) to evaluate the invasion status of the ten most obnoxious invasive alien plant species; and to propose the five neo- invasive alien plant species, which possess potential threats to the local flora.
喜马偕尔邦(Jaryan, Uniyal, Gupta, Singh, 2013)。然而,印度东北部各邦,尤其是米佐拉姆邦,并没有关于入侵物种扩散及其潜在威胁的准确估计。要制定适当的自然植物保护和管理策略,就必须对外来入侵植物侵扰的花卉要素或景观进行适当估计。考虑到这些问题,本研究在米佐拉姆邦开展:(a) 编制米佐拉姆邦外来植物物种综合清单;(b) 评估十种最令人讨厌的外来入侵植物物种的入侵状况;并提出五种新入侵的外来植物物种,这些物种对当地植物区系具有潜在威胁。

II. MATERIAL AND METHOD
II.材料和方法

A. Study Site A.研究地点

The state of Mizoram is one of the smallest north-eastern states of India situated in the extreme eastern part of India (Figure 1); the state is bounded by two international boundaries viz., Myanmar (Burma) on the east and Bangladesh on the west; Tripura, Assam and Manipur also share a common border with the state. The forest cover of the state is of the state's total geographical area out of which only is under protected area network. Summer temperature varies from to and winter temperature varies from to . The average annual rainfall of the state ranges between to 3500 (FSI, 2019). For the convenience of the present work, we have selected four protected
米佐拉姆邦是印度东北部最小的邦之一,位于印度的最东部(图 1);该邦与两个国际边界接壤,即东边的缅甸和西边的孟加拉国;特里普拉邦、阿萨姆邦和曼尼普尔邦也与该邦接壤。该邦的森林覆盖率为 ,其中只有 属于保护区网络。夏季气温在 之间,冬季气温在 之间。该州的年平均降雨量在 至 3500 之间(FSI,2019 年)。为方便本研究工作,我们选择了四个保护区,它们分别是
Figure 1. Map of the study site
图 1.研究地点地图

areas viz. Phawngpui National Park , Murlen National Park ( ), Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary and Dampa Tiger Reserve . Besides non-protected areas viz. Sangau, Aizawl, Knahlan were also selected. The vegetation of the state can be broadly categorized in to tropical (up to 900 m), subtropical ( ) and temperate depending on the elevation and precipitation. All the studied plots were situated in subtropical and temperate regions of the state.
这些地区包括帕翁培国家公园 、墨伦国家公园 ( )、冷腾野生动物保护区 和丹帕老虎保护区 。此外,还选择了非保护区,即桑高(Sangau)、艾扎乌(Aizawl)和克纳兰(Knahlan)。根据海拔和降水量,该州的植被可大致分为热带(海拔 900 米以下)、亚热带( )和温带 。研究的所有地块都位于该州的亚热带和温带地区。

B. Methods B.方法

The present study was carried out during July 2018 to September 2019 as a part of the collaborative research project "Ecological Investigations to understand causes and consequences of invasion in Tripura & Mizoram" under the National Mission on Himalayan Studies (NMHS). Intensive field surveys were undertaken in a planned manner in different seasons to collect the plant specimens from selected protected and unprotected areas of Mizoram. Plant samples were collected for preparation of voucher herbarium specimens. The specimens were poisoned with Mercuric Chloride , mounted on standard handmade herbarium sheets and labelled ), after incorporating all the relevant field information. These were deposited in Central National Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India (CAL) after proper identification. An exhaustive inventory of alien plants of the state was prepared based on the collections from the field and also by examining the herbarium specimens from multiple herbaria (CAL, ASSAM and ARUN) of the region. Based on the mode of introduction, rate of invasion, nature of the invaded habitats and importance value index (IVI) ten most obnoxious invasive alien plants and five top neo-invasive species were grouped. For the collection of data on the mode of introduction and usefulness of alien plants, the local people were interviewed with an open-ended questionnaire.
本研究于 2018 年 7 月至 2019 年 9 月期间进行,是国家喜马拉雅研究任务(NMHS)下的合作研究项目 "了解特里普拉邦和米佐拉姆邦入侵原因和后果的生态调查 "的一部分。研究人员在不同季节有计划地进行了密集的实地调查,从米佐拉姆的选定保护区和非保护区收集植物标本。采集的植物样本用于制作植物标本室的凭证标本。标本经 氯化汞 毒化后,装裱在标准手工标本纸 上,并贴上标签 ),然后纳入所有相关的实地信息。经适当鉴定后,这些标本被存放在印度植物调查局(CAL)的中央国家标本馆。根据从野外收集的资料,并通过检查该地区多个标本馆(CAL、ASSAM 和 ARUN)的标本,编制了一份详尽的该邦外来植物清单。根据引入方式、入侵速度、入侵栖息地的性质和重要价值指数(IVI),归纳出了十种最令人讨厌的外来入侵植物和五种最重要的新入侵物种。为了收集有关外来植物的引入方式和用途的数据,我们使用开放式问卷对当地居民进行了访谈。

Random sampling technique using nested quadrat method was followed for collection of phytosociological data. Plot sizes of were selected randomly within which quadrats of were laid for shrubs and for herbs nested within quadrats (Misra, 1968). All the invasive species occur within each plot were counted along with their associated species. Trees were not considered in the present study because their invasion status is negligible compared to the shrub and herb invasion in the study areas. For the collection of data on the mode of introduction and usefulness of alien plants, the local people were interviewed with an open-ended questionnaire.
在收集植物社会学数据时,采用了嵌套四分法的随机抽样技术。随机选择了 的小块,其中 为灌木小块, 为草本小块,嵌套在 的小块中(Misra,1968 年)。每个小区内出现的所有入侵物种及其相关物种都被计数。本研究不考虑树木,因为与研究区域的灌木和草本植物入侵相比,树木的入侵状况微不足道。为了收集有关外来植物的引入方式和用途的数据,研究人员使用开放式问卷对当地居民进行了访谈。

C. Data Analysis C.数据分析

All the phytosociological data i.e., relative densities, relative frequency, relative dominance, IVI of each species were determined using formulas mentioned by (Misra, 1968). Importance Value Index (IVI) was calculated by the addition of relative values of frequency, density and dominance (Curtis & McIntosh, 1950).
所有植物社会学数据,即每个物种的相对密度、相对频率、相对优势度和 IVI,均采用(Misra,1968 年)所述公式确定。重要价值指数(IVI)是通过频率、密度和优势度的相对值相加计算得出的(Curtis & McIntosh, 1950)。
The formulae used for the various calculations are:
用于各种计算的公式是
Density  密度
Frequency . 频率 .
Abundance  丰富
Relative Frequency
相对频率
Relative Density
相对密度
Relative Dominance
相对优势
Where: Basal area and radius of the species; Importance Value Index (IVI) = Relative Frequency + Relative Density + Relative Dominance
其中:物种的基底面积 半径;重要价值指数 (IVI) = 相对频率 + 相对密度 + 相对优势度
Importance Value Index (IVI) was calculated separately for each species of the community. A particular species, that having highest value of importance value index (IVI) is considered as most dominant in the area and the species with lowest importance value is considered as the least dominant.
群落中的每个物种都分别计算了重要价值指数(IVI)。重要价值指数(IVI)最高的特定物种被认为是该地区最主要的物种,而重要价值指数最低的物种被认为是最不主要的物种。
The comparisons among the phytosociological data were analysed in Microsoft Excel Software (2019 version). GPS locations were investigated and the digital elevation map of the study site was prepared using ArcGIS online tools. Based on the mode of introduction, rate of invasion, nature of the invaded habitats and importance value index (IVI) ten most obnoxious alien invasive alien plants and five top neo-invasive species were determined.
植物社会学数据的比较使用 Microsoft Excel 软件(2019 年版)进行分析。使用 ArcGIS 在线工具调查了 GPS 位置并绘制了研究地点的数字高程图。根据外来入侵植物的引入方式、入侵速度、入侵栖息地的性质和重要价值指数(IVI),确定了十种最令人讨厌的外来入侵植物和五种最重要的新入侵物种。

III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
III.结果与讨论

Extensive field exploration tours undertaken in the protected and non-protected areas of Mizoram resulted in a collection of more than 1045 plant samples. During the study, 163 alien plant species were recorded from Mizoram belonging to 135 genera and 51 families (See Appendix 1, Table 1). Out of these, 147 species belongs to 122 genera and 43 families were dicotyledons; 11 species belongs to 9 genera and five families were monocotyledons. Five species of gymnosperms under four genera and three families were also recorded.
在米佐拉姆的保护区和非保护区进行了广泛的实地考察,收集了超过 1045 个植物样本。研究期间,米佐拉姆共记录了 163 种外来植物,隶属 135 属 51 科(见附录 1,表 1)。其中,147 个物种隶属于 122 个属和 43 个科,为双子叶植物;11 个物种隶属于 9 个属和 5 个科,为单子叶植物。此外,还记录了 5 种裸子植物,隶属 4 属 3 科。

Table 2. Top ten families among the alien plants (with minimum fourspecies)
表 2.外来植物中的前十个科(最少四个物种)
No. Family Species
1. Asteraceae 29
2. Leguminosae (s.l.) 豆科 (s.l.) 19
3. Convolvulaceae 9
4. Euphorbiaceae 7
5. Amaranthaceae 7
6. Malvaceae 6
7. Solanaceae 7
8. Verbenaceae 5
9. Acanthaceae 4
10. Poaceae 4
Besides, out of the total reported plant species, 95 plant species were represented by herbs trees , 20 shrubs climbers , four grasses and only two species of sedges . Maximum percentage of alien plants, i.e., (62 taxa) occur in Mizoram were from Tropical American origin followed by (22 taxa) from South American, (16 taxa) from Tropical African, (12 taxa) from Mexican and 5.5% (9 taxa) from Australian origin. The plants belonging to the different nativity was given in Figure 2.
此外,在报告的所有植物物种中,95 个植物物种为草本 ,乔木 ,20 个灌木 ,攀缘植物 ,4 个草本 ,只有 2 个莎草物种 。米佐拉姆出现的外来植物中,来自热带美洲的比例最高,即 (62 个分类群),其次是来自南美洲的 (22 个分类群)、来自热带非洲的 (16 个分类群)、来自墨西哥的 (12 个分类群)和来自澳大利亚的 5.5%(9 个分类群)。不同原产地的植物见图 2。
The most dominant families with maximum species diversity shown in Table 2. Asteraceae with 29 species represented was the most dominant family followed by Leguminosae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae,
表 2 列出了物种多样性最多的优势科。菊科是最主要的科,有 29 个物种,其次是豆科、旋花科和大戟科、
Figure 2. Nativity of the different invasive alien species found in Mizoram flora
图 2.米佐拉姆植物区系中不同外来入侵物种的原生地
Figure 3. Habitats invaded by the invasive alien plant
图 3.外来入侵植物入侵的生境
Amaranthaceae, and Malvaceae. Ten most dominating families contribute of total alien species found.
苋科和锦葵科。最主要的十个科占所发现外来物种总数的
Among the most dominant families, two families viz., Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae were also reported as dominant in Indian Himalayan region (Sekar, Manikandan, & Srivastava, 2012) as well as throughout India (Reddy, 2008). The dominance of these two families as effective invaders in natural forests may be attributed to the high production of viable seeds which usually dispersed by wind in Asteraceae, and successful vegetative reproduction in members of Convolvulaceae.
据报道,在印度喜马拉雅地区(Sekar、Manikandan 和 Srivastava,2012 年)以及整个印度(Reddy,2008 年),最主要的科中有两个科,即菊科和旋花科。这两个科之所以能在天然林中有效入侵,可能是因为菊科植物能生产大量有活力的种子,这些种子通常随风飘散,而旋覆花科植物则能成功地进行无性繁殖。
Observation on invaded habitats revealed that Tropical Wet Evergreen forest and Montane sub-tropical forest were most invaded forests whereas Fallow Lands ( ) and Jhumlands were invaded habitats outside the forest area (Figure 3). It is also found that of alien plants were perennials and annuals. The percentage of perennial alien plant contribution in Mizoram ( ) is higher than the average contribution of Indian Himalayan region ( ) implies that alien species are probably well established in Mizoram, or natural vegetation is more vulnerable. A moderate-higher percentage of annual alien species in the state indicates, the forest is degraded and also substantiate our findings of the gregarious spread of invasive species in mountain slopes (Figure 6). The preferred habitat of spreading of invasive species in different habitat in Mizoram is almost similar to other Indian Himalayan region (Sekar, Manikandan, & Srivastava, 2012) as well as throughout India (Reddy, 2008). The most preferred habitats of roadsides, wetlands and fallow lands may be attributed to low competition and high disturbances in these regions.
对入侵栖息地的观察显示,热带湿润常绿林 和山地亚热带森林 是受入侵最多的森林,而荒地 ( ) 和沼泽地 则是森林区以外的入侵栖息地(图 3)。研究还发现, 外来植物为多年生植物, 一年生植物。米佐拉姆的多年生外来植物比例 ( ) 高于印度喜马拉雅地区的平均比例 (