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Chapter 16
第16章

After reading this chapter, you should be able to

Understanding
理解
Vegetables
蔬菜

egetables were, at one time, abused and neglected, relegated to the minor role of unimportant side dishes, to be taken or left, or not even noticed on the table.
可食用的东西曾一度被滥用和忽视,沦为不重要的配菜的次要角色,被拿走或留下,甚至在餐桌上都没有注意到。

Describe the factors that influence texture, flavor, color, and nutritional changes when cooking vegetables.

Cook vegetables to their proper doneness.

Judge quality in cooked vegetables based on color, appearance, texture, flavor, sea- sonings, and appropriateness of combina- tion with sauces or other vegetables.

Perform pre-preparation tasks for fresh vegetables.

Determine the quality of frozen, canned, and dried vegetables.

Prepare vegetables using the batch cooking method and the blanch-and-chill method.

Store fresh and processed vegetables.

V

Today, however, lowly vegetables are much more appreciated, not
然而,今天,低级蔬菜更受赞赏,而不是

only for their nutritional importance but for the variety, flavor, eye appeal, and even elegance and sophistication they bring to the menu. Modern cooks owe it to themselves and their customers to treat vegetables with understanding, respect, and imagination.
仅仅因为它们的营养重要性,而是因为它们为菜单带来的多样性、风味、吸引力,甚至优雅和精致。现代厨师对自己和顾客都有责任以理解、尊重和想象力对待蔬菜。

Because
因为
they
他们
are so perishable,
易腐坏的
vegetables
蔬菜
require
需要
extra
额外
care
关心
from receiving
从接收
to service.
服务。
Freshness
新鲜
is their
他们
most
appealing
吸引力
and attractive quality,
有吸引力的品质,
and one must
必须
be especially
特别是
careful
小心
to preserve
保存
it. The goals
目标
of proper vegetable cookery are to preserve and enhance fresh flavor, texture,
适当的蔬菜烹饪是为了保持和增强新鲜的风味、质地、
and color,
颜色
and to prepare
准备
and serve
服务
vegetables
蔬菜
that
are not just accepted
最新录用
but sought
寻求
after.
后。

528 C H A P T E R 1 6 U N D E R S T A N D I N G V E G E T A B L E S

Controlling
控制
Quality
质量
Changes
变化
During
Cooking
烹饪

As a cook, you have a choice of many kinds of vegetables and many cooking methods. Not surprisingly, then, you are also faced with the necessity of learning many rules for cooking vegetables.
作为厨师,您可以选择多种蔬菜和多种烹饪方法。因此,毫不奇怪,您还面临着学习许多烹饪蔬菜规则的必要性。

Many guides to vegetable cookery simply present a long list of rules to memorize. You will be able to understand the principles more easily, however, if you first learn how vegetables change as they are cooked and how to control those changes. In other words, it is suggested you not just memorize what to do but understand why you do it.
许多蔬菜烹饪指南只是提供了一长串需要记住的规则。但是,如果您首先了解蔬菜在烹饪时如何变化以及如何控制这些变化,您将能够更容易地理解这些原理。换句话说,建议你不仅要记住要做什么,还要了解你为什么要这样做。

Cooking affects vegetables in four ways. It changes the following:
烹饪以四种方式影响蔬菜。它更改了以下内容:

Texture.
质地。

Flavor.
味道。

Color.
颜色。

Nutrients.
营养素。

How much these four characteristics change determines whether your final product is attractive and delicious to the customer or whether it ends up in the garbage. You can control these changes if you understand how they occur.
这四个特征的变化程度决定了您的最终产品对客户是否具有吸引力和美味,或者它是否最终被扔进垃圾桶。如果您了解这些更改是如何发生的,则可以控制它们。

Unfortunately, there is still legitimate controversy among chefs about proper vegetable cooking techniques. Modern technology has not yet solved all the problems experienced chefs tackle successfully every day in the kitchen.
不幸的是,厨师之间对正确的蔬菜烹饪技术仍然存在合理的争议。现代技术尚未解决经验丰富的厨师每天在厨房中成功解决的所有问题。

Controlling Texture Changes
控制纹理更改

Changing texture is one of the main purposes of cooking vegetables.
改变质地是烹饪蔬菜的主要目的之一。

Fiber
纤维

The fiber structures of vegetables (including cellulose and pectins) give them shape and firmness. Cooking softens some of these components.
蔬菜(包括纤维素和果胶)的纤维结构赋予它们形状和硬度。烹饪会软化其中一些成分。

The amount of fiber varies
纤维的量各不相同

In different vegetables. Spinach and tomatoes have less fiber than carrots and turnips, for example.
在不同的蔬菜中。例如,菠菜和西红柿的纤维含量低于胡萝卜和萝卜。

In different examples of the same vegetables. Old, tough carrots have more fiber than young, fresh carrots.
在相同蔬菜的不同例子中。老而坚韧的胡萝卜比年轻、新鲜的胡萝卜含有更多的纤维。

In the same vegetable. The tender tips of asparagus and broccoli have less fiber than their tougher stalks.
在同一种蔬菜中。芦笋和西兰花的嫩尖比它们较硬的茎含有更少的纤维。

Fiber is made firmer by
纤维通过以下方式变得更坚固

Acids.
酸。

Lemon juice, vinegar, and tomato products, when added to cooking vegetables, extend the cooking time.
柠檬汁、醋和番茄制品添加到烹饪蔬菜中时,可以延长烹饪时间。

Sugars.
糖。

Sugar strengthens cell structure. You will use this principle primarily in fruit cookery. For firm poached apples or pears, for example, cook in a heavy syrup. For applesauce, cook apples until soft before sweetening.
糖可以增强细胞结构。您将主要在水果烹饪中使用这一原则。例如,对于坚硬的水煮苹果或梨,请用浓糖浆烹制。对于苹果酱,在加糖之前将苹果煮至变软。

Fiber is softened by
纤维软化

Heat.
热。

In general, longer cooking means softer vegetables.
一般来说,烹饪时间越长意味着蔬菜越软。

Alkalis.
碱。

Do not add baking soda to green vegetables. Not only does it destroy vitamins but it also makes the vegetables unpleasantly mushy.
不要在绿色蔬菜中加入小苏打。它不仅会破坏维生素,还会使蔬菜变得令人不快。

Starch
淀粉

Starch is another vegetable component that affects texture.
淀粉是另一种影响质地的蔬菜成分。

Dry starchy foods like dried legumes (beans, peas, lentils), rice, and macaroni products must be cooked in enough water for the starch granules to absorb moisture and soften. Dried beans are usually soaked before cooking to replace lost moisture.
干淀粉类食物,如干豆类(豆类、豌豆、扁豆)、大米和通心粉制品,必须在足够的水中煮熟,以使淀粉颗粒吸收水分并软化。干豆通常在烹饪前浸泡以补充流失的水分。

Moist starchy vegetables like potatoes and sweet potatoes have enough moisture of their own, but they must still be cooked until the starch granules soften.
土豆和红薯等潮湿的淀粉类蔬菜本身有足够的水分,但仍必须煮熟,直到淀粉颗粒变软。

Doneness
熟度

A vegetable is said to be done when it reaches the desired degree of tenderness. This stage varies from vegetable to vegetable. Some, such as winter squash, eggplant, and braised celery, are considered properly cooked when they are quite soft. Most vegetables, however, are best cooked very briefly, until they are crisp-tender or al dente (firm to the bite). At this stage of tenderness they not only have the most pleasing texture but also retain maximum flavor, color, and nutrients.
据说蔬菜在达到所需的嫩度时就完成了。这个阶段因蔬菜而异。有些,如冬瓜、茄子和红烧芹菜,当它们很软时,就被认为是煮熟的。然而,大多数蔬菜最好煮得很短,直到它们酥脆嫩滑或有嚼劲(咬起来很硬)。在这个嫩度阶段,它们不仅具有最令人愉悦的质地,而且还保留了最大的风味、颜色和营养。

Guidelines for Achieving Proper Doneness in Vegetables
蔬菜达到适当熟度的指南

Don’t overcook.
不要煮过头。

Cook as close to service as possible. Holding vegetables in a steam table continues to cook them.
尽可能接近服务。将蔬菜放在蒸汽桌上继续烹饪。

If vegetables must be cooked in advance, slightly undercook them, cool rapidly in cold water, drain, and refrigerate, then reheat to order.
如果蔬菜必须提前煮熟,请稍微煮熟,在冷水中快速冷却,沥干并冷藏,然后重新加热。

For uniform doneness, cut vegetables into pieces of uniform size before cooking.
为了均匀的熟度,在烹饪前将蔬菜切成大小均匀的块。

Vegetables with both tough and tender parts need special treatment so the tender parts are not overcooked by the time the tougher parts are done. For example,
具有硬质和嫩质部分的蔬菜需要特殊处理,以便在较硬部分完成时,嫩质部分不会煮过头。例如

Peel the woody stalks of asparagus. Peel or split broccoli stalks.
去芦笋的木质茎。将西兰花茎去皮或劈开。

Pierce the base of Brussels sprouts with a sharp knife.
用锋利的刀刺穿抱子甘蓝的底部。

Remove the heavy center stalks of lettuce leaves before braising.
炖之前去除生菜叶的沉重中心茎。

Don’t mix batches of cooked vegetables. They are likely to be cooked to slightly different levels of doneness.
不要将煮熟的蔬菜混合在一起。它们可能会被煮熟到略微不同的熟度。

Controlling Flavor Changes
控制风味变化

Cooking Produces Flavor Loss
烹饪会产生风味损失

Many flavors are lost during cooking by dissolving into the cooking liquid and by evaporation. The longer a vegetable is cooked, the more flavor it loses.
在烹饪过程中,许多味道会因溶解在烹饪液中和蒸发而丢失。蔬菜煮的时间越长,失去的味道就越多。

Flavor loss can be controlled in several ways:
风味损失可以通过多种方式控制:

Cook for as short a time as possible.
烹饪时间越短越好。

Use boiling salted water. Starting vegetables in boiling water shortens cooking time. The addition of salt helps reduce flavor loss.
使用沸腾的盐水。在沸水中开始蔬菜可以缩短烹饪时间。添加盐有助于减少风味损失。

Use just enough water to cover to minimize leaching. Note that this rule contradicts rule 1 in that adding vegetables to a small quantity of water lowers the temperature more, so cooking time is extended. Save your questions on this until you have finished reading the sections on color and nutritional changes.
使用足够的水覆盖以尽量减少浸出。请注意,此规则与规则 1 相矛盾,因为在少量水中加入蔬菜会降低温度,因此烹饪时间会延长。保存您的问题,直到您阅读完有关颜色和营养变化的部分。

Steam vegetables whenever appropriate. Steam cooking reduces leaching out of flavor and shortens cooking time.
在适当的时候蒸蔬菜。蒸汽烹饪可减少风味浸出并缩短烹饪时间。

STRONG-FLAV ORED VE GETABLE S

With certain strong-flavored vegetables, it is desirable to lose some of the flavor to make them more appealing to the taste. These include the onion family (onions, garlic, leeks, shallots), the cabbage family (cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli), and some root vegetables (turnips, rutabagas).
对于某些味道浓郁的蔬菜,最好失去一些味道,使它们对味道更具吸引力。这些包括洋葱科(洋葱、大蒜、韭菜、青葱)、卷心菜科(卷心菜、抱子甘蓝、花椰菜、西兰花)和一些根茎类蔬菜(萝卜、大头菜)。

When cooking strong-flavored vegetables, leave uncovered to allow these flavors to escape, and use larger amounts of water.
烹饪味道浓郁的蔬菜时,不要盖子,让这些味道逸出,并使用大量的水。

Cooking Produces Flavor Changes
烹饪会产生风味变化

Cooked vegetables do not taste like raw vegetables because cooking produces certain chemical changes. As long as the vegetables are not overcooked, this change is desirable. It produces the flavors one looks for in vegetable dishes.
煮熟的蔬菜尝起来不像生蔬菜,因为烹饪会产生一定的化学变化。只要蔬菜没有煮过头,这种改变是可取的。它产生人们在蔬菜菜肴中寻找的味道。

Overcooking produces undesirable changes in members of the cabbage family. They develop a strong, unpleasant flavor. Cabbage and its relatives should be cooked quickly, uncovered.
过度烹饪会在卷心菜家族的成员中产生不良变化。它们会产生强烈的、令人不快的味道。卷心菜及其亲戚应迅速煮熟,不盖盖子。

Cooking and Sweetness
烹饪和甜味

Young, freshly harvested vegetables have a relatively high sugar content that makes them taste sweet. As they mature, or as they sit in storage, the sugar gradually changes to starch. This is especially noticeable in corn, peas, carrots, turnips, and beets.
新鲜收获的年轻蔬菜含糖量相对较高,味道甜美。随着它们的成熟,或者当它们被储存起来时,糖会逐渐变成淀粉。这在玉米、豌豆、胡萝卜、萝卜和甜菜中尤为明显。

To serve sweet-tasting vegetables:
要提供甜味蔬菜:

Try to serve young, fresh vegetables that have been stored as short a time as possible.
尽量提供储存时间尽可能短的年轻新鲜蔬菜。

For older vegetables, especially those just listed, add a small amount of sugar to the cooking water to replace lost sweetness.
对于较老的蔬菜,尤其是刚刚列出的蔬菜,在烹饪水中加入少量糖以补充失去的甜味。

Controlling Color Changes
控制颜色变化

It is important to preserve as much natural color as possible when cooking vegetables. Because customers may reject or accept a vegetable on the basis of its appearance, it can be said that its visual quality is as important as its flavor or nutritional value.
烹饪蔬菜时,尽可能多地保留自然色素很重要。因为顾客可能会根据蔬菜的外观拒绝或接受它,所以可以说它的视觉质量与它的味道或营养价值一样重要。

Pigments are compounds that give vegetables their color. Different pigments react in different ways to heat and to acids and other elements that may be present during cooking, so it is necessary to discuss them one at a time. Table 16.1 summarizes this information.
色素是赋予蔬菜颜色的化合物。不同的颜料以不同的方式对热量、酸和烹饪过程中可能存在的其他元素做出反应,因此有必要一次讨论一个。表 16.1 总结了这些信息。

White Vegetables
白色蔬菜

Pigments called anthoxanthins (an tho zan thins) and flavonoids range from pale yellow to white. These are the primary coloring compounds in potatoes, onions, cauliflower, and white cabbage and in the white parts of such vegetables as celery, cucumbers, and zucchini.
称为花黄质(an tho zan thins)和类黄酮的色素从淡黄色到白色不等。这些是土豆、洋葱、花椰菜和白菜以及芹菜、黄瓜和西葫芦等蔬菜的白色部分的主要着色化合物。

White pigments stay white in acid and turn yellow in alkaline water. To keep vegetables such as cauliflower white, add a little lemon juice or cream of tartar to the cooking water. (Don’t add too much, though, as this may toughen the vegetable.) Covering the pot also helps keep acids in.
白色颜料在酸性水中保持白色,在碱性水中变黄。为了保持花椰菜等蔬菜的白色,在烹饪水中加入少许柠檬汁或塔塔粉。(不过,不要添加太多,因为这可能会使蔬菜变硬。盖上锅盖也有助于保持酸性物质。

Cooking for a short time, especially in a steamer, helps maintain color (and flavor and nutrients as well). Overcooking or holding too long in a steam table turns white vegetables dull yellow or gray.
短时间烹饪,尤其是在蒸锅中,有助于保持颜色(以及风味和营养)。煮过头或在蒸桌上放置时间过长会使白色蔬菜变暗、呈黄色或灰色。

Table 16.1Vegetable Color Changes During Cooking
表 16.1 烹饪过程中蔬菜颜色的变化

Color
颜色

Examples of Vegetables
蔬菜的例子

Cooked

with Acid
带酸

Cooked

with Alkali
用碱

Overcooked

Yellowish, gray
淡黄色,灰色

Greenish blue, faded
蓝绿色,褪色

Olive green
橄榄绿

Slightly faded
略微褪色

White

Potatoes, turnips, cauliflower, onions, white cabbage
土豆、萝卜、花椰菜、洋葱、白菜

White

Yellowish
淡黄

Red

Beets, red cabbage (not tomatoes, whose pigment is
甜菜,红卷心菜(不是西红柿,其色素是

Red

Blue or blue-green
蓝色或蓝绿色

like that in yellow vegetables)
就像黄色蔬菜一样)

Green
绿

Asparagus, green beans, lima beans, broccoli, Brussels
芦笋、青豆、利马豆、西兰花、布鲁塞尔

Olive green
橄榄绿

Bright green
亮绿色

sprouts, peas, spinach, green peppers, artichokes, okra
豆芽、豌豆、菠菜、青椒、朝鲜蓟、秋葵

Yellow
黄色

Carrots, tomatoes, rutabagas, sweet potatoes,
胡萝卜、西红柿、大头菜、红薯、

Little change
变化不大

Little change
变化不大

(and orange)
(和橙色)

squash, corn
南瓜、玉米

Red Vegetables
红色蔬菜

Red pigments, called anthocyanins, are found in only a few vegetables, mainly red cabbage and beets. Blueberries also are colored by these red pigments. (The red color of tomatoes and red peppers is due to the same pigments that color carrots yellow or orange.)
红色素,称为花青素仅在少数蔬菜中发现,主要是红卷心菜和甜菜。蓝莓也被这些红色素着色。(西红柿和红辣椒的红色是由于胡萝卜染成黄色或橙色的色素相同。

Red pigments react very strongly to acids and alkalis.
红色颜料对酸和碱的反应非常强烈。

Acids turn them a brighter red.
酸使它们变成更亮的红色。

Alkalis turn them blue or blue-green (not a very appetizing color for red cabbage).
碱使它们变成蓝色或蓝绿色(对于红卷心菜来说不是很开胃的颜色)。

Red beets and red cabbage, therefore, have their best color when cooked with a small amount of acid. Red cabbage is often cooked with tart apples for this reason.
因此,红甜菜和红卷心菜在用少量酸煮熟时具有最佳颜色。出于这个原因,红卷心菜经常与酸苹果一起煮熟。

When a strongly acid vegetable is desired, as for Harvard beets or braised red cabbage, add just a small amount of acid at first. Acids toughen vegetables and prolong cooking time. Add the rest when the vegetables are tender.
当需要强酸性蔬菜时,如哈佛甜菜或红烧红甘蓝,首先只添加少量酸。酸使蔬菜变硬并延长烹饪时间。蔬菜变软时加入其余部分。

Red pigments dissolve easily in water. This means
红色颜料易溶于水。这意味着

Use a short cooking time. Overcooked red vegetables lose a lot of color.
使用较短的烹饪时间。煮过头的红色蔬菜会失去很多颜色。

Use only as much water as is necessary.
仅使用必要的水。

Cook beets whole and unpeeled, with root and an inch of stem attached, to protect color. Skins easily slip off cooked beets.
将甜菜整个煮熟,不去皮,附有根和一英寸的茎,以保护颜色。皮很容易从煮熟的甜菜上滑落。

When steaming, use solid pans instead of perforated pans to retain the red juices.
蒸时,使用实心平底锅代替穿孔平底锅以保留红色汁液。

Whenever possible, serve the cooking liquid as a sauce with the vegetable.
尽可能将烹饪液作为蔬菜的酱汁食用。

Green Vegetables
绿色蔬菜

Green coloring, or chlorophyll, is present in all green plants. Green vegetables are common in the kitchen, so it is important to understand the special handling required by this pigment.
绿色,或叶绿素存在于所有绿色植物中。绿色蔬菜在厨房中很常见,因此了解这种颜料所需的特殊处理非常重要。

Acids are enemies of green vegetables. Both acid and long cooking turn green vegetables a drab olive green.
酸是绿色蔬菜的敌人。酸和长时间烹饪都会使绿色蔬菜变成单调的橄榄绿色。

Protect the color of green vegetables by
通过以下方式保护绿色蔬菜的颜色

Cooking uncovered to allow plant acids to escape.
烹饪时不加盖盖,让植物酸逸出。

Cooking for the shortest possible time. Properly cooked green vegetables are tender- crisp, not mushy.
在尽可能短的时间内烹饪。煮熟的绿色蔬菜嫩脆,不糊状。

Cooking in small batches rather than holding for long periods in a steam table.
小批量烹饪,而不是在蒸汽桌上长时间保存。

Steaming is rapidly becoming the preferred method for cooking green vegetables. Steam cooks food rapidly, lessens the dissolving out of nutrients and flavor, and does not break up delicate vegetables. Overcooking, however, can occur rapidly in steamers.
蒸正迅速成为烹饪绿色蔬菜的首选方法。蒸汽可以快速烹饪食物,减少营养和风味的溶解,并且不会破坏精致的蔬菜。然而,在蒸锅中可能会迅速发生过度烹饪。

Do not use baking soda to maintain green color. Soda destroys vitamins and makes texture unpleasantly mushy and slippery.
不要使用小苏打来保持绿色。苏打水会破坏维生素,使质地变得令人不快的糊状和滑溜溜的。

How much water should be used when boiling? A large quantity of water helps dissolve plant acids, helps preserve colors, and speeds cooking. But some cooks feel an excessive amount of nutrients are lost. See the next section for further discussion.
煮沸时应该用多少水?大量的水有助于溶解植物酸,有助于保持颜色,并加快烹饪速度。但有些厨师觉得营养流失过多。有关进一步讨论,请参阅下一节。

Yellow and Orange Vegetables
黄色和橙色蔬菜

Yellow and orange pigments, called carotenoids, are found in carrots, corn, winter squash, rutabaga, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and red peppers. These pigments are very stable. They are little affected by acids or alkalis. Long cooking can dull the color, however. Short cooking not only prevents dulling of the color but also preserves vitamins and flavors.
黄色和橙色色素,称为类胡萝卜素,存在于胡萝卜、玉米、冬瓜、大头菜、红薯、西红柿和红辣椒中。这些颜料非常稳定。它们很少受到酸或碱的影响。然而,长时间烹饪会使颜色变暗。短煮不仅可以防止颜色变暗,还可以保留维生素和风味。

Controlling Nutrient Losses
控制营养损失

Vegetables are an important part of our diet because they supply a wide variety of essential nutrients. They are our major sources of vitamins A and C and are rich in many other vitamins and minerals. Unfortunately, many of these nutrients are easily lost.
蔬菜是我们饮食的重要组成部分,因为它们提供多种必需营养素。它们是我们维生素 A 和 C 的主要来源,并富含许多其他维生素和矿物质。不幸的是,这些营养素中的许多很容易流失。

Six factors are responsible for most nutrient loss:
六个因素是造成大部分营养损失的原因:

High temperature.
高温。

Long cooking.
长时间烹饪。

Leaching (dissolving out).
浸出(溶解)。

Alkalis (baking soda, hard water).
碱(小苏打、硬水)。

Plant enzymes (which are active at warm temperatures but destroyed by high heat).
植物酶(在温暖的温度下具有活性,但被高温破坏)。

Oxygen.
氧。

Some nutrient loss is inevitable because it is rarely possible to avoid all of these condi- tions at the same time. For example,
一些营养损失是不可避免的,因为很少可能同时避免所有这些条件。例如

Pressure steaming shortens cooking time, but the high temperature destroys some vitamins.
压力蒸煮缩短了烹饪时间,但高温会破坏一些维生素。

Braising uses low heat, but the cooking time is longer.
炖煮使用低火,但烹饪时间较长。

Baking eliminates the leaching out of vitamins and minerals, but the long cooking and high temperature cause nutrient loss.
烘烤消除了维生素和矿物质的浸出,但长时间的烹饪和高温会导致营养损失。

Boiling is faster than simmering, but the higher temperature can be harmful and the rapid activity can break up delicate vegetables and increase loss through leaching.
煮沸比炖煮快,但较高的温度可能是有害的,快速活动会破坏娇嫩的蔬菜并通过浸出增加损失。

Cutting vegetables into small pieces decreases cooking time, but it increases leaching by creating more exposed surfaces.
将蔬菜切成小块可以减少烹饪时间,但会通过产生更多暴露的表面来增加浸出。

Even steaming allows some leaching out of nutrients into the moisture that condenses on the vegetables and then drips off.
即使是蒸煮,也会让一些营养物质浸出到水分中,这些水分凝结在蔬菜上,然后滴落。

Cooking in a Little Liquid Versus a Lot of Liquid
用少量液体烹饪与大量液体烹饪

This is an area of controversy with good arguments on both sides.
这是一个有争议的领域,双方都有很好的论据。

Using a lot of liquid increases vitamin loss by leaching. Use just enough liquid to cover. Save the cooking liquid for reheating the vegetables or for stocks or soups.
使用大量液体会通过浸出增加维生素损失。使用足够的液体盖住。保存烹饪液以重新加热蔬菜或高汤或汤。

Using a little liquid increases cooking time. When the vegetables are combined with the small quantity of boiling water, the temperature is lowered greatly and the vegetables must sit in warm water while it again heats up. Also, plant enzymes may destroy some vitamins before the water again becomes hot enough to destroy them.
使用少许液体会增加烹饪时间。当蔬菜与少量沸水混合时,温度会大大降低,蔬菜必须放在温水中,同时再次加热。此外,植物酶可能会在水再次变得足够热以破坏它们之前破坏一些维生素。

Tests have shown that, for these reasons, no more nutrients are lost when vegetables are cooked in a lot of water than when vegetables are cooked in just enough water to cover.
测试表明,由于这些原因,当蔬菜在大量水中煮熟时,不会比在足够的水中煮蔬菜时损失更多的营养。

When cooking green vegetables, there is an added advantage to using a lot of water.
烹饪绿色蔬菜时,使用大量水还有一个额外的优势。

Plant acids are more quickly diluted and driven off, better preserving the color.
植物酸被更快地稀释和驱除,更好地保持颜色。

The best cooking methods, nutritionally, are usually those that produce the most attractive, flavorful products.
从营养上讲,最好的烹饪方法通常是那些生产出最有吸引力、最美味的产品的方法。

They are more likely to be eaten. Discarded vegetables benefit no one, no matter how nutritious they are.
它们更有可能被吃掉。丢弃的蔬菜对任何人都没有好处,无论它们多么有营养。

Factors that destroy nutrients are often those that also destroy color, flavor, and texture.
破坏营养物质的因素通常是那些破坏颜色、风味和质地的因素。

General Rules
一般规则

of Vegetable
蔬菜
Cookery
烹饪

Now that you understand how vegetables change as they cook, let’s summarize that infor- mation in some general rules. You should now be able to explain the reasons for each of these rules.
现在您已经了解了蔬菜在烹饪过程中的变化,让我们在一些一般规则中总结一下这些信息。您现在应该能够解释这些规则中每个规则的原因。

Don’t overcook.
不要煮过头。

Cook as close to service time as possible, and in small quantities. Avoid holding for long periods on a steam table.
尽可能接近服务时间,少量烹饪。避免长时间放在蒸汽桌上。

If the vegetable must be cooked ahead, undercook slightly and chill rapidly. Reheat at service time.
如果蔬菜必须提前煮熟,请稍微煮熟并迅速冷却。在服务时间重新加热。

Never use baking soda with green vegetables.
切勿将小苏打与绿色蔬菜一起使用。

Cut vegetables uniformly for even cooking.
均匀地切蔬菜,以便均匀烹饪。

Start with boiling, salted water when boiling green vegetables and other vegetables that grow above the ground. Roots and tubers are started in cold, salted water for more even cooking.
煮沸绿色蔬菜和其他生长在地面上的蔬菜时,先用盐水煮沸。根和块茎在冷盐水中开始,以便更均匀地烹饪。

Cook green vegetables and strong-flavored vegetables uncovered.
煮绿色蔬菜和味道浓郁的蔬菜。

To preserve color, cook red and white vegetables in a slightly acid (not strongly acid) liquid. Cook green vegetables in a neutral liquid.
为了保持颜色,在微酸性(非强酸性)液体中烹饪红色和白色蔬菜。在中性液体中煮绿色蔬菜。

Do not mix a batch of freshly cooked vegetables with a batch of the same vegetable that was cooked earlier and kept hot in a steam table.
不要将一批新鲜煮熟的蔬菜与一批早先煮熟并在蒸桌上保持热度的蔬菜混合。

Standards of Quality
质量标准

in Cooked
Vegetables
蔬菜

Color.
颜色。

Bright, natural colors.
明亮、自然的色彩。

Green vegetables, in particular, should be a fresh, bright green, not olive green.
特别是绿色蔬菜,应该是新鲜、明亮的绿色,而不是橄榄绿色。

Appearance on plate.
盘子上的外观。

Cut neatly and uniformly. Not broken up.
切割整齐均匀。没有分手。

Attractively arranged or mounded on plate or dish. Not swimming in cooking water.
精美地排列或堆放在盘子或盘子上。不要在烹饪水中游泳。

Imaginative and appropriate combinations and garnishes are always well received.
富有想象力和适当的组合和装饰总是很受欢迎。

Texture.
质地。

Cooked to the right degree of doneness.
煮熟至适当的熟度。

Most vegetables should be crisp-tender, not overcooked and mushy, but not tough or woody either.
大多数蔬菜应该是酥脆嫩的,不要煮过头和糊状,但也不是坚硬或木质的。

538 C H A P T E R 1 6 U N D E R S T A N D I N G V E G E T A B L E S

KEY POINTS TO REVIEW

What factors affect changes in texture when vegetables are cooked?

What are the guidelines for achieving proper doneness in vegetables?

What factors affect changes in flavor when vegetables are cooked?

What factors affect changes in color when vegetables are cooked? Describe factors specific to white vegetables, green vegetables, red vegetables, and orange and yellow vegetables.

What steps can you take to maintain the highest nutritional values when cooking vegetables?

What standards are used to judge the quality of cooked vegetables?

Vegetables intended to be soft (potatoes, squash, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, vegetable purées) should be cooked through, with a pleasant, smooth texture.
想要变软的蔬菜(土豆、南瓜、红薯、西红柿、蔬菜泥)应该煮熟,质地宜人、光滑。

Flavor.
味道。

Full, natural flavor and sweetness, sometimes called garden-fresh flavor. Strong- flavored vegetables should be pleasantly mild, with no off flavors or bitterness.
饱满、天然的风味和甜味,有时被称为花园清新风味。味道浓郁的蔬菜应该是令人愉快的温和的,没有异味或苦味。

Seasonings.
调味 料。

Lightly and appropriately seasoned. Seasonings should not be too strong and should not mask the natural garden flavors.
轻淡而适当地调味。调味料不应太浓,也不应掩盖天然花园风味。

Sauces.
酱 汁。

Butter and seasoned butters should be fresh and not used heavily; vegetables should not be greasy.
黄油和调味黄油应该是新鲜的,不要大量使用;蔬菜不应该油腻。

Cream sauces and other sauces should not be too thick or too heavily seasoned.
奶油酱和其他酱汁不应太浓或调味太重。

As with seasonings, sauces should enhance, not cover up.
与调味料一样,酱汁应该增强,而不是掩盖。

Vegetable combinations.
蔬菜组合。

Interesting combinations attract customers.
有趣的组合吸引客户。

Flavors, colors, and shapes should be pleasing in combination.
口味、颜色和形状应该组合起来令人愉悦。

Vegetables should be cooked separately and then combined to allow for different cooking times.
蔬菜应单独烹制,然后组合以允许不同的烹饪时间。

Acid vegetables (like tomatoes) added to green vegetables will discolor them.
添加到绿色蔬菜中的酸性蔬菜(如西红柿)会使它们变色。

Combine just before service.
在服务前合并。

Handling Vegetables
处理蔬菜

Fresh Vegetables
新鲜蔬菜

Washing
洗涤

Wash all vegetables thoroughly.
彻底清洗所有蔬菜。

Root vegetables that are not peeled, such as potatoes for baking, should be scrubbed very well with a stiff vegetable brush.
未去皮的根茎类蔬菜,例如烘烤用的土豆,应用硬蔬菜刷擦洗干净。

Wash green, leafy vegetables in several changes of cold water. Lift the greens from the water so the sand can sink to the bottom. Pouring off into a colander dumps the sand back onto the leaves.
用几次冷水清洗绿叶蔬菜。将果岭从水中抬起,使沙子沉入底部。倒入漏勺中会将沙子倒回叶子上。

After washing, drain well and refrigerate lightly covered. The purpose of covering is to prevent drying, but covering too tightly cuts off air circulation. This can be a problem if the product is stored more than a day because mold is more likely to grow in a damp, closed space. Use a drain insert in the storage container to allow drainage.
洗涤后,沥干水分,盖上盖子轻轻冷藏。覆盖的目的是防止干燥,但覆盖太紧会切断空气流通。如果产品存放超过一天,这可能是一个问题,因为霉菌更有可能在潮湿、封闭的空间中生长。在储存容器中使用排水插件以允许排水。

Soaking
浸泡

With a few exceptions, do not soak vegetables for long periods. Flavor and nutrients leach out.
除少数例外,请勿长时间浸泡蔬菜。风味和营养物质会渗出。

Cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower may be soaked 30 minutes in cold salted water to eliminate insects, if necessary.
如有必要,卷心菜、西兰花、抱子甘蓝和花椰菜可以在冷盐水中浸泡 30 分钟以消除昆虫。

Limp vegetables can be soaked briefly in cold water to restore crispness.
跛行的蔬菜可以在冷水中短暂浸泡以恢复酥脆。

Dried legumes are soaked for several hours before cooking to replace moisture lost in drying. Dried beans absorb their weight in water.
干豆类在烹饪前浸泡几个小时,以补充干燥过程中流失的水分。干豆在水中吸收重量。

ORGANIC FOODS

As noted in Chapter 5, the law in many countries, including the United States, regulates the use of the term organic. Although many foods, including meats and poultry, can qualify for the organic label, organic vegetables, fruits, and other plant products have long been most prominent in the market.

First of all, for a food item or an ingredient in a processed food to be labeled organic in the United States, it must not contain hormones, antibiotics, synthetic pesticides, irradiated compo- nents, genetically modified organisms, or reprocessed sewage. Second, food products may be labeled in one of

four ways, depending on how organic they are:

The label “100 percent organic” can be used only on products that contain only organic ingredients.

The label “organic” may be used on products that contain at least 95 percent organic ingredients by weight.

If a product contains 70 percent or more organic ingredients by weight, it can be labeled “made with organic ingredients.” Up to three of those ingredients may be listed on the packaging.

If a product contains less than 70 percent organic ingredients by weight, those ingredients may be listed on the ingredient informa- tion panel, but the product may not use the word “organic” on the front of the package.

The green and white “USDA ORGANIC” seal may be used on the packaging of only those products in the first two of these categories.

Peeling and
去皮和
Cutting
切削

Peel most vegetables as thinly as possible. Many nutrients lie just under the skin.
将大多数蔬菜剥得尽可能薄。许多营养物质就在皮肤下。

Cut vegetables into uniform pieces for even cooking.
将蔬菜切成均匀的块,以便均匀烹饪。

Peel and cut vegetables as close to cooking time as possible to prevent drying and loss of vitamins through oxidation.
蔬菜在接近烹饪时间时去皮和切块,以防止干燥和因氧化而流失维生素。

For machine paring, sort vegetables for evenness of size to minimize waste.
对于机器削皮,对蔬菜进行分类,使其大小均匀,以尽量减少浪费。

Treat vegetables that brown easily (potatoes, eggplant, artichokes, sweet potatoes) with an acid, such as lemon juice, or an antioxidant solution, or hold under water until ready to use (some vitamins and minerals will be lost).
用酸(如柠檬汁)或抗氧化剂溶液处理容易变成褐色的蔬菜(土豆、茄子、朝鲜蓟、红薯),或在水下保存直到准备使用(一些维生素和矿物质会流失)。

Save edible trim for soups, stocks, and vegetable purées.
将可食用的边角料留给汤、高汤和蔬菜泥。

Classifying Vegetables
蔬菜分类

Many people are bothered by the fact that tomatoes are referred to as vegetables when they are, in fact, fruits. Yes, tomatoes are fruits, and carrots are roots, and spinach is a leaf, and they are all vegetables.
许多人对西红柿被称为蔬菜而实际上是水果这一事实感到困扰。是的,西红柿是水果,胡萝卜是根,菠菜是叶子,都是蔬菜。

To a botanist, the term fruit refers to a specific part of a plant, just as do the terms stem, root, and leaf. A fruit is defined as the ripened ovary or ovaries of a seed-bearing plant, and it contains the seeds. In other words, if it has seeds, it’s a fruit. We shouldn’t be misled by the fact that a few fruits are sweet. Many, if not most, fruits in nature are not sweet at all. Some examples of fruits used in the vegetable kitchen are tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, green beans, okra, cucumbers, squash, pea pods, walnuts, and avocados.
对于植物学家来说,术语水果是指植物的特定部分,就像术语茎、根和叶一样水果被定义为种子植物的成熟子房或子房,它包含种子。换句话说,如果它有种子,它就是一种果实。我们不应该被一些水果是甜的这一事实所误导。自然界中的许多(如果不是大多数)水果根本不甜。蔬菜厨房中使用的水果的一些例子是西红柿、茄子、辣椒、青豆、秋葵、黄瓜、南瓜、豌豆荚、核桃和鳄梨。

There are many ways of classifying vegetables. Some are more helpful to the cook
蔬菜分类的方法有很多种。有些对厨师更有帮助

than others. Putting vegetables into groups based on their botanical origin is not always helpful. For example, okra and eggplant are both fruits, but they are handled and cooked so differently that this information doesn’t really help us.
比其他人。根据蔬菜的植物来源将蔬菜分组并不总是有帮助的。例如,秋葵和茄子都是水果,但它们的处理和烹饪方式如此不同,以至于这些信息对我们没有真正的帮助。

The following vegetable categories are based, in part, on how the vegetables are used in the kitchen. For example, the vegetables listed as roots and tubers come from several unrelated families, but they all have fairly solid, uniform textures and are handled in similar ways. This is not a scientific classification, and it is not the only way to group vegetables.
以下蔬菜类别在一定程度上取决于蔬菜在厨房中的使用方式。例如,被列为根茎和块茎的蔬菜来自几个不相关的家族,但它们都具有相当坚固、均匀的质地,并且以类似的方式处理。这不是一个科学的分类,也不是对蔬菜进行分组的唯一方法。

Note that the first three categories are all fruits or, in a few cases, seeds from fruits.
请注意,前三类都是水果,或者在少数情况下是水果的种子。

The gourd family: cucumber, winter and summer squashes, pumpkin, chayote (Some sources put eggplant in the gourd family, but this is incorrect; see below.)
葫芦科:黄瓜、冬瓜和夏南瓜、南瓜、佛手瓜(一些资料将茄子归入葫芦科,但这是不正确的;见下文。

Seeds and pods: beans, peas, corn, okra
种子和豆荚:豆类、豌豆、玉米、秋葵

Other
其他
tender-fruited
嫩果
vegetables:
蔬菜:
avocado,
鳄梨
eggplant,
茄子
sweet
and hot peppers,
辣椒
tomato
番茄
(Eggplant,
(茄子,
tomato,
番茄
and peppers
辣椒
are all members
成员
of the nightshade
茄属植物
family;
家庭;
the avocado
鳄梨
is unrelated.)
无关。

Roots and tubers: beet, carrot, celery root, parsnip, radish, turnip, rutabaga, Jerusalem artichoke, potato, sweet potato, jícama
根和块茎:甜菜、胡萝卜、芹菜根、欧洲防风草、萝卜、萝卜、大头菜、菊芋、马铃薯、红薯、jícama

The cabbage family: cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, bok choy
卷心菜家族:卷心菜、西兰花、花椰菜、抱子甘蓝、大头菜、白菜

The onion family: onion, scallion, leek, garlic, shallot
洋葱科:洋葱、葱、韭菜、大蒜、青葱

Leafy greens: spinach, beet greens, lettuces, endive and chicory, Swiss chard, sorrel, watercress, collards, kale, turnip greens (The last three are also members of the cabbage family.)
绿叶蔬菜:菠菜、甜菜、生菜、菊苣和菊苣、瑞士甜菜、酢浆草、豆瓣菜、羽衣甘蓝、羽衣甘蓝、萝卜青菜(后三种也是卷心菜家族的成员。

Stalks, stems, and shoots: globe artichoke, asparagus, celery, fennel, fiddlehead ferns, bamboo
茎、茎和芽:洋蓟、芦笋、芹菜、茴香、蕨类植物、竹子
shoots

Mushrooms
蘑菇

Fresh Vegetables: Evaluating and Preparing
新鲜蔬菜:评估和准备

This section lists the fresh vegetables commonly used in North American kitchens, including many products that have become familiar from Asian and Latin cuisines. Tips for evaluation and trimming the products, as well as the average trimming yield, are indicated. Vegetables are listed alphabetically, rather than by family classification, to make them easier to find.
本节列出了北美厨房常用的新鲜蔬菜,包括许多从亚洲和拉丁美食中熟悉的产品。标明了评估和修剪产品的技巧,以及平均修剪产量。蔬菜按字母顺序排列,而不是按家庭分类排列,以便于找到。

Figure 16.1 Trimming artichoke bottoms.
图 16.1 修剪洋蓟底部。

Cut or break off the stem flush with the bottom of the artichoke, as shown.
如图所示,切掉或折断与洋蓟底部齐平的茎。

AR TICHOKE S, GLOBE
AR TICHOKE S,地球仪

Identification: Artichokes are the unopened or immature flowers of a type of thistle. They vary in size and coloration but are usually round to somewhat elongated, colored light to medium green, sometimes with purple tints.
鉴别:朝鲜蓟是一种蓟的未开封或未成熟的花朵。它们的大小和颜色各不相同,但通常是圆形到有点细长,颜色为浅绿色到中绿色,有时带有紫色调。

Related Varieties: Baby artichokes are not actually babies but come from a different place on the plant and are at their full size. Especially young baby artichokes may be tender enough to eat whole, with little trimming except for removing the top points of the leaves.
相关品种:小洋蓟实际上不是婴儿,而是来自植物的不同地方,并且是全尺寸的。尤其是年幼的小洋蓟可能足够嫩,可以整只吃掉,除了去除叶子的顶点外,几乎不做修剪。

Evaluation: Look for compact, tight leaves; heavy for size; few or no brown blemishes.
评估:寻找紧凑、紧密的叶子;尺寸较重;很少或没有棕色瑕疵。

Preparation: Wash. Cut 1 inch (2–3 cm) off tops. Cut off stem and lower leaves. Scrape out choke (fuzzy center) with melon ball cutter. (Remove choke before or after cooking.) Dip in lemon juice immediately. To prepare bottoms, see Figures 16.1 and 16.2.
做法:洗净。 从顶部切下 1 英寸(2-3 厘米)。剪掉茎和下部叶子。用瓜球切割机刮掉扼流圈(模糊中心)。(烹饪前或烹饪后去除扼流圈。立即蘸上柠檬汁。要准备底部,请参阅图 16.1 和 16.2。

Percentage Yield: 80% (whole, trimmed), 30% (bottoms only)
百分比收益率:80%(整体,修剪),30%(仅底部)

Break off the outer leaves.(c) Alternatively, trim the outer leaves with a knife as shown, being careful not to cut into the base of the artichoke.
折断外层叶子。(三)或者,如图所示用刀修剪外叶,注意不要切入洋蓟的底部。

Cut off the remaining leaves above the base.
剪掉基部上方剩余的叶子。

With a paring knife, trim off the green outer peel to give the base a smooth, neat appearance.
用削皮刀修剪掉绿色的外皮,使底座光滑、整洁。

With a ball cutter or tablespoon, scrape out the fuzzy choke.
用球刀或汤匙刮掉毛茸茸的扼流圈。

A trimmed artichoke bottom on the left; a trimmed whole artichoke on the right. Note that the points of the leaves have been cut off and the center choke removed.
左边是修剪过的洋蓟底部;右边是修剪过的整颗洋蓟。请注意,叶子的点已被切断,中心扼流圈已被移除。

Figure 16.2 To keep the cut stem end of an artichoke from darkening during steaming or boiling, tie a slice of lemon over the cut surface.
图 16.2 为了防止洋蓟的切茎端在蒸或煮沸过程中变黑,请在切面上系一片柠檬。

AR TICHOKE S, JERUS ALEM
AR TICHOKE S, JERUS ALEM

See Sunchoke.
请参见 Sunchoke。

ASPARAGUS
芦笋

Identification: Spear-shaped new shoot or stem that emerges from the plant’s roots in the spring. The pointed spear tip sprouts branches when the shoot is allowed to grow.
鉴别:春季从植物根部出现的矛形新芽或茎。当枝条生长时,尖尖的矛尖会发芽。

Related Varieties: White asparagus is the same plant as green, but soil is mounded over the shoots, protecting them from the sun so they do not turn green. In Europe, white asparagus is more common than green. The flavor is milder than that of green, although North American white asparagus is usually more bitter than European. Purple asparagus turns dark green when cooked. It is tender and sweet.
相关品种:白芦笋与绿色芦笋是同一株植物,但土壤堆积在枝条上,保护它们免受阳光照射,因此它们不会变绿。在欧洲,白芦笋比绿芦笋更常见。味道比绿色更温和,尽管北美白芦笋通常比欧洲更苦。紫色芦笋煮熟后会变成深绿色。它又嫩又甜。

Evaluation: Look for tightly closed tips; firm, not withered, stalks. For white asparagus, buy only product that has been kept chilled for its entire storage time; unchilled white asparagus becomes fibrous.
评估:寻找紧闭的尖端;结实,不枯萎,茎。对于白芦笋,只购买在整个储存时间内保持冷藏的产品;未冷却的白芦笋变成纤维状。

Preparation: Break off woody lower ends. Remove lower scales, which may harbor sand, or peel lower part of stalk. Figure 16.3